Statistics Made Easy

## How to Write a Null Hypothesis (5 Examples)

H 0 (Null Hypothesis): Population parameter =, ≤, ≥ some value

H A (Alternative Hypothesis): Population parameter <, >, ≠ some value

Note that the null hypothesis always contains the equal sign .

We interpret the hypotheses as follows:

H 0 : μ ≤ 20 (the true mean height of plants is equal to or even less than 20 inches)

H A : μ > 20 (the true mean height of plants is greater than 20 inches)

## Example 1: Weight of Turtles

Here is how to write the null and alternative hypotheses for this scenario:

H 0 : μ = 300 (the true mean weight is equal to 300 pounds)

H A : μ ≠ 300 (the true mean weight is not equal to 300 pounds)

## Example 2: Height of Males

H 0 : μ ≤ 68 (the true mean height is equal to or even less than 68 inches)

H A : μ > 68 (the true mean height is greater than 68 inches)

## Example 3: Graduation Rates

H 0 : p ≥ 0.80 (the true proportion of students who graduate on time is 80% or higher)

H A : μ < 0.80 (the true proportion of students who graduate on time is less than 80%)

## Example 4: Burger Weights

H 0 : μ = 7 (the true mean weight is equal to 7 ounces)

H A : μ ≠ 7 (the true mean weight is not equal to 7 ounces)

## Example 5: Citizen Support

H 0 : p ≥ .30 (the true proportion of citizens who support the law is greater than or equal to 30%)

H A : μ < 0.30 (the true proportion of citizens who support the law is less than 30%)

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## Hypothesis Testing | A Step-by-Step Guide with Easy Examples

Published on November 8, 2019 by Rebecca Bevans . Revised on December 7, 2022.

There are 5 main steps in hypothesis testing:

- State your research hypothesis as a null hypothesis and alternate hypothesis (H o ) and (H a or H 1 ).
- Collect data in a way designed to test the hypothesis.
- Perform an appropriate statistical test .
- Decide whether to reject or fail to reject your null hypothesis.
- Present the findings in your results and discussion section.

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- an estimate of the difference in average height between the two groups.
- a p -value showing how likely you are to see this difference if the null hypothesis of no difference is true.

These are superficial differences; you can see that they mean the same thing.

## Cite this Scribbr article

Bevans, R. (2022, December 07). Hypothesis Testing | A Step-by-Step Guide with Easy Examples. Scribbr. Retrieved February 27, 2023, from https://www.scribbr.com/statistics/hypothesis-testing/

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Whenever we perform a hypothesis test, we always write a null hypothesis and an alternative hypothesis, which take the following forms: H 0 (Null Hypothesis): Population parameter =, ≤, ≥ some value. H A (Alternative Hypothesis): Population parameter <, >, ≠ some value. Note that the null hypothesis always contains the equal sign.

Step 1: State what will happen if the experiment doesn’t make any difference. That’s the null hypothesis–that nothing... Step 2: Figure out the alternate hypothesis. The alternate hypothesis is the opposite of the null hypothesis. In other...

Step 1: State your null and alternate hypothesis Step 2: Collect data Step 3: Perform a statistical test Step 4: Decide whether to reject or fail to reject your null hypothesis Step 5: Present your findings Frequently asked questions about hypothesis testing Step 1: State your null and alternate hypothesis