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Writing a Research Paper Conclusion | Step-by-Step Guide
Published on October 30, 2022 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on December 7, 2022.
The conclusion of a research paper is where you wrap up your ideas and leave the reader with a strong final impression. It has several key goals:
- Restate the problem statement addressed in the paper
- Summarize your overall arguments or findings
- Suggest the key takeaways from your paper
The content of the conclusion varies depending on whether your paper presents the results of original empirical research or constructs an argument through engagement with sources .
Table of contents
Step 1: restate the problem, step 2: sum up the paper, step 3: discuss the implications, research paper conclusion examples, frequently asked questions about research paper conclusions.
The first task of your conclusion is to remind the reader of your research problem . You will have discussed this problem in depth throughout the body, but now the point is to zoom back out from the details to the bigger picture.
While you are restating a problem you’ve already introduced, you should avoid phrasing it identically to how it appeared in the introduction . Ideally, you’ll find a novel way to circle back to the problem from the more detailed ideas discussed in the body.
For example, an argumentative paper advocating new measures to reduce the environmental impact of agriculture might restate its problem as follows:
Meanwhile, an empirical paper studying the relationship of Instagram use with body image issues might present its problem like this:
“In conclusion …”
Avoid starting your conclusion with phrases like “In conclusion” or “To conclude,” as this can come across as too obvious and make your writing seem unsophisticated. The content and placement of your conclusion should make its function clear without the need for additional signposting.
Having zoomed back in on the problem, it’s time to summarize how the body of the paper went about addressing it, and what conclusions this approach led to.
Depending on the nature of your research paper, this might mean restating your thesis and arguments, or summarizing your overall findings.
Argumentative paper: Restate your thesis and arguments
In an argumentative paper, you will have presented a thesis statement in your introduction, expressing the overall claim your paper argues for. In the conclusion, you should restate the thesis and show how it has been developed through the body of the paper.
Briefly summarize the key arguments made in the body, showing how each of them contributes to proving your thesis. You may also mention any counterarguments you addressed, emphasizing why your thesis holds up against them, particularly if your argument is a controversial one.
Don’t go into the details of your evidence or present new ideas; focus on outlining in broad strokes the argument you have made.
Empirical paper: Summarize your findings
In an empirical paper, this is the time to summarize your key findings. Don’t go into great detail here (you will have presented your in-depth results and discussion already), but do clearly express the answers to the research questions you investigated.
Describe your main findings, even if they weren’t necessarily the ones you expected or hoped for, and explain the overall conclusion they led you to.
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Having summed up your key arguments or findings, the conclusion ends by considering the broader implications of your research. This means expressing the key takeaways, practical or theoretical, from your paper—often in the form of a call for action or suggestions for future research.
Argumentative paper: Strong closing statement
An argumentative paper generally ends with a strong closing statement. In the case of a practical argument, make a call for action: What actions do you think should be taken by the people or organizations concerned in response to your argument?
If your topic is more theoretical and unsuitable for a call for action, your closing statement should express the significance of your argument—for example, in proposing a new understanding of a topic or laying the groundwork for future research.
Empirical paper: Future research directions
In a more empirical paper, you can close by either making recommendations for practice (for example, in clinical or policy papers), or suggesting directions for future research.
Whatever the scope of your own research, there will always be room for further investigation of related topics, and you’ll often discover new questions and problems during the research process .
Finish your paper on a forward-looking note by suggesting how you or other researchers might build on this topic in the future and address any limitations of the current paper.
Full examples of research paper conclusions are shown in the tabs below: one for an argumentative paper, the other for an empirical paper.
- Argumentative paper
- Empirical paper
While the role of cattle in climate change is by now common knowledge, countries like the Netherlands continually fail to confront this issue with the urgency it deserves. The evidence is clear: To create a truly futureproof agricultural sector, Dutch farmers must be incentivized to transition from livestock farming to sustainable vegetable farming. As well as dramatically lowering emissions, plant-based agriculture, if approached in the right way, can produce more food with less land, providing opportunities for nature regeneration areas that will themselves contribute to climate targets. Although this approach would have economic ramifications, from a long-term perspective, it would represent a significant step towards a more sustainable and resilient national economy. Transitioning to sustainable vegetable farming will make the Netherlands greener and healthier, setting an example for other European governments. Farmers, policymakers, and consumers must focus on the future, not just on their own short-term interests, and work to implement this transition now.
As social media becomes increasingly central to young people’s everyday lives, it is important to understand how different platforms affect their developing self-conception. By testing the effect of daily Instagram use among teenage girls, this study established that highly visual social media does indeed have a significant effect on body image concerns, with a strong correlation between the amount of time spent on the platform and participants’ self-reported dissatisfaction with their appearance. However, the strength of this effect was moderated by pre-test self-esteem ratings: Participants with higher self-esteem were less likely to experience an increase in body image concerns after using Instagram. This suggests that, while Instagram does impact body image, it is also important to consider the wider social and psychological context in which this usage occurs: Teenagers who are already predisposed to self-esteem issues may be at greater risk of experiencing negative effects. Future research into Instagram and other highly visual social media should focus on establishing a clearer picture of how self-esteem and related constructs influence young people’s experiences of these platforms. Furthermore, while this experiment measured Instagram usage in terms of time spent on the platform, observational studies are required to gain more insight into different patterns of usage—to investigate, for instance, whether active posting is associated with different effects than passive consumption of social media content.
If you’re unsure about the conclusion, it can be helpful to ask a friend or fellow student to read your conclusion and summarize the main takeaways.
- Do they understand from your conclusion what your research was about?
- Are they able to summarize the implications of your findings?
- Can they answer your research question based on your conclusion?
You can also get an expert to proofread and feedback your paper with a paper editing service .
The conclusion of a research paper has several key elements you should make sure to include:
- A restatement of the research problem
- A summary of your key arguments and/or findings
- A short discussion of the implications of your research
No, it’s not appropriate to present new arguments or evidence in the conclusion . While you might be tempted to save a striking argument for last, research papers follow a more formal structure than this.
All your findings and arguments should be presented in the body of the text (more specifically in the results and discussion sections if you are following a scientific structure). The conclusion is meant to summarize and reflect on the evidence and arguments you have already presented, not introduce new ones.
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Caulfield, J. (2022, December 07). Writing a Research Paper Conclusion | Step-by-Step Guide. Scribbr. Retrieved February 28, 2023, from https://www.scribbr.com/research-paper/research-paper-conclusion/
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How to Write Conclusion for Project Work: Top Tips
When you write a conclusion for a project, always remember that you have to make a summary of the content as well as the purpose that you have in mind without looking way too wooden or dry.
Most conclusions of the project tend to have a couple of key elements. Of course, there are some tactics that you should be using if you want to write an effective conclusion.
Plus there are some things that you should avoid as well. On that note, here are the couple of tips that you should keep in mind before writing a new research paper .
Common Errors in Writing Conclusions:
The following tips in this category will help you avoid making mistakes while writing a conclusion for the project. So read them carefully before you start!
1. Don’t ever say things like ‘in conclusions’:
This is a very important tip to remember when you are writing a conclusion for project work. This also includes the summary as well as the closing.
The sayings tend to sound very unnatural and slightly tough and they don’t sound professional. Plus if you tend to use phrases like ‘I would like to say in conclusion’ , then you tend to come across as a bit too straightforward and end up giving a conclusion that is weak and disappointing.
If you want to put a strong one out of there, you have to make sure it stands out. Only that can help you make a good impression .
2. You don’t always have to wait for the conclusion part to state your thesis:
It could be slightly tempting to keep your thesis for the end so that you can keep the readers in suspense and give that dramatic end. Though this makes your paper comes across as good and well written , we would suggest you not to make that mistake as it looks very less cohesive and hardly organized.
You should always keep the main point of your argument in the introduction itself. The research paper doesn’t have to become some kind of a mystery novel. Second, a good paper will let the reader understand your argument from the beginning to the end.
3. Don’t mention any new information:
Whenever you mention a new idea or subtopic or some kind of recent evidence that you think is significant, you don’t always have to mention it towards the conclusion of the paper .
You have to mention all that is important in the introduction of the paper. There could be some kind of supporting evidence by the side but you have to make it look well written and properly detailed.
Also, the conclusion will help you to narrow the whole topic down to a simple point. If you want you could also make some sort of suggestion in case your reader wants to do some research later on.
4. Do not ever change the tone:
No matter what you do, do not ever make the mistake of changing the tone of the paper. It should always be consistent the whole time.
You need to have some sort of an academic tone and give some sort of conclusion that is emotional or sentimental .
Even though the topic you are writing on doesn’t have much significance, do not strain too much on it. Plus maintain the consistency throughout and if you want to make it look more humanistic, you may begin and end with an anecdote. That will work!
5. Do not apologize ever:
There is no reason for you to make those statements that can downplay the authority that you have as well as the discoveries. If you put up statements that are apologetic or have phrases like ‘ I am not an expert or something ’, then it could get a bad grade !
You should also avoid using statements that come with the first person. Also, remember that the first person is not considered to be formal and it does not match with the formal tone in any kind of research paper.
Other Project Related articles:
- How to Write Introduction for Project Work
- How to Write a Proposal for Project Work
- How to Write a Synopsis for Project Work
- How to Write Abstract for Project Work
- How to Write Preface for Project Work
How to Write a Conclusion for Project Which is Compelling and Effective?
You can make a conclusion more effective by following the few tips and ideas enlisted in this category. The following mentioned are a few tips on how to write a good conclusion for project work.
1. Use the basic information you already have:
Just as we know that the project conclusion tends to become very basic, it could have some sort of resemblance to the introduction that you have mentioned in your paper.
But since the conclusion is so simple, it could be important that you know how to aim to hold the information instead of just making a summary out of it.
You may also rephrase the thesis and add some more points that are supporting it. When you do something like this, you will be able to collect all the ideas together and write properly .
2. Write a logical conclusion:
If you are writing a project that has several sides to one issue, then you have to use the conclusion so that you can write the conclusion to come up with an opinion that is logical and written by the evidence that you have.
You have to write information relating to the topic so that you can back the statement but there is no way you will be carried away with all those unnecessary details.
If you haven’t been able to get a clear answer then there is no reason that you should not mention this. You may instead state that the answer does exist in some ways and some sort of research could even give you more light and help your readers stay impressed .
3. Make some suggestions:
If you want to help your readers understand the topic better, you will have to help the reader read better stuff. Give them some sort of recommendation so that you can go further with some more research.
An example can be used to illustrate this. In case you have been writing on a topic that talks about poverty in the third world, you should use ways in which you can help your readers understand the problem instead of just giving them a list of books to read.
One more example could be about helping out or making some kind of donation to the World Health Organization . This can help in a few treatments.
4. Write down a question:
Another tip that could genuinely help you while writing a conclusion is writing down a question. Now, this is something that might not be appropriate for papers of all kinds.
Most of the research papers have had one treatment that is effective for the diseases and may have all the information that is needed to make an argument that is ready for the paper.
If you want, you may also summarize in very brief all the answers once you have written the question. You may also just throw out the question to the reader so that they can think on their own and answer it. When we said you should ask a question , we mean that you should ask questions that are related to the issue.
The Sample of Conclusion for Project Work:
It was a wonderful learning experience for me while working on this project. This project took me through the various phases of project development and gave me real insight into the world of software engineering. The joy of working and the thrill involved while tackling the various problems and challenges gave me a feel of the developers’ industry.
It was due to this project I came to know how professional software is designed.
How to Write a Conclusion for a Research Paper?
The below-mentioned tips will help you start with your conclusion. In case you haven’t written a project before, this section should help you. So read thoroughly, make some points before you get started with it.
1. Make sure to restate what you are working on:
You don’t have to spend a whole lot of time restating the topic you are writing on. Most research papers that are called goodwill make the value of the topic you are writing much more conspicuous . So you have to write some kind of defense that is elaborate on the topic you are writing in conclusion.
You can also start with the help of one sentence that you would like to restate the topic you are writing on. A project conclusion example can be used to explain this.
If you have been writing a good conclusion for a paper on the humanities or conclusion of a history project… say maybe the Italian Renaissance, you could write something like “The Renaissance was an era of art and new ideas which focused on thinkers and well-known writers such as Florence”
2. Collect everything:
Before you are done with your conclusion writing, you will have to make a collection of all the things you would like to mention. So get a list and write down everything in brief.
You just can’t start writing like that, especially if you don’t have many ideas in mind or in case you haven’t written much of conclusions before. So before you make any mistake, just collect all the information on a piece of paper and then start!
3. Know all the points you will use:
Having a good idea of all the points that you will use would be a good idea. But remember that you don’t need this for all kinds of research papers.
It is always a good idea to address those issues that are important and that you need to address fully and explain all the important points that are needed in the body of the paper.
The whole point of having a conclusion is that you will need to have a good research paper that needs to be summarized so that the reader can read.
4. Make all the right moves:
If the need arises, you could mention to all your readers that there is a need for some more research as it is important and that they should read up more on this topic.
Papers that need a call of action for the readers are important but you should only use them when it’s needed. Otherwise, you don’t have to do it. Just see whether it needs something like this. Of course, there are so many topics that are so difficult to understand and need a whole lot of reading . It might not always be possible to write it down.
5. Speak about why the topic is important:
You don’t always have to spend a long period if you are going to restate the topic.
You should also always mention what is important about the topic and what are the most important points and keywords one should always remember about this. It will help the person who is reading understand you better and of course… the topic will also become clear to them. You will be marked better for this also.
6. Always make a final round of checking before submission:
Before you are submitting a topic, please remember to check whether you have made any mistakes. Plus you should never write it directly. Make a couple of drafts after which you can write it down in a few points. Plus proofreading and checking are always important.
Your teacher is going to read your project, especially the part where you have written a conclusion. It is highly important. So if you haven’t checked, it could go bad. This will be your final point!
7. Remember to put it down together:
You have to show your readers that the points you have written with the examples do fit in together. For this, you might have to do a bit more studying or add some provocative quotation or insight .
This brings the post to an end. Following all the tips and ideas enlisted in this post will help you write a good conclusion for the project. Plus if you haven’t written something like this before, you will find some help.
If you have liked reading this post or have suggestions to give, please feel free to comment below. We would love to hear from you. Plus your questions are also important to us so don’t forget to mention them either. On that note, good luck and do well with that research paper.
For your convenience, we have added a sample conclusion paper, so have a look and get an idea about it.
This is a simple conclusion for the history paper.
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How To Write A Good Conclusion For Your Writing Project?
Conclusions are one of the most important parts of a writing project . They help you wrap up your argument and leave the reader with something they can take away, whether it’s an idea, a message, or just the desire to do more research into the topic.
What makes a conclusion good?
1. give a brief summary of your main points, 2. refer back to the introduction or thesis statement, 3. make an emotional appeal to your readers., 4. give a final thought or idea that will resonate with your audience, 5. end with a call to action, examples of good conclusions, wrapping up.
But how do you do that?
Well, I’ve got you covered. This blog post is going to walk you through what makes for a good conclusion and give you some tips on how to write one.
Let’s get started!
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When you’re crafting an argument, you’ve got to make sure you end on a strong note. You’ve already pulled your reader in with a compelling introduction and discussed the core of your topic in the body paragraphs.
Now you need to bring it all together in a way that leaves them satisfied and wanting more.
In order to do this, your concluding section must have four specific characteristics. It has to:
- Help to tie up loose ends, so that your reader doesn’t walk away from your argument feeling like there are still unanswered questions.
- Provide a sense of closure and finality.
- Show how readers can apply what they’ve read about your topic by using it in their own lives or even taking action on a larger scale.
- Create a sense of unity, helping you to bring all of the pieces of your argument together into one cohesive whole.
Below there are some tips to help you craft an effective conclusion that checks all these boxes.
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Tips to Write a Good Conclusion
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In order to do this as effectively as possible, here are some things to keep in mind:
Plan it out. It’s a good idea to plan out your conclusion before you begin writing: it gives you time to collect your thoughts and come up with a few ideas for how you want to leave the reader feeling.
Keep it relevant. It is important to make sure that you have answered the question you posed at the beginning of your article. This will help the reader see how what they’ve read fits into a greater whole and can help them make sense of their own thoughts.
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Make it short. The conclusion is not the place to go over everything that your reader should have learned in your writing project. If you’re more than three paragraphs into your conclusion, consider editing down to what you absolutely must say just to give closure.
Use the same tone as the rest of your text . If you’ve written a formal essay, don’t suddenly switch to casual language in the conclusion – that will just confuse your reader.
Write in a way that’s coherent and cohesive. You want to make sure that the way you’ve ended your text flows smoothly with what came before it.
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Don’t rehash your introduction or other parts of the text. You spent all that time building up to your conclusion, so don’t just recap what you already said in the introduction. Instead, use the conclusion to build on what you’ve already said and give a final statement about how your topic fits into larger discussions.
Don’t assume that your audience is going to remember everything you said. This is particularly true if you are writing a technical document, where the reader may not have the same background knowledge as you do. But even in more casual writing, readers often forget the details they read in your text. That’s why it’s important to summarize your main points.
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Don’t be too vague or too general. This can make the reader feel like you’ve lost your way, or like they’ve been led down a rabbit hole with no end.
Don’t overuse transitional words . Transitional words like “therefore” or “as a result” are great, but they have a tendency to get overused. They’re meant to help you move from one idea to another, and when you use them too much, it can be distracting for your reader. Instead, try to be as direct and clear as possible with your word choice.
How to Write a Good Conclusion for Your Writing Project?
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If the tips above aren’t enough and you’re still struggling, here’s a step-by-step guide to writing a great conclusion for your next writing project:
Also Read : How To Write An Argumentative Essay ?
Most people know that you should begin your introduction with a hook. In other words, there should be something in the opening paragraph to draw people in and make them want to keep reading.
Well, the same goes for your conclusion. It should present a quick summary of the main points of your text in order to wrap things up neatly and leave your reader with a sense of closure.
This also gives readers a chance to evaluate what you said and provides a springboard for further discussion.
But remember, conclusions don’t have to be long or full of fancy language and flowery metaphors.
Just a few sentences are all you need to remind your audience what you’ve talked about in the body of the text.
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Whether you’re writing a paper, article, or essay, keep in mind that you have to present your ideas in a clear way and make sure you’ve answered all of the questions raised by your introduction.
This means that if your introduction asked for a solution to a problem, then your conclusion should explain how this solution works.
If there are several solutions presented in the body of the text, then these should be presented clearly in the conclusion. If one method is better than another or if there is an alternative approach to solving the problem, then this should also be discussed here.
A good way to do this is by using a “hook” to pull in the reader one last time and make them remember what you’re trying to say.
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When you’re writing for an audience, you want to give them a reason to care about your topic and help them understand why it’s important. This is easier said than done – but as a rule of thumb, the best way to make someone care about a thing is to make them feel something.
A good conclusion is a great place to do that because it’s the last chance you have to remind your reader why they should care about your topic at all before they put it aside.
You can accomplish this by using powerful words that evoke emotion in your reader. Think about what emotions you want your reader to feel when they’re done reading.
Then choose words that will evoke those emotions: fear, excitement, sadness, love – whatever feels right for your text.
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No matter what type of text you’re writing, you don’t want to end on a dull or vague note. An effective conclusion will leave your reader with something to think about, or an idea that will resonate with them.
This means that you should include something that makes them think about the topic differently, gives them food for thought, or leaves them with a question they can answer on their own.
For example, you can try to end on a practical note: remind the reader of how your idea or argument can be applied to their own lives, and what steps they can take from here to apply it.
You can also try adding an anecdote or quote to help them understand a concept in a new way, or ask a question that makes them think about it on their own.
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So, you’ve given a thorough explanation of your topic, you’ve asserted its importance, noted how it fits into the bigger picture, and explained its relevance to the reader. But there’s one thing that makes all the difference in the world – a call to action.
Without it, you’re just passively giving information, which doesn’t do much for anyone. Your conclusion is your last opportunity to make an argument and has an impact on the reader.
So take this opportunity to leave them with a strong impression and tell them exactly what they should do next!
Closing with a call to action can be as simple as stating your desired outcome (“The more we join together to spread awareness, the sooner we can finally put an end to this epidemic”) or naming your desired result (“In order to reduce our carbon footprint, it is important that we all take steps like…”).
You could also tell them how they can reach out for help (“If you would like more information about this issue, you can visit our website or email us at…”).
This isn’t necessary if you are writing about a topic that requires no further action from your readers. For example, if you’re writing a research paper.
In those cases, the conclusion is a good place to offer some commentary on how your research might be utilized going forward, or what implications your findings may have.
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To help you get an even better idea of what a good conclusion sounds like, here you have a few examples:
1. “In conclusion, I hope that this paper has provided you with some insights into the importance of good writing. The ability to communicate clearly and effectively is a skill that will serve you well throughout your life.
By learning how to write well, you will be able to express yourself clearly and persuasively, which will increase your chances of success in any field you choose.
The tips in this paper are just a few of the many things that can help you write better. If you would like more information about writing or if you have any questions about this paper, please feel free to contact me at [email].”
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2. “The impact of fast fashion on the environment is undeniable. While it’s true that some companies have made efforts to reduce their carbon footprints, most have not.
A lack of regulation has allowed these companies to operate without any oversight or accountability for their environmental impact. Fast fashion is only going to get worse as time goes on if we don’t take action now to change how we think about clothing and what we expect from the people who make it for us.”
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3. “I would recommend the VPN [name of VPN]. In my research, it was the best VPN for Japan. While there are a lot of options out there, this one stood out because it had excellent security features and was easy to use.”
I also liked that their servers were located in Japan, so they don’t have to worry about getting around the country’s internet laws.”
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4. “To sum up, AI will have a dramatic impact on the world. It will change how we live, work, and interact with each other. It will increase productivity, improve efficiency and make our lives easier.
However, it will also cause unemployment in some areas. The best way to prepare for this is to educate yourself on what AI is and how it works.
Being aware of the risks associated with AI will help you make better decisions about how to use it in your life.”
5. “Climate change is a real and serious problem that needs to be addressed. We can’t just ignore it – we have to take action now.
We need to make sure that we’re not just doing our part to fight climate change, but also making sure that other people are aware of the issue and are taking action as well.
You don’t have to be an expert on climate change or a scientist to help make a difference in this world. All you need is some knowledge about what’s going on and a willingness to help out when needed.
If you want more information about what you can do as an individual to help fight climate change, check out [link].”
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6. “Overall, debt collection is still a lucrative business, and we’re seeing more and more companies jump on the bandwagon. But with so many new players in the game, it’s important to be vigilant about how you conduct yourself and make sure that you’re following all the right rules.
One way to do this is to use technology to your advantage – a lot of it is out there, but you need to know where to look. You can also try to keep up with the latest trends in debt collection by checking out [website]!”
7. “The world is changing fast, and businesses are being forced to change with it to keep up. Digital transformation is not only a requirement for businesses in this new era but also a way to stay competitive and ensure your company can continue to grow.”
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8. “Stress is a normal and natural part of life. It can be a powerful motivator and a useful tool for growth and development. However, when it becomes chronic or extreme, it can have serious consequences for our bodies and our minds.
The best way to deal with stress is to understand what kind of stress it is and how much of it you’re experiencing. You should then take steps to alleviate this stress by making changes to your lifestyle or taking other steps, such as seeking professional help.”
9. “In conclusion, volcanoes are important for the survival of the Earth’s ecosystem and are a great source of geothermal energy. They can be beautiful or terrifying, depending on the circumstances.
Volcanoes are also a source of valuable minerals and metals that we use today in our everyday lives. We need to protect these natural wonders from human activity so they can continue their vital role in our planet’s ecosystem.”
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10. “Lorawan devices, while lacking many of the capabilities of their larger counterparts, can still be used as part of a comprehensive strategy to traffic data between different geographical areas.
This technology could track children as they walk home from school, help you remember where you parked your car in a large lot, or even bring an escaped pet back home. In a nutshell, Lorawan devices have the potential to completely change the way that we interact with the world around us.”
Writing a good conclusion can be tricky, but it’s crucial – it’s your last chance to make an impact on your audience.
The steps and tips outlined above will help you craft an ending that will leave your readers feeling satisfied and confident that they’ve learned something new from your writing project.
Now, it’s up to you to take what you’ve learned and apply it to your own work. As with any skill, practice makes perfect!
Cassie Riley has a passion for all things marketing and social media. She is a wife, mother, and entrepreneur. In her spare time, she enjoys traveling, language, music, writing, and unicorns. Cassie is a lifetime learner, and loves to spend time attending classes, webinars, and summits.
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Conclusion Examples: Strong Endings for Any Paper
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Some might argue that a conclusion is one of the most important components of any research paper or article. It's your last opportunity to make a good impression on your reader. If you can confidently say you’ve fully answered the question posed, or are leaving the readers with a thought-provoking consideration, you've done well. Explore a variety of different papers with great conclusion examples.
Professional Conclusion Examples
When it comes to good conclusion examples, a good rule of thumb is to restate your thesis statement if you have one. Your conclusion should also refer back to your introduction, summarize three main points of your essay and wrap it all up with a final observation. If you conclude with an interesting insight, readers will be happy to have spent time on your writing. See how a professional writer creates a thought-provoking conclusion.
Professional Essay Conclusion Example
The New Yorker published an op-ed by Fergus McIntosh titled A Trip to St. Kilda, Scotland's Lost Utopia in the Sea . He's making the case that St. Kilda's inhabitants are not out of touch as so many travelers seem to believe. Take a look at how he brings it all home.
"Mainlanders always knew that St. Kilda was there, and to describe its people as uncontacted is hyperbole — so why does it, in common with other abandoned places and lost or threatened cultures, arouse such fascination? Perhaps it’s because, in our globalizing, urbanizing, capitalist age, such places remind us that there are alternative ways to relate to the world, and the people, around us: they spur our utopian imagination."
Scientific Paper Conclusion Example
In this research paper , the author summarizes her main findings while also supporting the conclusions she's drawn. In an effort to fully engage the reader in her area of study, she proposes suggestions for future research. This was her way of leaving the readers wanting more.
"Recent research on cold-water immersion incidents has provided a more complete understanding of the physiological processes occurring during drowning and near-drowning accidents. Current findings suggest that the cooperative effect of the mammalian diving reflex and hypothermia plays a critical role in patient survival during a cold-water immersion incident. However, the relationship between the two processes is still unclear. Because it is impossible to provide an exact reproduction of a particular drowning incident within the laboratory, research is hampered by the lack of complete details surrounding drowning incidents. Consequently, it is difficult for comparisons to be drawn between published case studies. More complete and accurate documentation of cold-water immersion incidents—including time of submersion; time of recovery; and a profile of the victim including age, sex, physical condition—will facilitate easier comparison of individual situations and lead to a more complete knowledge of the processes affecting long-term survival rates for drowning victims. Once we have a clearer understanding of the relationship between hypothermia and the mammalian diving reflex, and of the effect of such factors as the age of the victim, physicians and rescue personnel can take steps to improve patient care both at the scene and in the hospital."
Report Conclusion Example
This is the end of a book review by Nanette Scarpellini for the Journal of Air Transportation World Wide . Scarpellini uses her conclusion to reiterate her main points about the author making what could be a dull topic entertaining and offering a suggestion for a future edition. Take a look at how she wraps it all up in her conclusion.
"Aviation History is a collection of significant events in aviation accented by the people who made it happen and correlated with world affairs. The book’s use of color and vivid stories helps to make the advancements come to life as something more than significant events on a timeline. While at times the stories may clutter the page, they also breathe life into what is considered by many to be a dull subject. The author’s enthusiasm for the topic is obvious throughout the book. More thorough proofreading could help alleviate some of the confusion that is caused by typos and a few mislabeled illustrations. The credibility of the content does not suffer due to these obvious errors which will likely be corrected in the next edition."
Examples of Conclusions for Students
While not all students are professional writers, you can still wow your audience with your conclusion. As you review these, take note of the manner in which the writer tied their ideas together, made a call to the reader or left off with some compelling food for thought.
College Essay Conclusion Example
Here we have a college entrance essay worth reading . This student recalls when she used to sit in a blue armchair in her parents' café and read, people-watch and imagine. In the conclusion, she refers back to the blue armchair and that cozy world but also looks forward to finding her niche. You'll see why Johns Hopkins uses this on their website for the model of college entrance essays.
"To say that I have figured out all of who I am would be a lie. Unlike the world of fantasy, there is no single defining moment—no Excalibur, no Sorting Hat—that marks my complete evolution. My niche in the world constantly changes, but what remains steadfast is my commitment to a life of service and adventure, albeit it isn’t as cozy as the blue armchair."
Thesis Conclusion Example
When it comes to a thesis or research paper conclusion example, it's important to end it on a high note. See a thesis conclusion example to get an idea for your thesis paper.
The purpose of this research was to identify effective strategies for dealing with repetitive motions identified in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Based on the analysis conveyed, it can be concluded that there are multiple behavior modification therapies important for the improvement of this behavior. Future exploration into behavior modification techniques could be useful to finding further therapy techniques. The amount this could improve the lives of others with repetitive motion behaviors is worth exploring.
Conclusion Example for Project
When you think of a project conclusion, there are all different types of projects out there. You might be doing a literature project or a science project. Whatever the case, you want to end with a bang. Check out a conclusion example for a high school science fair project.
Through my analysis of Huggies and Pampers brand diapers, it’s been proven that Huggies is the sure winner in leak protection and fluid retention. As you can see through my experiment, using Huggies over Pampers can help parents to avoid embarrassing diaper leaks and ensure their baby’s skin stays dry avoiding diaper rash and skin irritation. But that begs the question, is Huggies the best in leak protection among all brands? That would take a bit more research.
Formulating Your Conclusion
There is some important information you need to write a conclusion . In addition to restating your thesis and highlighting your main points, you could add a relevant quotation from an authoritative source. This will not work in every case, but if, for example, you were writing a reflective essay on a piece of literature, you might quote a famous scholar who also reviewed that piece.
Additionally, it may be worth taking this opportunity to tie your argument to a larger context, such as relating your central theme to a particular group in society or even a global concept.
What Not to Do in a Conclusion
When it comes to crafting the perfect conclusion, there are a lot of different things you should do. But there are also a few things you’ll want to avoid.
- While you do need to refer back to your essay or report, don’t just provide a bland summary. Think of the conclusion more as an opportunity to end with a flourish . Spend some time on this last paragraph. You want the reader to finish your essay and think, "Wow. I never considered that," or, "I'm going to remember that."
- Avoid the tired "In conclusion …" Allow readers to sense you're bringing it home with your tone and thoughtful summation. Turn the essay toward them if you can by asking a question or tying your idea to current society.
- Also, hold true to what you've just expressed in your writing. Some might feel tempted to say things like, "This is merely one opinion …" In that single line, you've just undercut everything you worked so hard to draw together. Remember to stand behind the case you just made. Be proud of it and end on the highest note possible.
The Last Word
Take some time to go over your conclusion. Remember, it’s an opportunity to pull your thoughts together and magnify the central theme of your writing. It's the cream cheese frosting to that red velvet cupcake you just baked. Don't allow it to be an after-thought to a paper you want to get off your plate. It could end up being the five or so sentences that a reader carries with them forever. Now that you’ve mastered a great conclusion, learn how to write a strong introduction through examples .
Here are four key tips for writing stronger conclusions that leave a lasting impression: 1. Include a topic sentence. Conclusions should always begin with a topic sentence. Restating the thesis from your... 2. Use your introductory paragraph as a guide. When writing your conclusion, keep a copy of ...
Table of contents Step 1: Restate the problem The first task of your conclusion is to remind the reader of your research problem. You will... Step 2: Sum up the paper Having zoomed back in on the problem, it’s time to summarize how the body of the paper went... Step 3: Discuss the implications
How to write a conclusion 1. Restate the thesis. An effective conclusion brings the reader back to the main point, reminding the reader of the... 2. Reiterate supporting points. Aside from restating your thesis, you should also reiterate the points that you made to... 3. Make a connection between ...
How to Write a Conclusion for Project Which is Compelling and Effective? 1. Use the basic information you already have:. Just as we know that the project conclusion tends to become very basic,... 2. Write a logical conclusion:. If you are writing a project that has several sides to one issue, then ...
A conclusion is the final paragraph of a research paper and serves to help the reader understand why your research should matter to them. The conclusion of a conclusion should: Restate your topic and why it is important Restate your thesis/claim Address opposing viewpoints and explain why readers should align with your position
The conclusion is the part of the research paper that brings everything together in a logical manner. As the last part of a research paper, a conclusion provides a clear interpretation of the results of your research in a way that stresses the significance of your study.
How to Write a Good Conclusion for Your Writing Project? 1. Give a brief summary of your main points 2. Refer back to the introduction or thesis statement 3. Make an emotional appeal to your readers. 4. Give a final thought or idea that will resonate with your audience 5. End with a call to action Examples of Good Conclusions Wrapping Up
Your conclusion should also refer back to your introduction, summarize three main points of your essay and wrap it all up with a final observation. If you conclude with an interesting insight, readers will be happy to have spent time on your writing. See how a professional writer creates a thought-provoking conclusion.