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How to Write a Strong Hypothesis | Steps & Examples

Published on May 6, 2022 by Shona McCombes . Revised on December 2, 2022.

A hypothesis is a statement that can be tested by scientific research. If you want to test a relationship between two or more variables, you need to write hypotheses before you start your experiment or data collection .

Example: Hypothesis

Daily apple consumption leads to fewer doctor’s visits.

Table of contents

What is a hypothesis, developing a hypothesis (with example), hypothesis examples, frequently asked questions about writing hypotheses.

A hypothesis states your predictions about what your research will find. It is a tentative answer to your research question that has not yet been tested. For some research projects, you might have to write several hypotheses that address different aspects of your research question.

A hypothesis is not just a guess – it should be based on existing theories and knowledge. It also has to be testable, which means you can support or refute it through scientific research methods (such as experiments, observations and statistical analysis of data).

Variables in hypotheses

Hypotheses propose a relationship between two or more types of variables .

If there are any control variables , extraneous variables , or confounding variables , be sure to jot those down as you go to minimize the chances that research bias  will affect your results.

In this example, the independent variable is exposure to the sun – the assumed cause . The dependent variable is the level of happiness – the assumed effect .

Step 1. Ask a question

Writing a hypothesis begins with a research question that you want to answer. The question should be focused, specific, and researchable within the constraints of your project.

Step 2. Do some preliminary research

Your initial answer to the question should be based on what is already known about the topic. Look for theories and previous studies to help you form educated assumptions about what your research will find.

At this stage, you might construct a conceptual framework to ensure that you’re embarking on a relevant topic . This can also help you identify which variables you will study and what you think the relationships are between them. Sometimes, you’ll have to operationalize more complex constructs.

Step 3. Formulate your hypothesis

Now you should have some idea of what you expect to find. Write your initial answer to the question in a clear, concise sentence.

4. Refine your hypothesis

You need to make sure your hypothesis is specific and testable. There are various ways of phrasing a hypothesis, but all the terms you use should have clear definitions, and the hypothesis should contain:

5. Phrase your hypothesis in three ways

To identify the variables, you can write a simple prediction in  if…then form. The first part of the sentence states the independent variable and the second part states the dependent variable.

In academic research, hypotheses are more commonly phrased in terms of correlations or effects, where you directly state the predicted relationship between variables.

If you are comparing two groups, the hypothesis can state what difference you expect to find between them.

6. Write a null hypothesis

If your research involves statistical hypothesis testing , you will also have to write a null hypothesis . The null hypothesis is the default position that there is no association between the variables. The null hypothesis is written as H 0 , while the alternative hypothesis is H 1 or H a .

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A hypothesis is not just a guess — it should be based on existing theories and knowledge. It also has to be testable, which means you can support or refute it through scientific research methods (such as experiments, observations and statistical analysis of data).

Null and alternative hypotheses are used in statistical hypothesis testing . The null hypothesis of a test always predicts no effect or no relationship between variables, while the alternative hypothesis states your research prediction of an effect or relationship.

Hypothesis testing is a formal procedure for investigating our ideas about the world using statistics. It is used by scientists to test specific predictions, called hypotheses , by calculating how likely it is that a pattern or relationship between variables could have arisen by chance.

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American Public University System: LibAnswers banner

Q. What is the difference between a thesis statement and a hypothesis statement?


Answered By: APUS Librarians Last Updated: Apr 15, 2022     Views: 121529

Both the hypothesis statement and the thesis statement answer a research question. 

Every research study should contain a concise and well-written thesis statement. If the intent of the study is to prove/disprove something, that research report will also contain a hypothesis statement.

NOTE: In some disciplines, the hypothesis is referred to as a thesis statement! This is not accurate but within those disciplines it is understood that "a short, direct sentence that summarizes the main point" will be included.

For more information, see The Research Question and Hypothesis (PDF file from the English Language Support, Department of Student Services, Ryerson University).

How do I write a good thesis statement?

How do I write a good hypothesis statement?

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How to Develop a Good Research Hypothesis

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The story of a research study begins by asking a question. Researchers all around the globe are asking curious questions and formulating research hypothesis. However, whether the research study provides an effective conclusion depends on how well one develops a good research hypothesis. Research hypothesis examples could help researchers get an idea as to how to write a good research hypothesis.

This blog will help you understand what is a research hypothesis, its characteristics and, how to formulate a research hypothesis

Table of Contents

What is Hypothesis?

Hypothesis is an assumption or an idea proposed for the sake of argument so that it can be tested. It is a precise, testable statement of what the researchers predict will be outcome of the study.  Hypothesis usually involves proposing a relationship between two variables: the independent variable (what the researchers change) and the dependent variable (what the research measures).

What is a Research Hypothesis?

Research hypothesis is a statement that introduces a research question and proposes an expected result. It is an integral part of the scientific method that forms the basis of scientific experiments. Therefore, you need to be careful and thorough when building your research hypothesis. A minor flaw in the construction of your hypothesis could have an adverse effect on your experiment. In research, there is a convention that the hypothesis is written in two forms, the null hypothesis, and the alternative hypothesis (called the experimental hypothesis when the method of investigation is an experiment).

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Essential Characteristics of a Good Research Hypothesis

As the hypothesis is specific, there is a testable prediction about what you expect to happen in a study. You may consider drawing hypothesis from previously published research based on the theory.

A good research hypothesis involves more effort than just a guess. In particular, your hypothesis may begin with a question that could be further explored through background research.

To help you formulate a promising research hypothesis, you should ask yourself the following questions:

research hypothesis example

The questions listed above can be used as a checklist to make sure your hypothesis is based on a solid foundation. Furthermore, it can help you identify weaknesses in your hypothesis and revise it if necessary.

Source: Educational Hub

How to formulate an effective research hypothesis.

A testable hypothesis is not a simple statement. It is rather an intricate statement that needs to offer a clear introduction to a scientific experiment, its intentions, and the possible outcomes. However, there are some important things to consider when building a compelling hypothesis.

1. State the problem that you are trying to solve.

Make sure that the hypothesis clearly defines the topic and the focus of the experiment.

2. Try to write the hypothesis as an if-then statement.

Follow this template: If a specific action is taken, then a certain outcome is expected.

3. Define the variables

Independent variables are the ones that are manipulated, controlled, or changed. Independent variables are isolated from other factors of the study.

Dependent variables , as the name suggests are dependent on other factors of the study. They are influenced by the change in independent variable.

4. Scrutinize the hypothesis

The types of research hypothesis are stated below:

1. Simple Hypothesis

It predicts the relationship between a single dependent variable and a single independent variable.

2. Complex Hypothesis

It predicts the relationship between two or more independent and dependent variables.

3. Directional Hypothesis

It specifies the expected direction to be followed to determine the relationship between variables and is derived from theory. Furthermore, it implies the researcher’s intellectual commitment to a particular outcome.

4. Non-directional Hypothesis

It does not predict the exact direction or nature of the relationship between the two variables. The non-directional hypothesis is used when there is no theory involved or when findings contradict previous research.

5. Associative and Causal Hypothesis

The associative hypothesis defines interdependency between variables. A change in one variable results in the change of the other variable. On the other hand, the causal hypothesis proposes an effect on the dependent due to manipulation of the independent variable.

6. Null Hypothesis

Null hypothesis states a negative statement to support the researcher’s findings that there is no relationship between two variables. There will be no changes in the dependent variable due the manipulation of the independent variable. Furthermore, it states results are due to chance and are not significant in terms of supporting the idea being investigated.

7. Alternative Hypothesis

It states that there is a relationship between the two variables of the study and that the results are significant to the research topic. An experimental hypothesis predicts what changes will take place in the dependent variable when the independent variable is manipulated. Also, it states that the results are not due to chance and that they are significant in terms of supporting the theory being investigated.

Research Hypothesis Examples of Independent and Dependent Variables:

Research Hypothesis Example 1 The greater number of coal plants in a region (independent variable) increases water pollution (dependent variable). If you change the independent variable (building more coal factories), it will change the dependent variable (amount of water pollution).
Research Hypothesis Example 2 What is the effect of diet or regular soda (independent variable) on blood sugar levels (dependent variable)? If you change the independent variable (the type of soda you consume), it will change the dependent variable (blood sugar levels)

You should not ignore the importance of the above steps. The validity of your experiment and its results rely on a robust testable hypothesis. Developing a strong testable hypothesis has few advantages, it compels us to think intensely and specifically about the outcomes of a study. Consequently, it enables us to understand the implication of the question and the different variables involved in the study. Furthermore, it helps us to make precise predictions based on prior research. Hence, forming a hypothesis would be of great value to the research. Here are some good examples of testable hypotheses.

More importantly, you need to build a robust testable research hypothesis for your scientific experiments. A testable hypothesis is a hypothesis that can be proved or disproved as a result of experimentation.

Importance of a Testable Hypothesis

To devise and perform an experiment using scientific method, you need to make sure that your hypothesis is testable. To be considered testable, some essential criteria must be met:

Without these criteria, the hypothesis and the results will be vague. As a result, the experiment will not prove or disprove anything significant.

What are your experiences with building hypotheses for scientific experiments? What challenges did you face? How did you overcome these challenges? Please share your thoughts with us in the comments section.

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Wow! You really simplified your explanation that even dummies would find it easy to comprehend. Thank you so much.

Thanks a lot for your valuable guidance.

I enjoy reading the post. Hypotheses are actually an intrinsic part in a study. It bridges the research question and the methodology of the study.

Useful piece!

This is awesome.Wow.

It very interesting to read the topic, can you guide me any specific example of hypothesis process establish throw the Demand and supply of the specific product in market

Nicely explained

It is really a useful for me Kindly give some examples of hypothesis

It was a well explained content ,can you please give me an example with the null and alternative hypothesis illustrated

clear and concise. thanks.

So Good so Amazing

Good to learn

Thanks a lot for explaining to my level of understanding

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What is and How to Write a Good Hypothesis in Research?

Table of Contents

One of the most important aspects of conducting research is constructing a strong hypothesis. But what makes a hypothesis in research effective? In this article, we’ll look at the difference between a hypothesis and a research question, as well as the elements of a good hypothesis in research. We’ll also include some examples of effective hypotheses, and what pitfalls to avoid.

What is a Hypothesis in Research?

Simply put, a hypothesis is a research question that also includes the predicted or expected result of the research. Without a hypothesis, there can be no basis for a scientific or research experiment. As such, it is critical that you carefully construct your hypothesis by being deliberate and thorough, even before you set pen to paper. Unless your hypothesis is clearly and carefully constructed, any flaw can have an adverse, and even grave, effect on the quality of your experiment and its subsequent results.

Research Question vs Hypothesis

It’s easy to confuse research questions with hypotheses, and vice versa. While they’re both critical to the Scientific Method, they have very specific differences. Primarily, a research question, just like a hypothesis, is focused and concise. But a hypothesis includes a prediction based on the proposed research, and is designed to forecast the relationship of and between two (or more) variables. Research questions are open-ended, and invite debate and discussion, while hypotheses are closed, e.g. “The relationship between A and B will be C.”

A hypothesis is generally used if your research topic is fairly well established, and you are relatively certain about the relationship between the variables that will be presented in your research. Since a hypothesis is ideally suited for experimental studies, it will, by its very existence, affect the design of your experiment. The research question is typically used for new topics that have not yet been researched extensively. Here, the relationship between different variables is less known. There is no prediction made, but there may be variables explored. The research question can be casual in nature, simply trying to understand if a relationship even exists, descriptive or comparative.

How to Write Hypothesis in Research

Writing an effective hypothesis starts before you even begin to type. Like any task, preparation is key, so you start first by conducting research yourself, and reading all you can about the topic that you plan to research. From there, you’ll gain the knowledge you need to understand where your focus within the topic will lie.

Remember that a hypothesis is a prediction of the relationship that exists between two or more variables. Your job is to write a hypothesis, and design the research, to “prove” whether or not your prediction is correct. A common pitfall is to use judgments that are subjective and inappropriate for the construction of a hypothesis. It’s important to keep the focus and language of your hypothesis objective.

An effective hypothesis in research is clearly and concisely written, and any terms or definitions clarified and defined. Specific language must also be used to avoid any generalities or assumptions.

Use the following points as a checklist to evaluate the effectiveness of your research hypothesis:

Research Hypothesis Example

Perhaps the best way to evaluate whether or not your hypothesis is effective is to compare it to those of your colleagues in the field. There is no need to reinvent the wheel when it comes to writing a powerful research hypothesis. As you’re reading and preparing your hypothesis, you’ll also read other hypotheses. These can help guide you on what works, and what doesn’t, when it comes to writing a strong research hypothesis.

Here are a few generic examples to get you started.

Eating an apple each day, after the age of 60, will result in a reduction of frequency of physician visits.

Budget airlines are more likely to receive more customer complaints. A budget airline is defined as an airline that offers lower fares and fewer amenities than a traditional full-service airline. (Note that the term “budget airline” is included in the hypothesis.

Workplaces that offer flexible working hours report higher levels of employee job satisfaction than workplaces with fixed hours.

Each of the above examples are specific, observable and measurable, and the statement of prediction can be verified or shown to be false by utilizing standard experimental practices. It should be noted, however, that often your hypothesis will change as your research progresses.

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How To Write A Hypothesis

Last updated on: Feb 8, 2023

How to Write a Hypothesis - A Step-by-Step Guide

By: Nathan D.

Reviewed By: Rylee W.

Published on: Jul 16, 2019

How to Write a Hypothesis

A hypothesis is generally a statement that a researcher has to test through scientific methods subjectively. Unlike a thesis statement, a hypothesis does not require a researcher to prove it right in any circumstance.

It is a statement that is developed prior to research, experiment, or data collection. In simple words, it is a proposed explanation for any idea, study, or phenomenon.

For  research paper writing , thesis, case studies, or dissertation, you will have to write a hypothesis first. Continue reading the article to learn how to write a good hypothesis effectively.

How to Write a Hypothesis

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What is a Hypothesis?

A hypothesis is a proposed or supposition explanation that a researcher forms based on limited reference about a specific phenomenon. This statement is further investigated to analyze its validity and significance.

A hypothesis statement is an initial point from where an investigation begins. Moreover, it translates the major research question into a prediction.

In professional terms, a hypothesis is an idea whose merit requires evaluation and interpretation. For this purpose, the researcher needs to define the specifics of the hypothesis in operational terms.

It requires a researcher to study in detail whether to approve it or disapprove of it. In this process, the hypothesis either becomes a part of the theory, or a theory itself.

Functions of Hypothesis

Learning the correct writing procedure is not enough if you are not aware of the basic functions that your hypothesis performs. To make your hypothesis stand out, understand the below-given functions

Components of a Hypothesis

Like other sentences and statements, a hypothesis has major components that play a significant role in making it impactful. It is essential to learn about these parts when you are researching academics.

The following are the different components of the hypothesis:

Components of Hypothesis

How to Write a Hypothesis?

Just like every other formal or academic task, writing a hypothesis includes a process. Although there are no set of rules to follow while developing a hypothesis.

However, it is recommended that you follow some steps to ensure a quality statement. These steps will make it easier for you to formulate a strong hypothesis to provide a great direction for your research.

Following is a step-by-step- procedure to write a hypothesis.

1. Develop a Question

When writing a hypothesis, the first thing is to develop a research question that you want to answer in your research. The question that you will formulate should be specific, focused, and researchable within the constraints of your assignment.

2. Conduct a Basic Research

The initial answer to your research question will be spontaneous and based on pre-existing knowledge about the subject. Search for theories and information to form a basic assumption that you will investigate further.

At this stage of creating a hypothesis, a researcher can develop a conceptual framework to identify the variables and their relationship.

3. Develop a Rough Hypothesis

Formulate a rough statement on the available knowledge to provide an idea about what to expect from your research. Brainstorm the answer for this raw question and present it into a clear and concise sentence.

4. Refine the Statement Made

Now that you have a rough statement in hand, it is time to refine and make it a testable hypothesis. There are several ways to shape your hypothesis, but you can arrange your statement keeping in view the parts.

Make sure that your refined statement must contain the following things:

5. Phrasing the Hypothesis

The hypothesis can be phrased in three ways. Depending on the requirement of the research and the field type, select a phrasing pattern.

6. Write a Null Hypothesis

If your research is based on statistical testing of the hypothesis, you will have to present a null hypothesis. The null hypothesis states that there is no relationship or association between the two variables.

How to Write a Null Hypothesis?

There are two types of hypotheses, the null hypothesis, and the alternative hypothesis. A null hypothesis states that there is no difference between certain characteristics of a population while an alternative hypothesis states otherwise.

So, how does a null hypothesis work? Below is a four-step process to come up with a null hypothesis.

Other than null analysis, alternative hypotheses are also used. An alternative hypothesis is opposite to the null hypothesis and they are independent of each other.

What kind of Sources should I Add to my Hypothesis

It is important to look for credible and relevant sources of information while writing a hypothesis for your  research proposal . A researcher has to consult these sources to check the reliability and validity of your primary idea.

In case you are wondering what sources will work best for your hypothesis, check out the following:

Types of Hypothesis

Depending on the field and  research methods  to collect data, hypotheses can have different types. When writing a research paper, it is essential to know all the types well to form a strong and relevant hypothesis.

Following are the six main types of hypothesis:

Characteristics of a Good Hypothesis

Professional writers believe that a hypothesis has certain features that help it become stronger and more effective. These characteristics include:

Only a strong hypothesis will motivate the readers to read the entire paper. So make sure that you carefully develop a hypothesis for your research.

Hypothesis Examples

If you are writing a paper for the first time, it is suggested by professionals to go through a few examples. It will help you understand the pattern in which you should be working.

Below-given are examples of how hypotheses are developed for different research experiments.



Going through these examples will help you understand better which course of action should be chosen for your research. If it is still difficult for you to look for sources and write a compelling hypothesis, get help from professionals.

5StarEssays.com is a professional ‘ write my essay for me? ’ service that provides different academic writing services. Whether you are looking for an expert to write a compelling essay or any form of paper, we have your back.

Our experts draft all your assignments carefully, ensuring that each part is well-written and structured. Get your assignment today by simply placing your order at the most affordable price.

Frequently Asked Questions

How do you turn a question into a hypothesis.

You can change and transform a question into a hypothesis by changing it into a statement.

Is a hypothesis a prediction?

No, a hypothesis is not a prediction but rather a possibility. The researcher ‘hopes’ to obtain a certain kind of result through the experimentation. This possibility or expected results are the hypothesis.

Can a hypothesis be a question?

No, a hypothesis is and should be a statement and not a question.

Do all research papers have a hypothesis?

No, some research papers are based on exploratory research, which is used to develop the hypothesis. So, such a research paper does not need a hypothesis.

Nathan D.

Masters Essay, College Admission Essay

Nathan completed his Ph.D. in journalism and has been writing articles for well-respected publications for many years now. His work is carefully researched and insightful, showing a true passion for the written word. Nathan's clients appreciate his expertise, deep understanding of the process, and ability to communicate difficult concepts clearly.

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What Does a Dissertation Hypothesis Mean?

By: Tasha Kolesnikova

What Does a Dissertation Hypothesis Mean?

What Are Variables In Hypothesis For?

What is the significance of a hypothesis in a dissertation, the special importance of writing a hypothesis, the null hypothesis, the nondirectional hypothesis, the directional hypothesis, ask a question to dissertation, explore sources of information, create your hypothesis, check if you created the hypothesis correctly, use three ways to formulate your hypothesis, create a null hypothesis, where to get sources to form a hypothesis.

The hypothesis in a dissertation is part of the introduction to student work. It is located after the goal with objectives and before research methods. Despite its modest volume, this element's development is significant, since it is the mainstay of the entire study, its driving force. The thesis is created to confirm or refute the formulated hypothesis in the process of research.

Scientists argue that a hypothesis is like a predicted result, an assumption, the reliability of which is verified empirically in the course of work. For the sake of confirming or refuting it, you choose bibliographic sources, perform theoretical and practical research, and formalize your paper. At the end of the project, you assess whether the guess put forward corresponds to the truth. If so, then it will become the theory that you have proven with your work. If not, it is rejected because refutation is also a valuable conclusion.

Dissertation Hypothesis - What is It?

You cannot solve a problem without outlining ways to resolve it. We can find ways to solve a problem only if we admit the fact of possibility or impossibility. That is, to fix the problem, it is necessary to assume or allow something. This will be your hypothesis, which you need to prove or disprove.

Table with the main types of dissertation hypotheses techniques

A variable is an empirical quality, a sign of a phenomenon that can take on more than one value. Variables can be both qualitative and quantitative. Using variables, you can confirm or disprove a hypothesis. Depending on the goals set, the variables are divided into dependent, independent, and interfering.

Independent ones are variables that characterize influencing conditions, factors, circumstances. The dependent variable is the changeable quality of the study object, which is considered a consequence of the independent variable's action. The assumption determines the relationship of dependence and independence of variables.

Whether a variable is dependent or independent is determined by the hypothesis's relationship, which contains the variable. The same variable may be dependent on one study and independent in another. For example, a researcher, observing the lobbying struggle of interest groups, could conclude that the more organized groups with specific interests in the state, the higher the government spending on social security programs. In this case, the number of groups is the independent variable, and the level of expenditure is the dependent variable.

The hypothesis sets the direction for all research and determines the scientific significance of all work. It is written in the introduction. The assumption takes no more than one paragraph. In writing a dissertation, the author selects the necessary material, conducts particular research, gives a specific structure to work, and decides how to write a conclusion , based on the assumption.

The student's facts in the main part of the document act as evidence for the hypothesis of theoretical work. If we are talking about practical work, then points are played by the documented results of experiments and experiments, certain calculations, and research.

To understand if your hypothesis is correct, check it for the following attributes:

If all this is characteristic of your assumption, then it is well written. But the main thing that should be different is the ability to test it with the thesis. Just determine whether you need to prove your statement. If yes, then the proposal was successful.

One might say a hypothesis is the same research tool as a microscope, oscilloscope, or centrifuge. But each device has its specificity and, accordingly, its area of application, its range of tasks.

The microscope is designed to study tiny objects; the oscilloscope is for studying fast processes; the centrifuge is for looking for substances that differ in density. Hypotheses have a different purpose. They make it possible to move from a head-on study of an intractable problem to the course of the consequences of an assumption, which, as a rule, refer to other, often more studied, branches of science. In other words, the hypotheses put forward in solving difficult problems are designed to transfer research from an area that is somehow inconvenient to study to another, more convenient area.

There Are Three Types Of Hypothesis

A specific form of scientific foresight is a hypothesis. After defining the object and subject, goals, and objectives of the research, in the development of experimental work and its comprehension, one continually returns to the assumption as the research work's reference point.

At the same time, this is the assumption of the relationship in which the studied phenomenon is with others, its internal structure, essence, driving forces, etc. The advancement of a hypothesis is a way to discover connections between phenomena. An assumption as a means of transition from old knowledge to new inevitably comes into conflict with existing ideas. In the form of a assumption, there is a real movement of knowledge towards new, more profound, generalizations towards disclosing the laws of regularities, principles, etc. Therefore, you need to investigate three types of hypotheses:

The word "zero" comes from the Latin word nullus, which means "nothing." Perhaps this definition is useful for a complete understanding of an often uncertain term. Your null hypothesis is that nothing will change or improve between the two sets of data during testing. This is not what you want to prove, but instead what you want to refute.

Let's go straight to an example to understand how the null hypothesis is formed. For example, when a scientist wants to find a link between smoking and lung cancer, it is not enough to find one smoker with lung cancer. A significant amount of data must be collected and analyzed before this scientist can argue a relationship between smoking and lung cancer. In this kind of research, the null hypothesis plays a key role.

The null hypothesis is essentially the assumption that the outcome the ultimate goal of any research does not exist. As far as your search for a relationship between smoking and lung cancer goes, the null hypothesis will say no such relationship exists. The question is, at what point will the data collected be sufficient to override this claim.

If we talk about smoking and lung cancer, then the null hypothesis rules out long ago: no self-respecting scientist will resort to it now. But there was a time when there was not enough data to rule it out, and the researchers could not prove that the incidence of lung cancer among smokers and nonsmokers was not just a matter of chance. Only having a large amount of data and reducing the possibility of a random result to a minimum can the null hypothesis be ruled out.

Along with the null hypothesis, the researcher usually formulates the so-called alternative assumption I - the statement that he will consider accurate if he rejects R0. When considering some hypotheses, I's formulation is obvious, and it is not worth talking about an alternative assumption. For example, this applies to the assumption of the absence of a connection, which scientists tested using the x2 criterion. It is opposed by the only possible alternative hypothesis, which states a connection between the variables. This alternative hypothesis is called the nondirectional assumption.

And so you should know that nondirectional hypothesis means that we prove that phenomena, situations, laws are authentically different, but we do not prove by what exactly. However, the nondirectional hypothesis states that there is a relationship or difference between variables. Hypotheses formulate if it is necessary to establish only differences in the form or values of the features' distribution.

Directional hypotheses are put forward if the value of an indicator in one population is higher than in another; if, under the influence of some actions, more pronounced changes occur in one set than in another.

The directional hypothesis formulates when the researcher assumes the presence or absence of differences in a specific direction: the experimental group exceeds or does not exceed the control one by some indicator. The directional hypothesis records only the presence-absence of differences, without indicating their direction: the experimental group differs from the control group or does not differ.

Hypothesis Development Process

As a stage in the research process, the development of an assumption often uses, which can be an effective means of finding ways to solve a problem and understanding it. A hypothesis is a process of developing thought. Of course, it is impossible to give a general model for constructing an assumption for all life cases. This is because the conditions for creating an assumption depend on the originality of practical activity and the problem's specifics under consideration. Nevertheless, it is possible to determine the general boundaries of the stages that the thought process goes through in an assumption.

The main stages of hypothesis development are:

Let's consider the content and features of each stage in more detail.

To put forward a hypothesis dissertation, it is necessary to ask questions about the observed phenomenon, which would justify a particular assumption and explain the unknown. Therefore, the construction of an assumption is associated with posing questions related to the phenomenon that we are explaining and do not coincide with the existing explanation.

Based on the questions posed, an assumption is made about what the investigated phenomenon is, that is, an assumption formulates in the narrow sense of the word. The premise is made as a result of the logical processing of the collected questions. On their basis, an assumption is put forward. It is the questions that make up the main content of the hypothesis dissertation.

The questions contain the knowledge that comes as a result of the generalization of facts. They are the core of the assumption around which all cognitive and practical activity goes. The question in the hypothesis is, on the one hand, what you have to explain in the end, what you come to as a result of observation and generalization of facts. On the other hand, it is the starting point for further studying the phenomenon, indicating the path of cognition, determining how all research should go.

To understand what dissertation hypothesis to put forward in the text, it is necessary to carry out a little research on the sources of information. You need to study the bibliographic record - this is where you can get important information about the usefulness of a printed or electronic source of information. Bibliographic records are published in catalogs or library indexes. A form will include a written description of a book, journal article, essay, or any other published material, and will typically contain three main components: author, title, and publication information. Use this checklist as a guide when evaluating the source of information.

If one or two of the main components are missing, this does not necessarily deprive the source of its status as credible but should induce the researcher to treat it with increased caution. What can be solved by reviewing literature and information sources:

Based on the studied sources of information, you can create your hypothesis, which anyone has not yet discussed. When constructing, you must adhere to the following hypothesis dissertation structure:

Hypothesis testing is usually done through practice. The practice's needs generate an assumption, and basically, decide whether an assumption is true or false. When testing a hypothesis, logical means also use. Testing an assumption and transforming it into reliable knowledge is a complex and lengthy process. Therefore, it cannot reduce to any one logical action. When testing an assumption, various forms and methods of confirming or refuting it are used.

For example, direct confirmation (refutation) of the assumption. The essence of this method lies in the fact that the alleged individual facts or phenomena in the course of subsequent cognition are confirmed (or not confirmed) by the practice of observing legal phenomena.

Logical confirmation (refutation) proceeds indirectly since phenomena that have taken place in the past or exist at present but are inaccessible to direct sensory perception cognize.

To make it easier to view the hypothesis, you can use the phrase - "if ... then." You will see two variables in the sentence - independent, which is in the first part, or dependent, in the second part of the sentence. For instance:

Also, in academic hypotheses, you can use the technique of an unexpected effect. In the study, you immediately indicate the relationship between the variables, thus not allowing the dragons to doubt your assumption. For instance:

If you use two methods, then using a hypothesis, you can indicate in the document what difference you saw. For instance:

To complete the hypothesis writing process, you must create a null hypothesis. This statement glast that there is no relationship between the measured phenomenon and the independent variable. You don't have to make sure that the null hypothesis is correct and do your research. Quite the opposite, you need to prove that there is a relationship between the variables, and your assumption is true.

One way for the student to prove this is not the case, and that is to reject the null hypothesis. If you abandon the assumption, it does not mean that the research was bad or did not give positive results. On the contrary, departing from one idea, you will have new thoughts on making further research even more interesting. For you to distinguish new hypotheses from the null hypothesis, you need to designate it as H0.

The null hypothesis is needed by the student to be sure that the results obtained are true, its confidence level should range from 95 to 99 percent. We leave exactly one percent in case someone nevertheless proves that your assumption is not correct. For example, another student will see mistakes and recheck them, come to a completely different result, then your work on this factor will be wrong. This is one of the reasons why it is essential to repeat experiments.

If you are just getting acquainted with this type of work, we want to provide several ways to find a hypothesis. One of the primary sources is dissertation examples of other students. You have the opportunity to come across the assumption that you need, but you did not know how to formulate it. Based on the information received, create a similar one, but do not entirely copy.

If you haven't found a suitable option, then personal experience comes in handy here. For example, you volunteered for a rally about drug abuse and teen crime because of them. You've probably heard a lot of slogans, and maybe there was one that caught your attention. Feel free to use it. Dig into your memory and remember the moments; perhaps you observed similar situations, this will also come in for inspiration.

And the most proven way to find an assumption is to contact StudyBay professionals. Because dissertation writing takes place online, you do not need to spend money on travel; you need to leave a request for feedback, and the manager will call you back or write to you. Professional authors have many reviews, which confirms their reliability. They will explore many resources and help you create the best hypothesis that will surprise all readers.

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hypothesis in master thesis

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hypothesis in master thesis

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What Is A Research (Or Scientific) Hypothesis? A plain-language explanation + examples

By:   Derek Jansen (MBA)   | Reviewed By: Dr Eunice Rautenbach | June 2020

If you’re new to the world of research, or it’s your first time writing a dissertation or thesis, you’re probably noticing that the words “research hypothesis” and “scientific hypothesis” are used quite a bit, and you’re wondering what they mean in a research context .

“Hypothesis” is one of those words that people use loosely, thinking they understand what it means. However, it has a very specific meaning within academic research. So, it’s important to understand the exact meaning before you start hypothesizing. 

Research Hypothesis 101

What is a hypothesis?

Let’s start with the general definition of a hypothesis (not a research hypothesis or scientific hypothesis), according to the Cambridge Dictionary:

Hypothesis: an idea or explanation for something that is based on known facts but has not yet been proved.

In other words, it’s a statement that provides an explanation for why or how something works, based on facts (or some reasonable assumptions), but that has not yet been specifically tested . For example, a hypothesis might look something like this:

Hypothesis: sleep impacts academic performance.

This statement predicts that academic performance will be influenced by the amount and/or quality of sleep a student engages in – sounds reasonable, right? It’s based on reasonable assumptions , underpinned by what we currently know about sleep and health (from the existing literature). So, loosely speaking, we could call it a hypothesis, at least by the dictionary definition.

But that’s not good enough…

Unfortunately, that’s not quite sophisticated enough to describe a research hypothesis (also sometimes called a scientific hypothesis), and it wouldn’t be acceptable in a dissertation, thesis or research paper. In the world of academic research, a statement needs a few more criteria to constitute a true research hypothesis . 

What is a research hypothesis?

A research hypothesis (also called a scientific hypothesis) is a statement about the expected outcome of a study (for example, a dissertation or thesis). To constitute a quality hypothesis, the statement needs to have three attributes – specificity , clarity and testability .

Let’s take a look at these more closely.

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hypothesis in master thesis

Hypothesis Essential #1: Specificity & Clarity

A good research hypothesis needs to be extremely clear and articulate about both what’ s being assessed (who or what variables are involved ) and the expected outcome (for example, a difference between groups, a relationship between variables, etc.).

Let’s stick with our sleepy students example and look at how this statement could be more specific and clear.

Hypothesis: Students who sleep at least 8 hours per night will, on average, achieve higher grades in standardised tests than students who sleep less than 8 hours a night.

As you can see, the statement is very specific as it identifies the variables involved (sleep hours and test grades), the parties involved (two groups of students), as well as the predicted relationship type (a positive relationship). There’s no ambiguity or uncertainty about who or what is involved in the statement, and the expected outcome is clear.

Contrast that to the original hypothesis we looked at – “Sleep impacts academic performance” – and you can see the difference. “Sleep” and “academic performance” are both comparatively vague , and there’s no indication of what the expected relationship direction is (more sleep or less sleep). As you can see, specificity and clarity are key.

A good research hypothesis needs to be very clear about what’s being assessed and very specific about the expected outcome.

Hypothesis Essential #2: Testability (Provability)

A statement must be testable to qualify as a research hypothesis. In other words, there needs to be a way to prove (or disprove) the statement. If it’s not testable, it’s not a hypothesis – simple as that.

For example, consider the hypothesis we mentioned earlier:

Hypothesis: Students who sleep at least 8 hours per night will, on average, achieve higher grades in standardised tests than students who sleep less than 8 hours a night.  

We could test this statement by undertaking a quantitative study involving two groups of students, one that gets 8 or more hours of sleep per night for a fixed period, and one that gets less. We could then compare the standardised test results for both groups to see if there’s a statistically significant difference. 

Again, if you compare this to the original hypothesis we looked at – “Sleep impacts academic performance” – you can see that it would be quite difficult to test that statement, primarily because it isn’t specific enough. How much sleep? By who? What type of academic performance?

So, remember the mantra – if you can’t test it, it’s not a hypothesis 🙂

A good research hypothesis must be testable. In other words, you must able to collect observable data in a scientifically rigorous fashion to test it.

Defining A Research Hypothesis

You’re still with us? Great! Let’s recap and pin down a clear definition of a hypothesis.

A research hypothesis (or scientific hypothesis) is a statement about an expected relationship between variables, or explanation of an occurrence, that is clear, specific and testable.

So, when you write up hypotheses for your dissertation or thesis, make sure that they meet all these criteria. If you do, you’ll not only have rock-solid hypotheses but you’ll also ensure a clear focus for your entire research project.

What about the null hypothesis?

You may have also heard the terms null hypothesis , alternative hypothesis, or H-zero thrown around. At a simple level, the null hypothesis is the counter-proposa l to the original hypothesis.

For example, if the hypothesis predicts that there is a relationship between two variables (for example, sleep and academic performance), the null hypothesis would predict that there is no relationship between those variables.

At a more technical level, the null hypothesis proposes that no statistical significance exists in a set of given observations and that any differences are due to chance alone.

And there you have it – hypotheses in a nutshell. 

If you have any questions, be sure to leave a comment below and we’ll do our best to help you. Also be sure to check out the Grad Coach blog for more research-related content.  

hypothesis in master thesis

Psst… there’s more (for free)

This post is part of our research writing mini-course, which covers everything you need to get started with your dissertation, thesis or research project.

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Qualitative vs Quantitative Research: How To Choose Your Research Approach

Very useful information. I benefit more from getting more information in this regard.

Dr. WuodArek

Very great insight,educative and informative. Please give meet deep critics on many research data of public international Law like human rights, environment, natural resources, law of the sea etc


In a book I read a distinction is made between null, research, and alternative hypothesis. As far as I understand, alternative and research hypotheses are the same. Can you please elaborate? Best Afshin

Lucile Dossou-Yovo

Very good definition. How can I cite your definition in my thesis? Thank you. Is nul hypothesis compulsory in a research?

Egya Salihu

Please what is the difference between alternate hypothesis and research hypothesis?


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