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How to Write a Research Paper

Writing a research paper is a bit more difficult that a standard high school essay. You need to site sources, use academic data and show scientific examples. Before beginning, you’ll need guidelines for how to write a research paper.

Start the Research Process

Before you begin writing the research paper, you must do your research. It is important that you understand the subject matter, formulate the ideas of your paper, create your thesis statement and learn how to speak about your given topic in an authoritative manner. You’ll be looking through online databases, encyclopedias, almanacs, periodicals, books, newspapers, government publications, reports, guides and scholarly resources. Take notes as you discover new information about your given topic. Also keep track of the references you use so you can build your bibliography later and cite your resources.

Develop Your Thesis Statement

When organizing your research paper, the thesis statement is where you explain to your readers what they can expect, present your claims, answer any questions that you were asked or explain your interpretation of the subject matter you’re researching. Therefore, the thesis statement must be strong and easy to understand. Your thesis statement must also be precise. It should answer the question you were assigned, and there should be an opportunity for your position to be opposed or disputed. The body of your manuscript should support your thesis, and it should be more than a generic fact.

Create an Outline

Many professors require outlines during the research paper writing process. You’ll find that they want outlines set up with a title page, abstract, introduction, research paper body and reference section. The title page is typically made up of the student’s name, the name of the college, the name of the class and the date of the paper. The abstract is a summary of the paper. An introduction typically consists of one or two pages and comments on the subject matter of the research paper. In the body of the research paper, you’ll be breaking it down into materials and methods, results and discussions. Your references are in your bibliography. Use a research paper example to help you with your outline if necessary.

Organize Your Notes

When writing your first draft, you’re going to have to work on organizing your notes first. During this process, you’ll be deciding which references you’ll be putting in your bibliography and which will work best as in-text citations. You’ll be working on this more as you develop your working drafts and look at more white paper examples to help guide you through the process.

Write Your Final Draft

After you’ve written a first and second draft and received corrections from your professor, it’s time to write your final copy. By now, you should have seen an example of a research paper layout and know how to put your paper together. You’ll have your title page, abstract, introduction, thesis statement, in-text citations, footnotes and bibliography complete. Be sure to check with your professor to ensure if you’re writing in APA style, or if you’re using another style guide.


recommendation research paper

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How to Write Recommendations in Research | Examples & Tips

Published on September 15, 2022 by Tegan George . Revised on December 7, 2022.

Recommendations in research are a crucial component of your discussion section and the conclusion of your thesis , dissertation , or research paper .

As you conduct your research and analyze the data you collected , perhaps there are ideas or results that don’t quite fit the scope of your research topic. Or, maybe your results suggest that there are further implications of your results or the causal relationships between previously-studied variables than covered in extant research.

Table of contents

What should recommendations look like, building your research recommendation, how should your recommendations be written, recommendation in research example, frequently asked questions about recommendations.

Recommendations for future research should be:

Overall, strive to highlight ways other researchers can reproduce or replicate your results to draw further conclusions, and suggest different directions that future research can take, if applicable.

Relatedly, when making these recommendations, avoid:

There are many different ways to frame recommendations, but the easiest is perhaps to follow the formula of research question   conclusion  recommendation. Here’s an example.

Conclusion An important condition for controlling many social skills is mastering language. If children have a better command of language, they can express themselves better and are better able to understand their peers. Opportunities to practice social skills are thus dependent on the development of language skills.

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recommendation research paper

As a rule of thumb, try to limit yourself to only the most relevant future recommendations: ones that stem directly from your work. While you can have multiple recommendations for each research conclusion, it is also acceptable to have one recommendation that is connected to more than one conclusion.

These recommendations should be targeted at your audience, specifically toward peers or colleagues in your field that work on similar subjects to your paper or dissertation topic . They can flow directly from any limitations you found while conducting your work, offering concrete and actionable possibilities for how future research can build on anything that your own work was unable to address at the time of your writing.

See below for a full research recommendation example that you can use as a template to write your own.

The current study can be interpreted as a first step in the research on COPD speech characteristics. However, the results of this study should be treated with caution due to the small sample size and the lack of details regarding the participants’ characteristics.

Future research could further examine the differences in speech characteristics between exacerbated COPD patients, stable COPD patients, and healthy controls. It could also contribute to a deeper understanding of the acoustic measurements suitable for e-health measurements.

While it may be tempting to present new arguments or evidence in your thesis or disseration conclusion , especially if you have a particularly striking argument you’d like to finish your analysis with, you shouldn’t. Theses and dissertations follow a more formal structure than this.

All your findings and arguments should be presented in the body of the text (more specifically in the discussion section and results section .) The conclusion is meant to summarize and reflect on the evidence and arguments you have already presented, not introduce new ones.

The conclusion of your thesis or dissertation should include the following:

For a stronger dissertation conclusion , avoid including:

Your conclusion should leave the reader with a strong, decisive impression of your work.

In a thesis or dissertation, the discussion is an in-depth exploration of the results, going into detail about the meaning of your findings and citing relevant sources to put them in context.

The conclusion is more shorter and more general: it concisely answers your main research question and makes recommendations based on your overall findings.

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How to write recommendations in a research paper

Many students put in a lot of effort and write a good report however they are not able to give proper recommendations. Recommendations in the research paper should be included in your research. As a researcher, you display a deep understanding of the topic of research. Therefore you should be able to give recommendations. Here are a few tips that will help you to give appropriate recommendations. 

Recommendations in the research paper should be the objective of the research. Therefore at least one of your objectives of the paper is to provide recommendations to the parties associated or the parties that will benefit from your research. For example, to encourage higher employee engagement HR department should make strategies that invest in the well-being of employees. Additionally, the HR department should also collect regular feedback through online surveys.

Recommendations in the research paper should come from your review and analysis For example It was observed that coaches interviewed were associated with the club were working with the club from the past 2-3 years only. This shows that the attrition rate of coaches is high and therefore clubs should work on reducing the turnover of coaches.

Recommendations in the research paper should also come from the data you have analysed. For example, the research found that people over 65 years of age are at greater risk of social isolation. Therefore, it is recommended that policies that are made for combating social isolation should target this specific group.

Recommendations in the research paper should also come from observation. For example, it is observed that Lenovo’s income is stable and gross revenue has displayed a negative turn. Therefore the company should analyse its marketing and branding strategy.

Recommendations in the research paper should be written in the order of priority. The most important recommendations for decision-makers should come first. However, if the recommendations are of equal importance then it should come in the sequence in which the topic is approached in the research. 

Recommendations in a research paper if associated with different categories then you should categorize them. For example, you have separate recommendations for policymakers, educators, and administrators then you can categorize the recommendations. 

Recommendations in the research paper should come purely from your research. For example, you have written research on the impact on HR strategies on motivation. However, nowhere you have discussed Reward and recognition. Then you should not give recommendations for using rewards and recognition measures to boost employee motivation.

The use of bullet points offers better clarity rather than using long paragraphs. For example this paragraph “ It is recommended  that Britannia Biscuit should launch and promote sugar-free options apart from the existing product range. Promotion efforts should be directed at creating a fresh and healthy image. A campaign that conveys a sense of health and vitality to the consumer while enjoying biscuit  is recommended” can be written as:

The inclusion of an action plan along with recommendation adds more weightage to your recommendation. Recommendations should be clear and conscience and written using actionable words. Recommendations should display a solution-oriented approach and in some cases should highlight the scope for further research. 


recommendation research paper

Step 2: Formulate Findings and Recommendations

The next step involves proposing solutions to address constraints or opportunities uncovered during analysis. Keep in mind that you’re constructing an argument—a narrative that nudges key stakeholders toward a set of proposed recommendations. Your argument will be vetted and challenged and it’s likely that choices will have to be made regarding which recommendations can be implemented. That said, it’s important to remember that you’re providing data for decision making and proposing changes, so you’ll need to back up your advice with good reasoning.

2.1  Findings

Findings emerge from the qualitative and quantitative analyses. Findings are typically divided into sections by technical area, following the outline established in the field guide. Be sure to highlight gender-relevant findings. Furthermore, be prepared for new or surprising findings that may emerge, as these may require modifications to the original outline. Every assessment report includes a description of the private health sector, sometimes referred to as the private sector “landscape.” Though there are many ways the information can be presented, it is useful to have a visual graphic to illustrate the myriad actors and organizations.

Key questions to be addressed in the description of the private health sector include:

2.2  Recommendations

Recommendations are arguably the most important part of the analysis phase—this is where you’ll suggest specific interventions or strategies to address the issues and constraints identified in the assessment.

Recommendations should directly respond to key findings arrived at through data collection and analysis. A process of prioritization is essential to narrowing down findings, and once this is done, recommendations should be developed that align with the most important findings. Use the abbreviated Gender Analysis and Integration Matrix (GAIM) on 1.4 to prioritize gender findings and determine at which level(s) you may wish to intervene. Will your resulting program/project/strategy address a root cause? Will it seek to accommodate or transform existing gender norms?

Reviewing previous assessment reports may be helpful at this stage, to learn what strategies were recommended to address specific private sector constraints in other countries. This table synthesizes key problems affecting service delivery in the private sector , drawing from previous assessments, and links them to potential interventions.

RESOURCE ► When examining the supply chain in Nigeria, our assessment team identified weak regulation of drug vendors as a main area of concern. This lack of enforcement was compromising drug quality without increasing access where it was most needed. Given this finding, we proposed designing a pilot pharmaceutical network that would achieve the following:

Recommendations should be one-sentence, succinct, and start with an action verb (create, establish, fund, facilitate, coordinate, etc.). They should use a “SMART” format (Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic, Timely). Each recommendation should be followed by a few sentences of explanatory text.

In addition to being “SMART,” recommendations should be feasible. Both operational feasibility and political feasibility (i.e., political will) should be considered when developing recommendations. Experience has demonstrated that gauging potential public sector receptivity to proposed private health sector initiatives is essential.

A final consideration for recommendations is timing. Often solutions to identified problems are sequential, building upon intermediate steps. Teams sometimes frame recommendations as near-term (e.g., 6 to 12 months) and longer term (e.g., one to three years). This example from the Tanzania assessment report illustrates near-term and longer-term recommendations .

Recommendations are typically summarized in the Executive Summary, and presented in full within specific technical sections, usually as a short list of bullets following the findings summary. In some reports, there may be a section at the end of the document that consolidates recommendations and highlights the linkages across core areas (e.g., service delivery and health financing) prior to the conclusion section.

TIP ► Recommendations stem from the findings. Link each of your recommendations to the finding that supports it, to highlight the direct connection between assessment and action. You can show this link visually by using a two-columned table: the first column lists the finding, and the respective recommendation is listed adjacently in the second column.

2.3  Distilling Key Findings and Recommendations

By now it may be clear that private health sector assessments generate a high volume of information. One of the challenging aspects of conducting this type of assessment is sorting through the voluminous information, weighing the relative import of each finding, and determining which findings to highlight in terms of their impact on private sector involvement in health. This process of selecting the key findings is followed by developing corresponding recommendations for improving or increasing the private health sector’s role, or otherwise facilitating an appropriate role for the sector.

SHOPS developed a template to help the assessment team assign priority levels to the specific issues they have identified in the analysis step . The team should work together to arrive at shared judgments regarding the priority order of the top three to five issues in each core area (i.e., Environment, Financing, Service Delivery, Supply Chain, and Demand). Next, the team can record the key determinants or causes of the main issues, either from earlier root cause analysis, or from team brainstorming at this time. This work should facilitate generating potential solutions to address the causes behind the issues identified, which can be entered in the column on the right.

In Summary: Considerations for prioritizing recommendations

Once the team has reached consensus on the main findings and corresponding recommendations to enhance the role of the private sector, the next step is to draft the report.

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Based On Your Findings What Are Your Recommendations?

The recommendations that you introduce in your research paper are essential to the plans you have to move your field of study forward. Recommendations are the added suggestions that you want people to follow when performing future studies. These are based off of what you have found or what you might be interested in doing at some point in the future.

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As you write these recommendations, you will have to look at what you have gotten out of your paper while also thinking about any possible ideas you might have for later research studies. This can help with producing a strong paper that will inspire people to think differently about whatever it is you have written and could especially inspire new research to come about over time.

What Can Be Done?

When writing your recommendations, you can talk about the steps that should be followed in future studies. These include steps that are needed to implement particular policies or actions that you want to follow. Any resources that would be required in the process should be explained as well. You must be specific when talking about what you might be interested in doing in the future with regards to making any potential studies stand out and work to your favor.

You can always mention the benefits of further studies in your field. Talk about how future studies could be used to correct problems with the current research you have completed. You can also explain a need to fill in certain gaps that you might not be able to get covered right now for any reason. You can always use a timeline to help readers understand when potential developments could come about over time.

How Feasible Is a Study?

Next, you should talk about how feasible certain points in your study might be. This includes understanding whether certain ideas should be explored in further detail later on. This works well if you are trying to talk about certain points that might be worthwhile. You could even talk about potential new developments in your field and whether your study is relevant to them or if additional developments have to be incorporated into your work.

What Additional Research Is Needed?

There are often times when added research would be required to make it easier for a study to go forward. Your research plans could include an analysis of the methods of study that could work in the future and what points about a topic could be reviewed in such studies.

The recommendations that are incorporated into your paper can certainly be important to your work. Be certain when writing your paper that you have clear recommendations that are easy to follow and can be utilized right and are not overly complicated or tough to use in some way.

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Implications or Recommendations in Research: What's the Difference?

High-quality research articles that get many citations contain both implications and recommendations. Implications are the impact your research makes, whereas recommendations are specific actions that can then be taken based on your findings, such as for more research or for policymaking.

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That seems clear enough, but the two are commonly confused.

This confusion is especially true if you come from a so-called high-context culture in which information is often implied based on the situation, as in many Asian cultures. High-context cultures are different from low-context cultures where information is more direct and explicit (as in North America and many European cultures).

Let’s set these two straight in a low-context way; i.e., we’ll be specific and direct! This is the best way to be in English academic writing because you’re writing for the world.

Implications and recommendations in a research article

The standard format of STEM research articles is what’s called IMRaD:

Some journals call for a separate conclusions section, while others have the conclusions as the last part of the discussion. You’ll write these four (or five) sections in the same sequence, though, no matter the journal.

The discussion section is typically where you restate your results and how well they confirmed your hypotheses. Give readers the answer to the questions for which they’re looking to you for an answer.

At this point, many researchers assume their paper is finished. After all, aren’t the results the most important part? As you might have guessed, no, you’re not quite done yet.

The discussion/conclusions section is where to say what happened and what should now happen

The discussion/conclusions section of every good scientific article should contain the implications and recommendations.

The implications, first of all, are the impact your results have on your specific field. A high-impact, highly cited article will also broaden the scope here and provide implications to other fields. This is what makes research cross-disciplinary.

Recommendations, however, are suggestions to improve your field based on your results.

These two aspects help the reader understand your broader content: How and why your work is important to the world. They also tell the reader what can be changed in the future based on your results.

These aspects are what editors are looking for when selecting papers for peer review.

How to write the conclusion section

Implications and recommendations are, thus, written at the end of the discussion section, and before the concluding paragraph. They help to “wrap up” your paper. Once your reader understands what you found, the next logical step is what those results mean and what should come next.

Then they can take the baton, in the form of your work, and run with it. That gets you cited and extends your impact!

The order of implications and recommendations also matters. Both are written after you’ve summarized your main findings in the discussion section. Then, those results are interpreted based on ongoing work in the field. After this, the implications are stated, followed by the recommendations.

Writing an academic research paper is a bit like running a race. Finish strong, with your most important conclusion (recommendation) at the end. Leave readers with an understanding of your work’s importance. Avoid generic, obvious phrases like “more research is needed to fully address this issue.” Be specific.

The main differences between implications and recommendations (table)

implications vs recommendations

Now let’s dig a bit deeper into actually how to write these parts.

What are implications?

Research implications tell us how and why your results are important for the field at large. They help answer the question of “what does it mean?” Implications tell us how your work contributes to your field and what it adds to it. They’re used when you want to tell your peers why your research is important for ongoing theory, practice, policymaking, and for future research.

Crucially, your implications must be evidence-based. This means they must be derived from the results in the paper.

Implications are written after you’ve summarized your main findings in the discussion section. They come before the recommendations and before the concluding paragraph. There is no specific section dedicated to implications. They must be integrated into your discussion so that the reader understands why the results are meaningful and what they add to the field.

A good strategy is to separate your implications into types. Implications can be social, political, technological, related to policies, or others, depending on your topic. The most frequently used types are theoretical and practical. Theoretical implications relate to how your findings connect to other theories or ideas in your field, while practical implications are related to what we can do with the results.

Key features of implications

Examples of implications

Let’s take a look at some examples of research results below with their implications.

The result : one study found that learning items over time improves memory more than cramming material in a bunch of information at once . The implications : This result suggests memory is better when studying is spread out over time, which could be due to memory consolidation processes.

The result : an intervention study found that mindfulness helps improve mental health if you have anxiety. The implications : This result has implications for the role of executive functions on anxiety.

What are recommendations?

As noted above, explaining how your results contribute to the real world is an important part of a successful article. Likewise, stating how your findings can be used to improve something in future research is equally important. This brings us to the recommendations. Research recommendations are suggestions and solutions you give for certain situations based on your results. Once the reader understands what your results mean with the implications, the next question they need to know is “what’s next?” Recommendations are calls to action on ways certain things in the field can be improved in the future based on your results. Recommendations are used when you want to convey that something different should be done based on what your analyses revealed. Similar to implications, recommendations are also evidence-based. This means that your recommendations to the field must be drawn directly from your results. The goal of the recommendations is to make clear, specific, and realistic suggestions to future researchers before they conduct a similar experiment. No matter what area your research is in, there will always be further research to do. Try to think about what would be helpful for other researchers to know before starting their work. Recommendations are also written in the discussion section. They come after the implications and before the concluding paragraphs. Similar to the implications, there is usually no specific section dedicated to the recommendations. However, depending on how many solutions you want to suggest to the field, they may be written as a subsection.

Key features of recommendations

Examples of recommendations

Here are some research results and their recommendations.

A meta-analysis found that actively recalling material from your memory is better than simply re-reading it .

A medical intervention found that daily exercise helps prevent cardiovascular disease .

A study found that many research articles do not contain the sample sizes needed to statistically confirm their findings . The recommendation: To improve the current state of the field, researchers should consider doing power analysis based on their experiment’s design.

What else is important about implications and recommendations?

When writing recommendations and implications, be careful not to overstate the impact of your results. It can be tempting for researchers to inflate the importance of their findings and make grandiose statements about what their work means. Remember that implications and recommendations must be coming directly from your results. Therefore, they must be straightforward, realistic, and plausible. Another good thing to remember is to make sure the implications and recommendations are stated clearly and separately. Do not attach them to the endings of other paragraphs just to add them in. Use similar example phrases as those listed in the table when starting your sentences to clearly indicate when it’s an implication and when it’s a recommendation. When your peers, or brand-new readers, read your paper, they shouldn’t have to hunt through your discussion to find the implications and recommendations. They should be clear, visible, and understandable on their own. That’ll get you cited more, and you’ll make a greater contribution to your area of science while extending the life and impact of your work.

Share with your colleagues

Share your work as a preprint and help move science forward.

We invite you to share your research with the community by posting it online as a preprint. Our sister company, Research Square , is a trusted preprint platform that lets you get credit for your unpublished research early, increase your citations, and get feedback from the community.

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National Research Council (US) and Institute of Medicine (US) Panel to Review the National Children's Study Research Plan. The National Children's Study Research Plan: A Review. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2008.

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The National Children's Study Research Plan: A Review.

6 Conclusions and Recommendations

D uring the past several months the panel has met and reviewed the research plan for the National Children’s Study (NCS), various working papers of the study, and additional documents provided by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. The panel believes that this landmark study offers an unparalleled opportunity to examine the effects of environmental influences on child health and development, as well as to explore the complex interactions between genes and environments. The database derived from the study will be valuable for investigating the hypotheses described in the research plan as well as additional hypotheses that will evolve.

The critique, suggestions, and recommendations offered in the preceding chapters, therefore, are intended to improve the capabilities of the study to carry out the important mandate of the Children’s Health Act of 2000. This chapter highlights the panel’s key conclusions and recommendations resulting from its review organized by chapter and subject area.


Conclusion 2-1: The stated overall and specific goals for the NCS—and the design of the NCS to achieve those goals—largely reflect the stipulations of the Children’s Health Act of 2000. In the broadest terms, the NCS goals and design are responsive to the call in the act for a “national longitudinal study of environmental influences (including physical, chemical, biological, and psychosocial) on children’s health and development.” Conclusion 2-2: The large, nationally representative, equal probability sample design, together with the inclusion of a large number of outcome and exposure measures over a long time span, are major strengths of the NCS. In particular, the sample design is an appropriate platform for the study, considering resource constraints, the need to represent all population groups and geographic areas, and the difficulty of devising an alternative disproportionate sampling scheme that would not unduly disadvantage some groups and areas that turn out to be of analytical interest. Conclusion 2-3: In four overarching areas, the NCS design, as represented in the research plan, is not, or may not be, optimal for achieving the goals of the Children’s Health Act. These areas are: insufficient attention to understanding disparities in child health and development among population groups of children defined by race, ethnicity, language, socioeconomic status, and geographic area, which the act explicitly mandates; inadequate conceptualization of important constructs, including health and development, and an overemphasis on disease and impairment relative to health and functionality and on risk factors relative to protective health-promoting factors; impaired data collection schedules and types of measures to support evaluation of some of the effects of chronic and intermittent exposures on child health and development; and underappreciation of the challenges to obtaining the highest possible quality of data from an observational design, which include the decentralized data collection structure of the study and limitations on the frequency of home and clinic visits and on the collection of medical and other administrative records for study participants.
Recommendation 2-1: The NCS should give priority attention to seeking ways to bolster the ability of the study to contribute to understanding of health disparities among children in different racial, ethnic, and other population groups, including the reestablishment of a working group to oversee this area and the encouragement of appropriate adjunct studies. Recommendation 2-2: The NCS should seek resources and develop methods to obtain more frequent in-person measures and medical and other administrative records data on study participants.

Conceptual Framework

Recommendation 2-3: The NCS should clearly define the key constructs of child health and development and more fully develop a conceptual framework for understanding child health and development over the course of infancy, childhood, and adolescence.

Using the Vanguard Centers as Pilots

Recommendation 2-4: We strongly urge the NCS to delay enrollment at new sites to make effective use of initial findings from participant enrollment and data collection in the Vanguard Center sites to improve study procedures, as appropriate, and to refine key concepts, hypotheses, and measures of outcomes and exposures. Throughout the life of the study, the NCS should use the Vanguard Centers to pilot test and experiment with data collection methods and instrumentation.


Pregnancy outcomes.

Recommendation 3-1: The NCS should consider replacing research on subclinical maternal hypothyroidism as a factor in adverse pregnancy outcomes with research on the effects of a broader set of maternal physical and mental health conditions, such as maternal depression, maternal perceived stress, and maternal periodontal disease. Recommendation 3-2: The NCS should develop refined, detailed protocols for investigating all pregnancy outcomes, specifically a detailed protocol for obtaining information on various types of pregnancy loss, before beginning data collection at the Vanguard Centers, given that pregnancy outcomes are among the first outcomes to be examined; many outcomes lack clarity in measurement; and there are important questions regarding the adequacy of statistical power and the planned data collection (for example, the need for prepregnancy measurements of some exposures).

Neurodevelopment and Behavior and Child Health and Development

Recommendation 3-3: The NCS should develop a clearer rationale for the selection of specific neurodevelopment and behavior disorders to be considered in the study and a clearer conceptual basis for the assessment of normal child health and development trajectories and outcomes. Clarity is needed to guide the choice of outcome measures and exposure measures and the frequency and types of contacts (at the home, in clinics) with study participants in order to obtain the best information possible within resource and burden constraints.
Recommendation 3-4: The NCS should develop a clearer rationale for its hypotheses about factors that may increase the incidence of asthma. These should focus on prenatal and early life risk factors.

Obesity and Growth

Recommendation 3-5: The NCS should reevaluate its main hypotheses to be addressed in the study of childhood obesity and consider adopting a broader approach that incorporates social and psychological factors as well as biogenetic ones. Such an approach would help the study identify the constellations of key factors and their interrelationships that are important to understand in order to develop the most effective public health measures to reduce childhood obesity.
Recommendation 3-6: The NCS should consider replacing research on repeated mild traumatic brain injury (rMTBI) with more nuanced research on other injury-related topics, such as environmental factors in childhood injuries and the effects of clinical response to injury (treatment or nontreatment).

Hormonally Active Agents and Reproductive Development

Recommendation 3-7: The NCS should develop refined and detailed protocols for studying reproductive development outcomes, which, as presented in the research plan, often lack clarity in measurement and research design. Outcomes that are measured at birth for which there is little time to refine research protocols require immediate attention. The NCS should use results from the Vanguard Centers, such as estimates of the prevalence of specific reproductive development outcomes, to assist in protocol development, and it should consider the usefulness of substudies of high-exposure population groups.

Demographic and Socioeconomic Measures

Recommendation 3-8: The NCS should add to its well-planned battery of demographic and socioeconomic measures questions on immigrant generation, languages spoken, and, if possible, the legal status of the parents and child.

Chemical Exposure Measures

Recommendation 3-9: The NCS should consider the use of personal air sampling methods for a subsample of participating women and their children for measuring exposure to air pollutants. Recommendation 3-10: The NCS should incorporate methodology to measure paternal exposure to environmental chemicals (both persistent and nonpersistent). More generally, the NCS should consider collecting for fathers, not only chemical exposures, but also biological samples and interview data on paternal characteristics that may affect children’s health and development to the same degree as it collects such information for mothers.

Physical Exposure Measures

Recommendation 3-11: The NCS should provide a clearer rationale for some of the housing and neighborhood conditions it proposes to measure and revisit its data collection plans to ensure that needed measures are obtained at developmental stages when children may be more vulnerable to risk factors. The goal should be a set of measures and data collection plans that are optimal with regard to analytic utility and response burden.

Psychosocial Exposure Measures

Recommendation 3-12: The NCS should reconsider its psychosocial measures to ensure that they will provide high-quality data for outcomes of interest for child health and development. In the face of resource and respondent burden constraints, the NCS should emphasize the quality and analytic utility of information, even if some measures must be dropped in order to substitute other assessments more desirable on various grounds. Recommendation 3-13: The NCS should dedicate a portion of funds to support research and development of reliable and valid instruments of key psychosocial measures that are practical and economical to administer.

Biological Exposure Measures

Recommendation 3-14: The NCS should review some of the proposed measures of biological exposures, such as maternal glucose metabolism and child cortisol levels, to ensure that the proposed times for data collection are appropriate for capturing the underlying exposure.

Genetic Measures

Recommendation 3-15: The NCS should adopt a clear mechanism by which genetic association studies are internally and, optimally, externally validated before any results are published or released to the media. The NCS should also revise its proposed “established” candidate gene approach to take advantage of the new information emanating from the current wave of genome-wide association studies, with appropriate replication. Recommendation 3-16: The NCS should consider consolidating its genetics studies in order to reduce costs and to coordinate the best science at the least cost to the project. One approach would be to simply collect the biological samples and properly store them for later genetic analysis when a better selection of polymorphisms and cost-effective genotyping across studies are possible.

Missing Exposures

Recommendation 3-17: The NCS should add measures of access to and quality of services, including medical care, education, child care, and services, as potential mediators of health and development outcomes and to improve the assessment of information obtained through maternal reports.

Data Linkage

Recommendation 3-18: To facilitate linkages of NCS data with environmental exposures from other databases, such as measures of demographics, crime, government programs, and pollution, the NCS should develop a plan for geocoding the residential addresses from prebirth through adulthood of all participating children to standard census geographic units. In addition, the study should develop arrangements by which researchers, both inside and outside the NCS study centers, can access geocodes for respondent addresses and are encouraged to perform linkages and make their environmental information available to the NCS analysis community. Such arrangements must safeguard the confidentiality of NCS respondents.


Sampling design.

Conclusion 4-1: We strongly endorse the use of probability sampling to select the NCS national sample of births. Conclusion 4-2: While we endorse the decision to select an equal probability national sample of births as a reasonable strategy given the many key scientific objectives of the NCS, we recognize that a proportionate representation of the study’s target population will result in estimates for some subgroups that are not as precise as they would be had those groups been oversampled. Conclusion 4-3: The process of identifying births from a national sample of households is complex and subject to numerous sources of attrition of uncertain magnitude. Because of this, it will be difficult to predict how many households must be initially selected to produce a probability sample of 1,000 births in each of the NCS sites. Recommendation 4-1: The NCS should consider modifying the sampling design to allow for flexibility in increasing the number of study participants in the event that the estimated number of screened households needed to reach 1,000 births per primary sampling unit (PSU) is incorrect. Recommendation 4-2: The NCS should consider the proposed household enumeration approach to be experimental and should conduct carefully designed field studies to clearly establish the statistical and practical implications of the proposed adjudicated listing approach. Recommendation 4-3: To ensure a diverse exposure profile in the sample, the NCS should consider a careful assessment of variation in ambient exposure to chemical agents within each PSU. If the set of segments in a PSU can be classified by combined exposure to a group of important chemical agents, this information could then be used to form varying exposure-level strata for segment sampling in each PSU and thus ensure a range of ambient exposure to relevant environmental agents.

Data Collection

Conclusion 4-4: The data collection model adopted by the NCS is complex, will challenge the abilities of the staff and coordinating center to achieve a uniform and consistent national data collection, and may compromise key study objectives. Conclusion 4-5: The NCS research plan does not provide sufficient information on the use of data collection guidelines and quality-control procedures to enable evaluation of the planned implementation of a uniform national data collection system. Conclusion 4-6: The NCS research plan does not address directly the issue of respondent burden, except to say that “some” effort is being made to reduce it, nor does the plan make clear the total number of hours the respondent must commit to the study. In particular, in light of the estimate of the interview length (4 hours) for the baseline interview, a critical collection for the study, the research plan pays little attention to respondent burden and its impact on the quality of the data. Conclusion 4-7: The NCS research plan provides little information concerning best methods for sample recruitment to achieve initial and follow-up target response rates, sample maintenance and sample retention procedures for implementation at the study sites, community involvement plans consistent with the uniform implementation of data collection procedures, or contingency plans to support study sites that do not achieve target response rates. Conclusion 4-8: The NCS research plan does not address the ongoing methodological needs of the study—to study data collection procedures and instruments, conduct experiments, and evaluate the quality of the survey operations and the quality of the data—nor does the plan make the best use of the Vanguard Centers. Recommendation 4-4: The NCS should consider ways in which the survey data collection could be consolidated into a smaller number of highly qualified survey organizations. Recommendation 4-5: Because of the complexity of the proposed organizational model for data collection and the difficulty of maintaining the quality and uniformity of data collection procedures across a large number of study sites, the NCS program office should establish and monitor strict standards for enrollment, retention, and data collection at each of the study sites and be prepared to take immediate corrective action if sites do not meet high-quality standards in data collection. Recommendation 4-6: The NCS should prepare a plan for monitoring progress of the study in reaching its sample size goals. As part of the plan, the NCS should take advantage of the experience of the Vanguard Centers to evaluate initial enrollment rates, the effectiveness and potential respondent burden of the interview instrument, and the ability of the Vanguard Centers to obtain the required household environmental measures reliably. Recommendation 4-7: To resolve issues that arise during data collection, the NCS should set aside sufficient resources to maintain an ongoing program of methods research and field experimentation. Among the issues that might be addressed in this research are the reliability and validity of previously untested survey questions and measurement strategies, the effectiveness of sample retention procedures, predictors of response outcomes associated with sample initial recruitment and subsequent annual retention, error implications of unit nonresponse, adjustment strategies for unit nonresponse, and methods for dealing with item nonresponse.

Data Analysis and Dissemination

Recommendation 4-8: The NCS should begin planning for the rapid dissemination of the core study data, subject to respondent protection, to the general research community and for supporting the use of the data after dissemination. The costs of implementing this plan should be estimated and set aside in future NCS budgets. Dissemination includes not only the publication of findings through reports and scientific papers and the production of documented data files for researchers, but also active support in the use of NCS data by the broadest possible range of qualified investigators.


Criteria for giving information to participants.

Recommendation 5-1: The NCS should define the criteria and the process for deciding what individual clinical and research information, such as environmental assessments, test results, and survey scales, will be given to children and their families.

Protection and Release of Information

Recommendation 5-2: NCS and non-NCS investigators should be given equal access to the full NCS data as soon as they are cleaned and documented. To protect respondent confidentiality, all analyses should be performed with the kind of strict safeguards employed by the Census Bureau research data centers.

Community Engagement

Recommendation 5-3: The NCS should engage communities in selected study implementation, data analysis, and data interpretation activities that go beyond recruitment. The NCS should consider requiring every study center to formulate a more detailed plan to engage and collaborate with local communities.

In summary, it is clear from our review that the NCS offers not only enormous potential, but also a large number of conceptual, methodological, and administrative challenges. In addition, funding uncertainties make it difficult to plan beyond the relatively short period for which funds have been appropriated. Like the scientists associated with the study itself, we are eager for it to succeed. We present our conclusions and recommendations in the hope that, as it goes forward, the NCS will achieve its intended objectives and serve as a model of methodological and substantive contributions to important scientific and policy discussions on children’s health and development.

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Example of Recommendation in Research Paper

Example of recommendation in research paper can be defined as a critical suggestion regarding the best course of action in a certain situation. The whole idea of a recommendation is to provide a beneficial guide that will not only resolve certain issues, but result in a beneficial outcome. Recommendations can be different and are heavily dependent on the situation that arose. Thus, it is clear that example of recommendation in research paper is always based on certain data and can not be speculated due to the fact that it is not a hypothesis.

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To begin with, in order to reduce the impact of a given issue, Sony Computer Entertainment (SCE) needs to conduct a proper analysis and outline the best course of actions. Clearly, in order to conduct such a research, the company should focus their core resources on a proper evaluation of their past positive outcomes. This is the very first step that will not only secure a proper outcome in the future, but will eliminate issues that are present today.

Moving on forward, based on data generated from the research, Sony Computer Entertainment (SCE) should focus their resources on employee training in order to guide the company towards success. This particular step will secure that every individual within the company is informed about the new policy, as well as, it will ensure that the policy itself is followed.

All in all, when the policy is changed and all employees are fully aware of it, it is of utmost importance to create a proper marketing campaign, especially on the web due to the fact that the majority of people spend their free time on the Internet. The marketing campaign will feature new innovative changes regarding customer service, as well as, how these new systems are far more superior from those that are sold by their main competitors. Indeed, this will not only improve their position on the market, but will ensure that future issues will be little to non-existent.

To conclude it, Sony Computer Entertainment (SCE) is currently facing a major issue that is not only hindering their success rate, but in a slow manner, breeds bankruptcy, which is not, by any means a positive outcome. As soon as Sony Computer Entertainment (SCE) implements above-mentioned recommendations, the result will not only eliminate the problem, but will guide the company towards new customer, beneficial outcomes, which is essentially the core idea behind this recommendation.

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