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How to Write a Thesis or Dissertation Conclusion
Published on September 6, 2022 by Tegan George and Shona McCombes. Revised on November 11, 2022.
The conclusion is the very last part of your thesis or dissertation . It should be concise and engaging, leaving your reader with a clear understanding of your main findings, as well as the answer to your research question .
In it, you should:
- Clearly state the answer to your main research question
- Summarize and reflect on your research process
- Make recommendations for future work on your thesis or dissertation topic
- Show what new knowledge you have contributed to your field
- Wrap up your thesis or dissertation
Table of contents
Discussion vs. conclusion, how long should your conclusion be, step 1: answer your research question, step 2: summarize and reflect on your research, step 3: make future recommendations, step 4: emphasize your contributions to your field, step 5: wrap up your thesis or dissertation, full conclusion example, conclusion checklist, frequently asked questions about conclusion sections.
While your conclusion contains similar elements to your discussion section , they are not the same thing.
Your conclusion should be shorter and more general than your discussion. Instead of repeating literature from your literature review , discussing specific research results , or interpreting your data in detail, concentrate on making broad statements that sum up the most important insights of your research.
As a rule of thumb, your conclusion should not introduce new data, interpretations, or arguments.
Depending on whether you are writing a thesis or dissertation, your length will vary. Generally, a conclusion should make up around 5–7% of your overall word count.
An empirical scientific study will often have a short conclusion, concisely stating the main findings and recommendations for future research. A humanities dissertation topic or systematic review , on the other hand, might require more space to conclude its analysis, tying all the previous sections together in an overall argument.
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Your conclusion should begin with the main question that your thesis or dissertation aimed to address. This is your final chance to show that you’ve done what you set out to do, so make sure to formulate a clear, concise answer.
- Don’t repeat a list of all the results that you already discussed
- Do synthesize them into a final takeaway that the reader will remember.
An empirical thesis or dissertation conclusion may begin like this:
A case study –based thesis or dissertation conclusion may begin like this:
In the second example, the research aim is not directly restated, but rather added implicitly to the statement. To avoid repeating yourself, it is helpful to reformulate your aims and questions into an overall statement of what you did and how you did it.
Your conclusion is an opportunity to remind your reader why you took the approach you did, what you expected to find, and how well the results matched your expectations.
To avoid repetition , consider writing more reflectively here, rather than just writing a summary of each preceding section. Consider mentioning the effectiveness of your methodology , or perhaps any new questions or unexpected insights that arose in the process.
You can also mention any limitations of your research, but only if you haven’t already included these in the discussion. Don’t dwell on them at length, though—focus on the positives of your work.
- While x limits the generalizability of the results, this approach provides new insight into y .
- This research clearly illustrates x , but it also raises the question of y .
You may already have made a few recommendations for future research in your discussion section, but the conclusion is a good place to elaborate and look ahead, considering the implications of your findings in both theoretical and practical terms.
- Based on these conclusions, practitioners should consider …
- To better understand the implications of these results, future studies could address …
- Further research is needed to determine the causes of/effects of/relationship between …
When making recommendations for further research, be sure not to undermine your own work. Relatedly, while future studies might confirm, build on, or enrich your conclusions, they shouldn’t be required for your argument to feel complete. Your work should stand alone on its own merits.
Just as you should avoid too much self-criticism, you should also avoid exaggerating the applicability of your research. If you’re making recommendations for policy, business, or other practical implementations, it’s generally best to frame them as “shoulds” rather than “musts.” All in all, the purpose of academic research is to inform, explain, and explore—not to demand.
Make sure your reader is left with a strong impression of what your research has contributed to the state of your field.
Some strategies to achieve this include:
- Returning to your problem statement to explain how your research helps solve the problem
- Referring back to the literature review and showing how you have addressed a gap in knowledge
- Discussing how your findings confirm or challenge an existing theory or assumption
Again, avoid simply repeating what you’ve already covered in the discussion in your conclusion. Instead, pick out the most important points and sum them up succinctly, situating your project in a broader context.
The end is near! Once you’ve finished writing your conclusion, it’s time to wrap up your thesis or dissertation with a few final steps:
- It’s a good idea to write your abstract next, while the research is still fresh in your mind.
- Next, make sure your reference list is complete and correctly formatted. To speed up the process, you can use our free APA citation generator .
- Once you’ve added any appendices , you can create a table of contents and title page .
- Finally, read through the whole document again to make sure your thesis is clearly written and free from language errors. You can proofread it yourself , ask a friend, or consider Scribbr’s proofreading and editing service .
Here is an example of how you can write your conclusion section. Notice how it includes everything mentioned above:
The current research aimed to identify acoustic speech characteristics which mark the beginning of an exacerbation in COPD patients.
The central questions for this research were as follows: 1. Which acoustic measures extracted from read speech differ between COPD speakers in stable condition and healthy speakers? 2. In what ways does the speech of COPD patients during an exacerbation differ from speech of COPD patients during stable periods?
All recordings were aligned using a script. Subsequently, they were manually annotated to indicate respiratory actions such as inhaling and exhaling. The recordings of 9 stable COPD patients reading aloud were then compared with the recordings of 5 healthy control subjects reading aloud. The results showed a significant effect of condition on the number of in- and exhalations per syllable, the number of non-linguistic in- and exhalations per syllable, and the ratio of voiced and silence intervals. The number of in- and exhalations per syllable and the number of non-linguistic in- and exhalations per syllable were higher for COPD patients than for healthy controls, which confirmed both hypotheses.
However, the higher ratio of voiced and silence intervals for COPD patients compared to healthy controls was not in line with the hypotheses. This unpredicted result might have been caused by the different reading materials or recording procedures for both groups, or by a difference in reading skills. Moreover, there was a trend regarding the effect of condition on the number of syllables per breath group. The number of syllables per breath group was higher for healthy controls than for COPD patients, which was in line with the hypothesis. There was no effect of condition on pitch, intensity, center of gravity, pitch variability, speaking rate, or articulation rate.
This research has shown that the speech of COPD patients in exacerbation differs from the speech of COPD patients in stable condition. This might have potential for the detection of exacerbations. However, sustained vowels rarely occur in spontaneous speech. Therefore, the last two outcome measures might have greater potential for the detection of beginning exacerbations, but further research on the different outcome measures and their potential for the detection of exacerbations is needed due to the limitations of the current study.
I have clearly and concisely answered the main research question .
I have summarized my overall argument or key takeaways.
I have mentioned any important limitations of the research.
I have given relevant recommendations .
I have clearly explained what my research has contributed to my field.
I have not introduced any new data or arguments.
You've written a great conclusion! Use the other checklists to further improve your dissertation.
In a thesis or dissertation, the discussion is an in-depth exploration of the results, going into detail about the meaning of your findings and citing relevant sources to put them in context.
The conclusion is more shorter and more general: it concisely answers your main research question and makes recommendations based on your overall findings.
While it may be tempting to present new arguments or evidence in your thesis or disseration conclusion , especially if you have a particularly striking argument you’d like to finish your analysis with, you shouldn’t. Theses and dissertations follow a more formal structure than this.
All your findings and arguments should be presented in the body of the text (more specifically in the discussion section and results section .) The conclusion is meant to summarize and reflect on the evidence and arguments you have already presented, not introduce new ones.
For a stronger dissertation conclusion , avoid including:
- Important evidence or analysis that wasn’t mentioned in the discussion section and results section
- Generic concluding phrases (e.g. “In conclusion …”)
- Weak statements that undermine your argument (e.g., “There are good points on both sides of this issue.”)
Your conclusion should leave the reader with a strong, decisive impression of your work.
The conclusion of your thesis or dissertation shouldn’t take up more than 5–7% of your overall word count.
The conclusion of your thesis or dissertation should include the following:
- A restatement of your research question
- A summary of your key arguments and/or results
- A short discussion of the implications of your research
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How to write an excellent thesis conclusion
At this point in your writing, you have most likely finished your introduction and the body of your thesis, dissertation, or paper. While this is a reason to celebrate, you should not underestimate the importance of your conclusion. The conclusion is the last thing that your reader will see, so it should be memorable. Writing a good conclusion is a simple process, but it is not always easy.
A good conclusion will review the key points of the dissertation and explain to the reader why the information is relevant, applicable, or related to the world as a whole. Make sure to dedicate enough of your writing time to the conclusion and do not put it off until the very last minute. This article provides an effective technique for writing a conclusion adapted from Eby, Erica (2012) The College Student's Guide to Writing a Good Research Paper: 101 Easy Tips & Tricks to Make Your Work Stand Out .
While the thesis introduction starts out with broad statements about the topic, and then narrows it down to the thesis statement, a thesis conclusion does the same in the opposite order:
- 1. Restate the thesis
The best way to start a conclusion is simply by restating the thesis statement. That does not mean just copying and pasting it from the introduction, but putting it into different words. You will need to change the structure and wording of it to avoid sounding repetitive. Also, be firm in your conclusion just as you were in the introduction. Try to avoid sounding apologetic by using phrases like "This paper has tried to show..."
The conclusion should address all the same parts as the thesis while making it clear that the reader has reached the end. You are telling the reader that your research is finished and what your findings are.
I have argued throughout this work that the point of critical mass for biopolitical immunity occurred during the Romantic period because of that era's unique combination of post-revolutionary politics and innovations in smallpox prevention. In particular, I demonstrated that the French Revolution and the discovery of vaccination in the 1790s triggered a reconsideration of the relationship between bodies and the state.
- 2. Review or reiterate key points of your work
The next step is to review the main points of the thesis as a whole. Look back at the body of of your project and make a note of the key ideas. You can reword these ideas the same way you reworded your thesis statement and then incorporate that into the conclusion. You can also repeat striking quotations or statistics, but do not use more than two. As the conclusion represents your own closing thoughts on the topic, it should mainly consist of your own words.
In addition, conclusions can contain recommendations to the reader or relevant questions that further the thesis. You should ask yourself what you would ideally like to see your readers do in reaction to your paper. Do you want them to take a certain action or investigate further? Is there a bigger issue that your paper wants to draw attention to?
Also, try to reference your introduction in your conclusion. You have already taken a first step by restating your thesis. Now, check whether there are other key words, phrases or ideas that are mentioned in your introduction that fit into your conclusion. Connecting the introduction to the conclusion in this way will help readers feel satisfied.
I explored how Mary Wollstonecraft, in both her fiction and political writings, envisions an ideal medico-political state, and how other writers like William Wordsworth and Mary Shelley increasingly imagined the body politic literally, as an incorporated political collective made up of bodies whose immunity to political and medical ills was essential to a healthy state.
- 3. Explain why your work is relevant
Although you can encourage readers to question their opinions and reflect on your topic, do not leave loose ends. You should provide a sense of resolution and make sure your conclusion wraps up your argument. Make sure you explain why your thesis is relevant to your field of research and how your research intervenes within, or substantially revises, existing scholarly debates.
This project challenged conventional ideas about the relationship among Romanticism, medicine, and politics by reading the unfolding of Romantic literature and biopolitical immunity as mutual, co-productive processes. In doing so, this thesis revises the ways in which biopolitics has been theorized by insisting on the inherent connections between Romantic literature and the forms of biopower that characterize early modernity.
- 4. A take-home message for the reader
End your conclusion with something memorable, such as a question, call to action, or recommendation. You can also gesture towards future research or note how the problem or idea that you covered remains relevant. If you began your thesis with an anecdote or historical example, you may want to return to that in your conclusion. Ultimately, you want readers to feel more informed, or ready to act, as they read your conclusion.
Yet, the Romantic period is only the beginning of modern thought on immunity and biopolitics. Victorian writers, doctors, and politicians upheld the Romantic idea that a "healthy state" was a literal condition that could be achieved by combining politics and medicine, but augmented that idea through legislation and widespread public health measures. While many nineteenth-century efforts to improve citizens' health were successful, the fight against disease ultimately changed course in the twentieth century as global immunological threats such as SARS occupied public consciousness. Indeed, as subsequent public health events make apparent, biopolitical immunity persists as a viable concept for thinking about the relationship between medicine and politics in modernity.
Need more advice? Read our 5 additional tips on how to write a good thesis conclusion.
- Frequently Asked Questions about writing an excellent thesis conclusion
The conclusion is the last thing that your reader will see, so it should be memorable. To write a great thesis conclusion you should:
- Restate the thesis
- Review the key points of your work
- Explain why your work is relevant
- Add a take-home message for the reader
The basic content of a conclusion is to review the main points from the paper. This part represents your own closing thoughts on the topic. It should mainly consist of the outcome of the research in your own words.
The length of the conclusion will depend on the length of the whole thesis. Usually, a conclusion should be around 5-7% of the overall word count.
End your conclusion with something memorable, such as a question, warning, or call to action. Depending on the topic, you can also end with a recommendation.
In Open Access: Theses and Dissertations you can find thousands of completed works. Take a look at any of the theses or dissertations for real-life examples of conclusions that were already approved.
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Q: How to write the conclusion of a thesis or dissertation?
Asked on 07 Nov, 2019
Like the introduction, the conclusion of a thesis should also make an impact on the reader. this is because the conclusion is the last part of your study that they will see and chances are that a good ending will make a mark on them.
Basically, a good conclusion should restate the thesis statement and highlight the key points of your work, explaining to the reader why your work is important and how it contributes to the field. Here is a format that you could follow while writing the conclusion of your thesis:
1. Restate your thesis statement. Rephrase it so that slightly different from the thesis statement presented in the introduction and does not sound repetitive.
2. Reiterate the key points of your work. To do this, go back to your thesis and extract the topic sentences of each main paragraph/argument. Rephrase these sentences and use them in your conclusion.
3. Explain the relevance and significance of your work. These should include the larger implications of your work and showcase the impact it will have on society.
4. End with a take-home message, such as a call to action or future direction.
- What is theoretical framework in thesis or dissertation writing?
- Is the concluding chapter of a thesis a repetition of the discussion in previous chapters?
- Why I decided to publish my Master's thesis
- How can we write a summary of a thesis?
Answered by Editage Insights on 25 Nov, 2019
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How To Write The Conclusion Chapter
The what, why & how explained simply (with examples).
By: Jenna Crossley (PhD Cand). Reviewed By: Dr. Eunice Rautenbach | September 2021
So, you’ve wrapped up your results and discussion chapters, and you’re finally on the home stretch – the conclusion chapter . In this post, we’ll discuss everything you need to know to craft a high-quality conclusion chapter for your dissertation or thesis project.
Overview: Dissertation Conclusion Chapter
- What the thesis/dissertation conclusion chapter is
- What to include in your conclusion chapter
- How to structure and write up your conclusion chapter
- A few tips to help you ace the chapter
What exactly is the conclusion chapter?
The conclusion chapter is typically the final major chapter of a dissertation or thesis. As such, it serves as a concluding summary of your research findings and wraps up the document. While some publications such as journal articles and research reports combine the discussion and conclusion sections, these are typically separate chapters in a dissertation or thesis. As always, be sure to check what your university’s structural preference is before you start writing up these chapters.
So, what’s the difference between the discussion and the conclusion chapter?
Well, the two chapters are quite similar , as they both discuss the key findings of the study. However, the conclusion chapter is typically more general and high-level in nature. In your discussion chapter, you’ll typically discuss the intricate details of your study, but in your conclusion chapter, you’ll take a broader perspective, reporting on the main research outcomes and how these addressed your research aim (or aims) .
A core function of the conclusion chapter is to synthesise all major points covered in your study and to tell the reader what they should take away from your work. Basically, you need to tell them what you found , why it’s valuable , how it can be applied , and what further research can be done.
Whatever you do, don’t just copy and paste what you’ve written in your discussion chapter! The conclusion chapter should not be a simple rehash of the discussion chapter. While the two chapters are similar, they have distinctly different functions.
What should I include in the conclusion chapter?
To understand what needs to go into your conclusion chapter, it’s useful to understand what the chapter needs to achieve. In general, a good dissertation conclusion chapter should achieve the following:
- Summarise the key findings of the study
- Explicitly answer the research question(s) and address the research aims
- Inform the reader of the study’s main contributions
- Discuss any limitations or weaknesses of the study
- Present recommendations for future research
Therefore, your conclusion chapter needs to cover these core components. Importantly, you need to be careful not to include any new findings or data points. Your conclusion chapter should be based purely on data and analysis findings that you’ve already presented in the earlier chapters. If there’s a new point you want to introduce, you’ll need to go back to your results and discussion chapters to weave the foundation in there.
In many cases, readers will jump from the introduction chapter directly to the conclusions chapter to get a quick overview of the study’s purpose and key findings. Therefore, when you write up your conclusion chapter, it’s useful to assume that the reader hasn’t consumed the inner chapters of your dissertation or thesis. In other words, craft your conclusion chapter such that there’s a strong connection and smooth flow between the introduction and conclusion chapters, even though they’re on opposite ends of your document.
Need a helping hand?
How to write the conclusion chapter
Now that you have a clearer view of what the conclusion chapter is about, let’s break down the structure of this chapter so that you can get writing. Keep in mind that this is merely a typical structure – it’s not set in stone or universal. Some universities will prefer that you cover some of these points in the discussion chapter , or that you cover the points at different levels in different chapters.
Step 1: Craft a brief introduction section
As with all chapters in your dissertation or thesis, the conclusions chapter needs to start with a brief introduction. In this introductory section, you’ll want to tell the reader what they can expect to find in the chapter, and in what order . Here’s an example of what this might look like:
This chapter will conclude the study by summarising the key research findings in relation to the research aims and questions and discussing the value and contribution thereof. It will also review the limitations of the study and propose opportunities for future research.
Importantly, the objective here is just to give the reader a taste of what’s to come (a roadmap of sorts), not a summary of the chapter. So, keep it short and sweet – a paragraph or two should be ample.
Step 2: Discuss the overall findings in relation to the research aims
The next step in writing your conclusions chapter is to discuss the overall findings of your study , as they relate to the research aims and research questions . You would have likely covered similar ground in the discussion chapter, so it’s important to zoom out a little bit here and focus on the broader findings – specifically, how these help address the research aims .
In practical terms, it’s useful to start this section by reminding your reader of your research aims and research questions, so that the findings are well contextualised. In this section, phrases such as, “This study aimed to…” and “the results indicate that…” will likely come in handy. For example, you could say something like the following:
This study aimed to investigate the feeding habits of the naked mole-rat. The results indicate that naked mole rats feed on underground roots and tubers. Further findings show that these creatures eat only a part of the plant, leaving essential parts to ensure long-term food stability.
Be careful not to make overly bold claims here. Avoid claims such as “this study proves that” or “the findings disprove existing the existing theory”. It’s seldom the case that a single study can prove or disprove something. Typically, this is achieved by a broader body of research, not a single study – especially not a dissertation or thesis which will inherently have significant and limitations. We’ll discuss those limitations a little later.
Step 3: Discuss how your study contributes to the field
Next, you’ll need to discuss how your research has contributed to the field – both in terms of theory and practice . This involves talking about what you achieved in your study, highlighting why this is important and valuable, and how it can be used or applied.
In this section you’ll want to:
- Mention any research outputs created as a result of your study (e.g., articles, publications, etc.)
- Inform the reader on just how your research solves your research problem , and why that matters
- Reflect on gaps in the existing research and discuss how your study contributes towards addressing these gaps
- Discuss your study in relation to relevant theories . For example, does it confirm these theories or constructively challenge them?
- Discuss how your research findings can be applied in the real world . For example, what specific actions can practitioners take, based on your findings?
Be careful to strike a careful balance between being firm but humble in your arguments here. It’s unlikely that your one study will fundamentally change paradigms or shake up the discipline, so making claims to this effect will be frowned upon . At the same time though, you need to present your arguments with confidence, firmly asserting the contribution your research has made, however small that contribution may be. Simply put, you need to keep it balanced .
Step 4: Reflect on the limitations of your study
Now that you’ve pumped your research up, the next step is to critically reflect on the limitations and potential shortcomings of your study. You may have already covered this in the discussion chapter, depending on your university’s structural preferences, so be careful not to repeat yourself unnecessarily.
There are many potential limitations that can apply to any given study. Some common ones include:
- Sampling issues that reduce the generalisability of the findings (e.g., non-probability sampling )
- Insufficient sample size (e.g., not getting enough survey responses ) or limited data access
- Low-resolution data collection or analysis techniques
- Researcher bias or lack of experience
- Lack of access to research equipment
- Time constraints that limit the methodology (e.g. cross-sectional vs longitudinal time horizon)
- Budget constraints that limit various aspects of the study
Discussing the limitations of your research may feel self-defeating (no one wants to highlight their weaknesses, right), but it’s a critical component of high-quality research. It’s important to appreciate that all studies have limitations (even well-funded studies by expert researchers) – therefore acknowledging these limitations adds credibility to your research by showing that you understand the limitations of your research design.
That being said, keep an eye on your wording and make sure that you don’t undermine your research . It’s important to strike a balance between recognising the limitations, but also highlighting the value of your research despite those limitations. Show the reader that you understand the limitations, that these were justified given your constraints, and that you know how they can be improved upon – this will get you marks.
Quick tips for a top-notch conclusion chapter
Now that we’ve covered the what , why and how of the conclusion chapter, here are some quick tips and suggestions to help you craft a rock-solid conclusion.
- Don’t ramble . The conclusion chapter usually consumes 5-7% of the total word count (although this will vary between universities), so you need to be concise. Edit this chapter thoroughly with a focus on brevity and clarity.
- Be very careful about the claims you make in terms of your study’s contribution. Nothing will make the marker’s eyes roll back faster than exaggerated or unfounded claims. Be humble but firm in your claim-making.
- Use clear and simple language that can be easily understood by an intelligent layman. Remember that not every reader will be an expert in your field, so it’s important to make your writing accessible. Bear in mind that no one knows your research better than you do, so it’s important to spell things out clearly for readers.
Hopefully, this post has given you some direction and confidence to take on the conclusion chapter of your dissertation or thesis with confidence. If you’re still feeling a little shaky and need a helping hand, consider booking a free initial consultation with a friendly Grad Coach to discuss how we can help you with hands-on, private coaching.
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This post is part of our research writing mini-course, which covers everything you need to get started with your dissertation, thesis or research project.
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Really you team are doing great!
Your guide on writing the concluding chapter of a research is really informative especially to the beginners who really do not know where to start. Im now ready to start. Keep it up guys
Really your team are doing great!
A very enjoyable, understandable and crisp presentation on how to write a conclusion chapter. I thoroughly enjoyed it. Thanks Jenna.
This was a very helpful article which really gave me practical pointers for my concluding chapter. Keep doing what you are doing! It meant a lot to me to be able to have this guide. Thank you so much.
Nice content dealing with the conclusion chapter, it’s a relief after the streneous task of completing discussion part.Thanks for valuable guidance
Thanks for your guidance
I get all my doubts clarified regarding the conclusion chapter. It’s really amazing. Many thanks.
Very helpful tips. Thanks so much for the guidance
Thank you very much for this piece. It offers a very helpful starting point in writing the conclusion chapter of my thesis.
It’s awesome! Most useful and timely too. Thanks a million times
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Writing Your Thesis Conclusion Section: Making the Last Impression Count
This article describes the importance of your thesis conclusion section. It covers the details on how to write a thesis conclusion section and the final steps required after you have written this section.
What is the thesis conclusion section?
It is a summary of the thesis, highlighting the importance of the thesis study and how it stands in the context of the field of research.
The conclusion section is the final part of your thesis/dissertation. It is a summary of the thesis, highlighting the importance of the thesis study and how it stands in the context of the field of research.
The discussion and conclusion sections are usually written as separate chapters. However, they may be written as a single section in some fields. If you are unsure which structure to use, ask your supervisor for guidance and check the requirements of your academic institution.
What should the thesis conclusion section include?
- An explanation of how your findings have helped to solve a problem and contributed to the knowledge in your field of research (refer back to your thesis question)
- An explanation of how your findings have contributed to a gap in knowledge (refer back to your literature review )
- A discussion of how your findings fall within existing theories or assumptions in your field of research. Do they confirm or challenge them?
- A discussion of the limitations of your thesis study (if already mentioned in the discussion section, highlight only the important limitations in the conclusion section)
- Recommendations for practical applications of your findings and future investigations (if already mentioned in the discussion section, highlight only the key recommendations in the conclusion section)
End your conclusion with something memorable, such as a question, warning, or call to action.
We cannot afford further devastating and unnecessary deaths. The training of first responders on how to deal with a nuclear accident should be implemented immediately.
What should I avoid in the conclusion section of my thesis?
- Don’t underestimate the importance of your conclusion by treating it as an afterthought. It is a crucial section of your thesis study that incorporates the key results into a final takeaway message that the reader will remember.
- Don’t exaggerate the contributions of your research. Be realistic, and link your contribution back to existing literature.
- Don’t include new data, interpretations, or arguments.
- Don’t restate the results. Instead, incorporate the key findings into a final takeaway message for the reader.
- Avoid phrases like “To conclude…” or “In conclusion….” if the conclusion section is a chapter that is separate from the discussion. Your reader knows which section they are looking over.
Writing a great thesis conclusion section
When writing your thesis conclusion, consider what you would like the reader to remember if this was the only section of your thesis they read.
The thesis conclusion section must be able to stand alone as a separate entity from the other sections of your study. When writing your thesis conclusion, consider what you would like the reader to remember if this was the only section of your thesis they read. Thesis examiners often look at the abstract, introduction, and conclusion sections to gain an overall impression of your thesis study before delving into the other sections.
A great thesis conclusion section leaves the reader with a clear understanding of the main argument or discovery that resulted from your thesis study. It reminds them why you chose your particular approach, what you expected to find, and whether the findings met your expectations.
It is essential to highlight the relevance of your thesis study in the conclusion section so that the readers will be engaged and perhaps consider taking up one of your recommendations or collaborating with you on further research in your field of study.
The Sciences domain usually includes quantitative research, while the Humanities and Social Sciences(HSS) domain usually includes qualitative research. Therefore, the structure of the conclusion section is slightly different for each area.
Steps to writing a thesis conclusion section in the Sciences domain
- Restate and answer your thesis question
By evaluating the response to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster in 2011, we demonstrated that there was an insufficient number of adequately trained first responders.
- Summarize your findings .
This study demonstrates that ABC affects DEF but raises fundamental questions about the role of GHI.
- Explain or suggest the reasons for your thesis findings.
The significant relationship observed between ABC and JKL (p < 0.001) could be due to the synergistic effect of MNO on JKL.
- Explain the contributions of your study to the field.
This is the first report of Species X in Central Africa. Prior to this, Species X has only been observed in Northern Africa.
- Explain the limitations of your study.
Because the response rate to our questionnaire was only 19%, the significance of our findings may not be generalizable to the general population.
- Mention recommendations for practical applications and further research.
Further large-scale studies are suggested to confirm the association between ABC and JKL.
Steps to writing a thesis conclusion section in the HSS domain
- Restate the study purpose and findings.
This research aimed to…
- Summarize the relationship with previous research.
These findings concurred with those of...
- Discuss the limitations of your study/anticipation of criticism.
I have only addressed the role of… It must be stressed that I deliberately did not…
- Discuss problems that occurred when performing your research.
We were unable to e-mail the questionnaire to all of the selected participants because some of the addresses no longer existed.
- Mention the implications of your findings.
Our findings suggest that ABC may be a vital contributor to DEF.
- Make recommendations according to your study findings.
Future research into ABC is essential to confirm…
- Mention the contribution of your research to the field of study.
These findings provide an alternative theory to that proposed by…
- Give an autobiographical reflection.
While undertaking this research, I gained valuable insight into… This thesis study has prompted me to…
If you didn’t mention the limitations of your study in the discussion section , they must be included in the conclusion section. When discussing your study limitations, first identify them, then explain their impact on your study, and finally suggest how they could be addressed in future investigations. These three steps will help you to demonstrate the weaknesses of your study without undermining the value and integrity of your research.
Examples of study limitations: sample size, differences in methods used for data collection or analysis, study type (e.g., retrospective vs. prospective), inclusion/exclusion criteria of the study population, and effects of confounders Example study limitation statement: This was a single-institution study, and the results may not be generalizable to populations in rural areas…
Recommendations arising from your study findings
If you didn’t mention recommendations arising from your study findings in the discussion section of your thesis study, they must be included in the conclusion section. Don’t exaggerate the contributions or significance of your findings.
Recommendations should consider the relevance of your findings for further investigations or how your findings could be extended to other academic or real-world settings and practices. This could include:
- Addressing questions related to your study that remain unanswered
Because the cause of the association remains unelucidated, this should be the topic of future studies
- Suggesting a logical progression of your research using concrete ideas
Building on our findings that the number of staff trained to respond to a nuclear accident was inadequate, we suggest developing and rolling out a compulsory training program for all first responders.
- Suggesting future work based on the study limitations that you have identified
Future studies using a larger sample size from multiple sites are recommended to confirm the generalizability of our findings
Final steps after completing your thesis conclusion
- Write your thesis abstract. This is the ideal time to do so because you have just summarized the key points of your research in the conclusion section so that the information will be fresh in your mind.
- Complete and format the reference list .
- Add an acknowledgments section thanking those who helped you (e.g., your supervisor, co-supervisors, and academic and support staff). Also, mention all organizations that provided funding for your thesis study and include the grant number, if applicable.
- Add any appendices.
- Add a list of abbreviations.
- Some institutions may require a list of figures and tables. Add this in if required.
- Create the table of contents .
- Create the title page. Check with your institution what elements are required and how the title page should be formatted.
- Some institutions require a declaration by the candidate stating that the work is original and that all sources have been cited. Check with your institution for specific requirements.
- Consider adding a dedication statement. For example, you may want to thank your spouse for their support.
- Proofread and edit your thesis. For professional thesis editing and thesis proofreading services, visit Enago Thesis Editing for more information.
A thesis is the most important document you will write during your academic studies. For professional thesis editing and thesis proofreading services, visit Enago Thesis Editing for more information.
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Have you answered the thesis question clearly and concisely?
Have you summarized the overall argument of the key message?
Have you mentioned the limitations of your thesis study?
Have you given recommendations for the next steps and future investigations?
Have you clearly explained how your research contributes to or addresses a gap in the knowledge of your subject area?
What are the differences between the discussion and conclusion sections in a thesis? +
The discussion section mentions specific results and interprets them in depth. On the other hand, the conclusion section makes general statements that summarize the most important insights stemming from your thesis study.
What is the recommended length of the thesis conclusion section? +
The thesis conclusion should be shorter than the discussion section. It typically comprises 5%–7% of the overall word count.
How does the introduction link to the conclusion section in a thesis? +
The introduction section poses the thesis question and explains the background to the problem. The conclusion section answers the thesis question by summarizing the topic and the research findings.
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- Writing Tips
How to Write a Thesis Conclusion
- 4-minute read
- 28th January 2022
A thesis paper (or dissertation ) is often the culmination of your time as a student , and it can be a major undertaking. While it may feel like a relief once you’ve completed the rest of your thesis, don’t underestimate the importance of the conclusion! As this will be the last thing your reader sees, it needs to be memorable, and it needs to leave your reader with a clear understanding of your main deduction or argument.
Typically, a thesis conclusion will review what you found, why it’s valuable, how it can be applied, and what further research can be done. Keep in mind, though, you should review your university’s or program’s guidelines, as the requirements for a conclusion are not universal.
1. Restate Your Thesis
You should start your conclusion by restating your thesis. Include all of the factors you stated in your introduction while making it clear to the reader that they have reached the end of your paper. To avoid repetition, use a different sentence structure and wording.
2. Analyze Your Key Ideas
Next, highlight the key ideas presented throughout the body of your thesis. You should analyze how your main points link together and how they relate to your main argument.
If there are any prominent quotations or statistics worth repeating, you can include them in your conclusion, but don’t overdo it! The conclusion should discuss your own thoughts, so limit the amount of cited information you include.
3. Discuss the Relevance
Make sure you explain how your thesis is relevant to the field of research. Consider how the research can be built upon, whether it confirms or challenges other relevant theories, and whether your findings can be applied in the real world.
4. Consider Any Limitations
Another critical component is the discussion of the limitations or shortcomings that exist in your research. For example, there could have been time constraints that limited your methodology, sampling issues that reduced the generalizability of your findings, or budget constraints that limited any aspect of the study.
It’s important to recognize that all research has limitations without undermining your own work. Take the opportunity to highlight the value of your research despite any limitations you may have faced.
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5. Make Recommendations for Future Research
Providing recommendations for future research allows you to emphasize that your ideas remain relevant in your field. You can build off the limitations by recommending how future research could tackle those problems. Also, consider whether you came across any surprising data that might not have been directly related to your study but could benefit from further exploration. Suggest what other researchers could do next to contribute to and further develop the body of knowledge in your field.
6. End with a Closing Summary
You should finish your conclusion with a brief closing summary highlighting the key takeaways. To leave a lasting impact, you might consider closing with a question, call to action, or recommendation for your reader.
● Your conclusion will typically be about 5–7% of the total word count of your thesis. It’s important to plan ahead so that you don’t have to go back and reduce the word count elsewhere to make space.
● Use clear and concise language to stay on topic and keep your writing accessible to all your readers by making it comprehensible, whether or not they’re experts in your field.
● Since your conclusion is the last impression of your thesis, make sure you leave enough time to give it proper consideration.
Proofreading & Editing
Perhaps one of the most important steps in writing an impactful thesis conclusion is to make sure it’s clear, concise, and free of errors. It’s easy to overlook mistakes in your own writing, so having someone else take a look at it is a great idea. We have expert editors on hand 24 hours a day to help with all of your academic writing needs. Upload a free trial document today to learn more!
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Though expectations vary from one discipline to the next, the conclusion of your paper is generally a place to explore the implications of your topic or argument. In other words, the end of your paper is a place to look outward or ahead in order to explain why you made the points you did.
Writing the Conclusion
In the past, you may have been told that your conclusion should summarize what you have already said by restating your thesis and main points. It is often helpful to restate your argument in the conclusion, particularly in a longer paper, but most professors and instructors want students to go beyond simply repeating what they have already said. Restating your thesis is just a short first part of your conclusion. Make sure that you are not simply repeating yourself; your restated thesis should use new and interesting language.
After you have restated your thesis, you should not just summarize the key points of your argument. Your conclusion should offer the reader something new to think about—or, at the very least, it should offer the reader a new way of thinking about what you have said in your paper.
You can employ one of several strategies for taking your conclusion that important step further:
- Answer the question, "So what?"
- Connect to a larger theme from the course
- Complicate your claim with an outside source
- Pose a new research question as a result of your paper's findings
- Address the limitations of your argument
The strategy you employ in writing a conclusion for your paper may depend upon a number of factors:
- The conventions of the discipline in which you are writing
- The tone of your paper (whether your paper is analytical, argumentative, explanatory, etc.)
- Whether your paper is meant to be formal or informal
Choose a strategy that best maintains the flow and tone of your paper while allowing you to adequately tie together all aspects of your paper.
The Final "So what?" Strategy
Part of generating a thesis statement sometimes requires answering the "so what?" question—that is, explaining the significance of your basic assertion. When you use the "so what?" strategy to write your conclusion, you are considering what some of the implications of your argument might be beyond the points already made in your paper. This strategy allows you to leave readers with an understanding of why your argument is important in a broader context or how it can apply to a larger concept.
For example, consider a paper about alcohol abuse in universities. If the paper argues that alcohol abuse among students depends more on psychological factors than simply the availability of alcohol on campus, a "so what?" conclusion might tie together threads from the body of the paper to suggest that universities are not approaching alcohol education from the most effective perspective when they focus exclusively on limiting students' access to alcohol.
To use this strategy, ask yourself, "How does my argument affect how I approach the text or issue?"
The "Connecting to a Course Theme" Strategy
When you use the "connecting to a course theme" strategy to write your conclusion, you are establishing a connection between your paper's thesis and a larger theme or idea from the course for which you are writing your paper.
For example, consider a paper about mothers and daughters in Eudora Welty's Delta Wedding for a class called "The Inescapable South." This paper argues that a strong dependence on the mother is analogous to a strong dependence on the South. A "connecting to a course theme" conclusion for this paper might propose that Welty's daughter characters demonstrate what type of people can and cannot escape the South.
To use this strategy, ask yourself, "What is an overall theme of this course? How does my paper's thesis connect?"
The "Complicating Your Claim" Strategy
When you use the "complicating your claim" strategy to write your conclusion, you are using one or more additional resources to develop a more nuanced final thesis. Such additional resources could include a new outside source or textual evidence that seemingly contradicts your argument.
For example, consider a paper about Ireland's neutrality during World War II. This paper argues that Ireland refused to enter the war because it wanted to assert its sovereignty, not because it had no opinion about the conflict. A "complicating your claim" conclusion for this paper might provide historical evidence that Ireland did aid the Allies, suggesting that the Irish were more influenced by international diplomacy than their formal neutrality might suggest.
To use this strategy, ask yourself, "Is there any evidence against my thesis?" or "What does an outside source have to say about my thesis?"
The "Posing a New Question" Strategy
When you use the "posing a new question" strategy to write your conclusion, you are inviting the reader to consider a new idea or question that has appeared as a result of your argument.
For example, consider a paper about three versions of the folktale "Rapunzel." This paper argues that German, Italian, and Filipino versions of "Rapunzel" all vary in terms of characterization, plot development, and moral, and as a result have different themes. A "posing a new question" conclusion for this paper might ask the historical and cultural reasons for how three separate cultures developed such similar stories with such different themes.
To use this strategy, ask yourself, "What new question has developed out of my argument?"
The "Addressing Limitations" Strategy
When you use the "addressing limitations" strategy to write your conclusion, you are discussing the possible weaknesses of your argument and, thus, the fallibility of your overall conclusion. This strategy is often useful in concluding papers on scientific studies and experiments.
For example, consider a paper about an apparent correlation between religious belief and support for terrorism. An "addressing limitations" conclusion for this paper might suggest that the apparent correlation relies on the paper's definition of "terrorism" and, since the definition is not objective, the apparent correlation might have been wrongly identified.
To use this strategy, ask yourself, "In what aspects is my argument lacking? Are there circumstances in which my conclusions might be wrong?"
Polishing Your Conclusion—and Your Paper
After you've completed your conclusion, look over what you have written and consider making some small changes to promote clarity and originality:
- Unless your discipline requires them, remove obvious transitions like "in conclusion," "in summary," and "in result" from your conclusion; they get in the way of the actual substance of your conclusion.
- Consider taking a strong phrase from your conclusion and using it as the title or subtitle of your paper.
Also, be sure to proofread your conclusion carefully for errors and typos. You should double-check your entire paper for accuracy and correct spelling as well.
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How to Write a Conclusion
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- 1 Definition: Conclusion
- 3 Closing Paragraph
- 4 Length of a Conclusion
- 6 Dos and Don’ts
- 7 Insider tips
- 8 In a Nutshell
The conclusion is the final paragraph of an essay, research paper, bachelor’s thesis, or master’s thesis. Instead of the term conclusion , synonymous expressions like results, résumé, upshot, or bottom line may be used.
The main objective of a conclusion is to provide an answer/resolution to the research question posed in the introduction. Moreover, the conclusion makes clear how the paper makes a valuable contribution to a particular field of research. Additionally, weaknesses are mentioned and discussed, and conclusions are drawn which lead to suggestions for future research.
What is a conclusion?
A conclusion is the last section or paragraph in any piece of academic writing work. It basically summarizes the main results, findings or central ideas of the writing. Depending on the type of thesis or report that you’re writing, the conclusion may be a call to action designed to motivate readers. However, the main purpose of most conclusions is to summarize what was learned throughout the report/thesis.
How long is a conclusion?
How long your conclusion is, depends on the length of your academic work. As a rule of thumb, the conclusion should generally make up 5%-10% of your word count.
Calculated based on the total length of the research paper: • Short research papers: one page (approximately) • Bachelor’s and master’s thesis : three to five text pages
What do I need to write in a conclusion?
The following aspects are included in a conclusion:
- Main ideas/summary
- Results: Answering the research question
- Criticism/weaknesses and limitations
- Generalisability of results/impact of results
- Outlook (variable)
Avoid bringing in new ideas that were not discussed in the main body of the thesis or dissertation . Remember that the deep analysis and discussion of variables and results has already occured in the body paragraphs. The conclusion needs to summarise these aspects whilst linking them to the research questions and including any criticism or weaknesses of the research with an outlook to the future.
What is the aim of a conclusion?
The conclusion should provide an answer to the research question(s) and help the reader to quickly access the main results. The main results should be easy to read in their summarized form. Finally, it should highlight the coherent structure and line of argument in the research paper .
How do introduction and conclusion compare?
The introduction sets the scene and poses the research questions and thesis statement, whilst the conclusion addresses the latter. The two written parts are not interconnected but present different directions and views of the main body of the text. Essentially, the introduction will introduce your topic to the reader and the conclusion will summarize the topic and any research that was conducted.
What else do I need to know on how to write a conclusion?
a) Do not underestimate the conclusion—it must have a lasting effect. b) NEVER introduce new ideas that are not mentioned in the main body of the text. c) No results also count as results: Do not cover up non-results by claiming things that your analysis fails to show.
You can find examples of conclusions on our blog.
The following aspects are part of a sound conclusion:
I.a) Main ideas/summary
Give an overview of the logical structure of your paper and highlight the findings of the individual chapters (cf. Oertner, St. John & Thelen 2014: 31).
I.b) Results: Answering the research question
Link your results to the research question(s): There must be a harmony/balance between your research question(s), which is/are derived from a broader topic, and the answers presented in your conclusion (cf. Bänsch & Alewell 2013: 6).
I.c) Weaknesses and limitations
Make clear how your results fit into the field of research but be critical about the generalisability of your findings (cf. Winter 2004: 76). Discuss weaknesses and limitations (cf. Oertner, St. John & Thelen 2014: 31).
I.d) Impact/Future research
Address open questions (cf. Samac, Prenner & Schwetz 2014: 74) and give suggestions for future research (cf. Franck 2004: 199).
Project your results into the future, describe future developments, predict what impact your results can have on practice (cf. Stickel-Wolf & Wolf 2013: 208).
The summary of the main ideas and all other aspects listed under I. reflect on the paper as such (cf. Stickel-Wolf & Wolf 2013: 207). The outlook, however, is a part of the conclusion that does not focus on what has been done but goes a step further by tracing (possible) future developments (cf. Rossig & Prätsch 2005:76). Whether or not it makes sense to provide an outlook depends on the topic.
Length of a Conclusion
One of the most frequently asked questions concerns the approximate length of the conclusion. Although there is no universal standard as such, you can derive the length of the conclusion from the total length of the paper.
Thus, the total length serves as the basis for calculating the length of the conclusion (cf. Stickel-Wolf & Wolf 2013: 207; Brauner & Vollmer 2004: 117).
For a Bachelor’s thesis, it is recommended that the conclusion be two- to three-pages in length (cf. Samac, Prenner & Schwetz 2014: 74). In contrast, it is sufficient to conclude a seminar paper with a few sentences and a short closing remark (cf. Brauner & Vollmer 2004: 117).
Here are a few examples showing the language use in a conclusion—i.e. how to report, comment, or speculate on your findings (based on Hewings 1993 as quoted in Paltridge & Starfield 2007: 152–153).
Dos and Don’ts
Below is a short list of what to focus on and what to avoid in your conclusion.
- Take enough time to write your conclusion
- List your most important findings
- Summarize—avoid lengthy repetitions
- Stay as objective as possible
- Keep in mind that the conclusion will impact the overall judgement of your text
- Underestimate the impact of your conclusion
- Bring in new ideas you have not mentioned before
- Give a positive appraisal of your work
- Appeal to the reader to carry out more research
- Use exaggerated phrases
- Diminish the findings of your paper
(cf. Andermann, Drees & Grätz 2006: 87; Bänsch & Alewell 2013: 6, 86; Esselborn-Krumbiegel 2002: 143; Franck 2004: 200f.; Franck & Stary 2009: 142, 156, 201; Oertner, St. John & Thelen 2014: 31; Rossig & Prätsch 2005: 76; Winter 2004: 75)
Important Match with Your Introduction
The conclusion is a self-contained part of your research paper—i.e. it can be read and understood as a stand-alone, complete text (cf. Oertner, St. John & Thelen 2014: 31). It never just repeats what has been said in the main body of the research paper. Still, it functions as one part of the whole text.
The introduction sets the scene and introduces the research question(s); the conclusion takes them up again to provide an answer based on the findings discussed in the main part.
There is a connection between the introduction and the conclusion—a connection that you must establish. The two parts do not actually build on one another, but they point towards the main body from different angles (cf. Brauner & Vollmer 2004: 121).
Tip: It is easier to write the main body first . After the main body, you can focus on writing your conclusion. The very last thing you should write is the introduction.
By then, you will have gained a good overview of your work and also know where you ended up, which means you know what your results look like. Bridging the gap between conclusion and introduction is easier than the other way around: Now you know what you are setting the scene for.
An example to illustrate the connection between introduction and conclusion
Topic: The British Northern Ireland politics 1968–1974 (cf. Esselborn-Krumbiegel 2002: 143)
- Introduction: Analyzing the flaws of British Northern Ireland politics can help to analyze the crisis from a historical perspective.
- Conclusion: Even post-millennial politicians try to solve new crises by drawing on old strategies, although they have proved ineffective in the past.
Writing a research paper can be an arduous task. You feel relieved after finishing the main body of the text. All you need is some sort of conclusion now—a nice ending summarize all of your work up. At the same time, you might feel you already said everything in the main part.
However, it is important not to run out of steam in the end, for the following reasons:
1. the conclusion guides the reader, who may have lost the thread and may need a summary of the main objectives and ideas to get back on track (cf. Winter 2004: 75)
2. the conclusion provides an answer to the research question, obtained through your research and data analysis (cf. Samac, Prenner & Schwetz 2014: 74).
3. a well-written conclusion shows that you are a competent and skillful writer. Can you portray your results well? Do you show a good level of abstract thinking (cf. Brauner & Vollmer 2004: 121)?
4. in your conclusion, you have to make clear how your research paper fits into the given field of research and how your work is a novel contribution. What can your paper offer to the reader (cf. Andermann, Drees & Grätz 2006: 87)?
It is important to understand that a badly written conclusion leaves a negative impression that can overshadow even a very well-written main part. From your perspective, as the author, the results obtained are very clear and straightforward. However, it is important to consider the perspective of the reader, who has not studied this topic as thoroughly as you have. Thus, a sound conclusion not only offers readers a special service, it also convinces them that your paper makes a valuable contribution to the field and that reading it is worth their while.
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In a Nutshell
- The conclusion of a bachelor’s thesis or master’s thesis is often referred to as perspectives, outlook, resumé, or results , but all those terms denote the same concept—namely an evaluative summary of the main findings.
- The conclusion answers the research question(s) and maintains a clear link with the initially stated objectives of research; it serves to guide the reader and makes clear how the paper fits into the larger context of a particular field of research. A good grasp of the main ideas and coherences and abstract thinking ability are characteristics of competent authors.
- The length of the conclusion can be calculated based on the total length and complexity of the paper. For short-term papers, it should not exceed a page, but for longer research papers such as a bachelor’s thesis or master’s thesis, the conclusion should comprise three to five pages approximately.
- In your conclusion, you should at first give an overview of the structure of the research paper, then answer the research question; after highlighting limitations and weaknesses you can talk about the implications of your paper. What is more, you should make suggestions for future research (and give an outlook if possible).
- Introduction and conclusion are interconnected, which means that the introduction poses the questions and the conclusion answers them (based on the research discussed in the main body of the text).
- Do not underestimate the conclusion, as it is the last bit of text to be read and thus has the power to make a lasting (positive or negative) impression
- Avoid bringing in new ideas that you have not discussed in the main body of text.
- On a stylistic level, you should neither praise your own achievement nor belittle it. Be objective and to the point. In addition, you must avoid merely repeating longer paragraphs of the main body of the text, or appealing to reader by drawing on emotional/sensational formulations and phrases.
Andermann, Ulrich, Martin Drees & Frank Götz. 2006. Wie verfasst man wissenschaftliche Arbeiten? 3rd ed. Mannheim: Dudenverlag.
Bänsch, Axel & Dorothea Alewell. 2013. Wissenschaftliches Arbeiten . 11th ed. München: Oldenbourg Verlag.
Brauner, Detlef Jürgen & Hans-Ulrich Vollmer. 2004. Erfolgreiches wissenschaftliches Arbeiten – Seminararbeit Diplomarbeit Doktorarbeit . Sternenfels: Verlag Wissenschaft und Praxis.
Esselborn-Krumbiegel, Helga. 2002. Von der Idee zum Text – Eine Anleitung zum wissenschaftlichen Schreiben . Paderborn: Ferdinand Schöningh.
Franck, Norbert. 2004. Handbuch Wissenschaftliches Arbeiten . Frankfurt: Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag.
Franck, Norbert & Joachim Stary. 2009. Die Technik des wissenschaftlichen Arbeitens . 15th ed. Paderborn: Ferdinand Schöningh.
Gruber, Helmut, Birgit Huemer & Markus Rheindorf. 2009. Wissenschaftliches Arbeiten – Ein Praxisbuch für Studierende . Wien: Böhlau Verlag.
Oertner, Monika, Illona St. John & Gabriele Thelen. 2014. Wissenschaftlich Schreiben – Ein Praxisbuch für Schreibtrainer und Studierende . Paderborn: Wilhelm Fink.
Paltridge, Brian & Sue Starfield. 2007. Thesis and Dissertation Writing in a Second Language – a handbook for supervisors. London: Routledge.
Rossig, Wolfram E. & Joachim Prätsch. 2005. Wissenschaftliche Arbeiten . 5th ed. Weyhe: PRINT-TEC.
Samac, Klaus, Monika Prenner & Herbert Schwetz. 2014. Die Bachelorarbeit an Universität und Fachhochschule . 3rd ed. Wien: Facultas.
Stickel-Wolf, Christine & Joachim Wolf. 2013. Wissenschaftliches Arbeiten und Lerntechniken – Erfolgreich studieren – gewusst wie! 7th ed. Wiesbaden: Springer Gabler.
Winter, Wolfgang. 2005. Wissenschaftliche Arbeiten schreiben . 2nd ed. Frankfurt: Redline Wirtschaft.
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Clearly state the answer to your main research question · Summarize and reflect on your research process · Make recommendations for future work on
1. Restate the thesis. The best way to start a conclusion is simply by restating the thesis statement. · 2. Review or reiterate key points of your work · 3.
1. Restate your thesis statement. · 2. Reiterate the key points of your work. · 3. Explain the relevance and significance of your work. · 4. End
The conclusion chapter is typically the final major chapter of a dissertation or thesis. As such, it serves as a concluding summary of your
The conclusion section is the final part of your thesis/dissertation. It is a summary of the thesis, highlighting the importance of the thesis study and how
You should start your conclusion by restating your thesis. Include all of the factors you stated in your introduction while making it clear to
After you have restated your thesis, you should not just summarize the key points of your argument. Your conclusion should offer the reader something new to
Chapters. View all · Step 1: Return to your thesis · Step 1: Return to your thesis · Step 1: Return to your thesis · Step 2: Review your main points.
Restate paper's thesis · At least two sentences that summarize your essay · End with a declarative statement or suggestions for future research.
Depending on the type of thesis or report that you're writing, the conclusion may be a call to action designed to motivate readers. However, the