Home / Guides / Citation Guides / Chicago Style / How to Cite a Thesis/Dissertation in Chicago/Turabian
How to Cite a Thesis/Dissertation in Chicago/Turabian
Academic theses and dissertations can be a good source of information when writing your own paper. They are usually accessed via a university’s database or a third party database, or found on the web. The main difference between a thesis and a dissertation is the degree type they are submitted for:
- Thesis—A document submitted to earn a degree, such as a master’s degree, at a university.
- Dissertation—A document submitted to earn an advanced degree, such as a doctorate, at a university.
This guide will show you how to create notes-bibliography style citations for theses and dissertations in a variety of formats using the 17th edition of the Chicago Manual of Style.
- Citing a thesis or dissertation from a database
- Citing a thesis or dissertation from the web
- Citing an unpublished thesis or dissertation
Citing a Thesis or Dissertation from a Database
1. First name Last name, “Title” (master’s thesis or PhD diss., University Name, year published), page number, Database (Identification Number).
Last name, First name. “Title.” Master’s thesis or PhD diss., University Name, year published. Database (Identification Number).
1. Kimberly Knight, “Media Epidemics: Viral Structures in Literature and New Media” (PhD diss., University of California, Santa Barbara, 2011), 17, MLA International Bibliography (2013420395).
Knight, Kimberly. “Media Epidemics: Viral Structures in Literature and New Media.” PhD diss., University of California, Santa Barbara, 2011. MLA International Bibliography (2013420395).
Citing a Thesis or Dissertation from the Web
1. First name Last name, “Title” (master’s thesis or PhD diss., University Name, year published), page number, URL.
Last name, First name. “Title.” Master’s thesis or PhD diss., University Name, year published. URL.
1. Peggy Lynn Wilson, “Pedagogical Practices in the Teaching of English Language in Secondary Public Schools in Parker County” (PhD diss., University of Maryland, College Park, 2011), 25, https://drum.lib.umd.edu/bitstream/1903/11801/1/Wilson_umd_0117E_12354.pdf.
Wilson, Peggy Lynn. “Pedagogical Practices in the Teaching of English Language in Secondary Public Schools in Parker County.” PhD diss., University of Maryland, College Park, 2011. https://drum.lib.umd.edu/bitstream/1903/11801/1/Wilson_umd_0117E_12354.pdf.
Citing an Unpublished Thesis or Dissertation
In rare cases, you may need to cite a thesis or dissertation that has not yet been published. This is particularly the case if you want to cite your own work or the work of a colleague.
1. First name Last name, “Title” (unpublished manuscript, Month Day, Year last modified), format.
Last name, First name. “Title.” Unpublished manuscript, last modified Month Day, Year. Format.
1. John Doe, “A Study of Generic Topic” (unpublished manuscript, June 19, 2021), Microsoft Word file.
Doe, John. “A Study of Generic Topic.” Unpublished manuscript, last modified June 19, 2021. Microsoft Word file.
Chicago Formatting Guide
- Book Chapter
- Conference Paper
- Musical Recording
- Thesis or Dissertation
- Sheet Music
- YouTube Video
How useful was this post?
Click on a star to rate it!
We are sorry that this post was not useful for you!
Let us improve this post!
Tell us how we can improve this post?
Chicago Citation Examples
Other Citation Styles
Upload a paper to check for plagiarism against billions of sources and get advanced writing suggestions for clarity and style.
- Research Help
- Teaching & Learning
- Library Home
Chicago Citation Style Guide
- Get Started With Chicago Style
- Note-Bibliography Basics
- Author-Date Basics
- Citing Journal Articles
- Citing Newspaper Articles
- Citing Magazines
- Citing Websites & Blogs
- Sound Recordings
- Radio Program (Podcast)
- Broadcast Radio & TV
- Video Recordings (DVD/VHS)
- TV & Video (Web)
- Images & Art
- Reference Materials
- Religious Texts
- Legal & Government Documents
Theses & Dissertations
Citing a published thesis, citing an unpublished thesis, citing a thesis in online database or repository.
- CMS 14.224: Theses and dissertations
Titles of unpublished works appear in "quotation marks"—not in italics . This treatment extends to theses and dissertations, which are otherwise cited like books.
The kind of thesis, the academic institution, and the date follow the title. Like the publication data of a book, these are enclosed in parentheses in a note but not in a bibliography.
If the document was consulted online, include a URL or, for documents retrieved from a commercial database, give the name of the database and, in parentheses, any identification number supplied or recommended by the database.
For dissertations issued on microfilm, see 14.120 . For published abstracts of dissertations, see 14.197 .
First-name Last-name, "Title of Thesis: Subtitle," (Publisher, Year).
Mihwa Choi, “Contesting Imaginaires in Death Rituals during the Northern Song Dynasty,” PhD diss., (University of Chicago, 2008).
Last-name, "Title of Thesis."
Choi. “Contesting Imaginaires ."
Last-name, First-name. "Title of Thesis: Subtitle." Year.
Choi, Mihwa. “Contesting Imaginaires in Death Rituals during the Northern Song Dynasty.” PhD diss. University of Chicago, 2008.
Last-name, First-name. Year. "Title of Thesis: Subtitle."
Choi, Mihwa. 2008. “Contesting Imaginaires in Death Rituals during the Northern Song Dynasty.” PhD diss. University of Chicago.
Note #. First-name Last-name, "Title of Thesis: Subtitle," Unpublished thesis type, University. Year.
Barry C. Hosking, "The Control of Gastro-intestinal Nematodes in Sheep with the Amino-acetonitrile Derivative, Monepantel with a Particular Focus on Australia and New Zealand," PhD diss., (Ghent University, 2010).
Note #. Last-name,"Title of Thesis."
Barry C. Hosking, "The Control of Gastro-intestinal Nematodes."
Last-name, First-name. "Title of Thesis: Subtitle." Unpublished thesis type. University. Year.
Hosking, Barry C. "The Control of Gastro-intestinal Nematodes in Sheep with the Amino-acetonitrile Derivative, Monepantel with a Particular Focus on Australia and New Zealand." PhD diss., Ghent University, 2010.
Last-name, First-name. Year. "Title of Thesis: Subtitle." Unpublished thesis type. University.
Hosking, Barry C. 2010. "The Control of Gastro-intestinal Nematodes in Sheep with the Amino-acetonitrile Derivative, Monepantel with a Particular Focus on Australia and New Zealand." PhD diss., Ghent University.
Note #. First-name Last-name, "Title of Thesis: Subtitle," Database Name (Identifier if given), Year, Internet address.
12. Meredith Stewart, "An Investigation into Aspects of the Replication of Jembrana Disease Virus, " Australasian Digital Theses Program (WMU2005.1222), 2005, http://wwwlib.murdoch.edu.au/adt/browse/view/adt-MU20051222.104106.
Note #. Last-name, "Title of Thesis."
21. Stewart, "An Investigation into Aspects."
Last-name, First-name. "Title of Thesis: Subtitle." Database Name (Identifier if given), Year. Internet address.
Stewart, Meredith. "An Investigation into Aspects of the Replication of Jembrana Disease Virus ." Australasian Digital Theses Program (WMU2005.1222), 2005. http://wwwlib.murdoch.edu.au/adt/browse/view/adt-MU20051222.104106.
Last-name, First-name. Year. "Title of Thesis: Subtitle." Database Name (Identifier if given), Internet address.
Stewart, Meredith. 2005. "An Investigation into Aspects of the Replication of Jembrana Disease Virus ." Australasian Digital Theses Program (WMU2005.1222), http://wwwlib.murdoch.edu.au/adt/browse/view/adt-MU20051222.104106.
- << Previous: Legal & Government Documents
- Next: More Help >>
- Last Updated: Jan 10, 2023 2:01 PM
- URL: https://libguides.wvu.edu/chicago
- Link to facebook
- Link to linkedin
- Link to twitter
- Link to youtube
- Writing Tips
How to Cite a Thesis or Dissertation in Chicago Footnote Referencing
- 2-minute read
- 6th May 2020
Have you found useful ideas or data in someone else’s dissertation or thesis to support an argument in your own work? Our guide below explains how to cite a thesis or dissertation correctly in the Chicago footnote style.
Footnote Citation for a Thesis or Dissertation
The Chicago Manual of Style ’s footnote referencing system uses superscript numbers to point to citations. For instance:
Usually at the end of a sentence, like this. 1
The footnote format for a thesis or dissertation in Chicago referencing is similar to the one used for a book . The main difference is that you should use quote marks instead of italics for the title:
n. Author name, “Title of paper” (type of paper, academic institution, year of completion), page number, URL/database name (document ID).
Of course, you only need to give a URL or database name and ID if you accessed the paper online! To cite page 42 of John Smith’s printed PhD thesis, then, your footnote would look like this:
1. John Smith, “Useful Ideas for Research” (PhD diss., University of Learning, 2006), 42.
If you’re citing only an abstract, simply add the word “abstract” after the title:
2. Tom Persson, “Great Thoughts and Stuff,” abstract, (master’s thesis, Educational Establishment of City Name Here, 2012), 81, https://CityNameUniversity.edu/1901.11/39144.
Find this useful?
Subscribe to our newsletter and get writing tips from our editors straight to your inbox.
For repeat citations, use the standard shortened footnote format .
The Bibliography Entry
The bibliography entry for a thesis or dissertation will be similar to the first footnote citation. However, there are a few differences in the format:
- You will need to use a period between each element, not a comma.
- The first author’s name should be inverted (i.e., “Surname, First Name”)
- You do not need parentheses for the additional paper information (i.e., the paper type, institution, and year of completion).
- No page number is required.
So, bibliography entries for these sources should look like this:
Author Surname, Author First Name. “Title of paper.” Type of paper, academic institution, year of completion. URL/database ID.
Thus, you would present your bibliography entries as follows:
Persson, Tom. “Great Thoughts and Stuff.” Abstract. Master’s thesis, Educational Establishment of City Name Here, 2012. https://CityNameUniversity.edu/1901.11/39144.
Smith, John. “Useful Ideas for Research.” PhD diss., University of Learning, 2006.
The points above will help you cite a dissertation or thesis in Chicago footnote referencing. Want further help checking your references and writing are error free? Our team of expert proofreaders is available 24/7.
Share this article:
Post A New Comment
Need more help perfecting your writing proofed has the perfect editor.
You can also upload a document to get an instant quote
Drag & drop your file
or browse your computer
Browse from your device
Drop your file here!
Your file is being uploaded!
5 Free French-to-English Translation Services
Below is a list of five free translation apps for French speakers seeking French-to-English translation...
How to Format Fiction Manuscripts
Like non-fiction and screenplays, fiction has unique formatting standards designed to ease the publishing process....
An Introduction to Orthography
If you’re looking up the definition of orthography, you’re probably either a language buff like...
How to Format an Argumentative Essay
When writing an argumentative essay, you would typically research a topic and adopt a certain...
The 13 Best Colleges for Creative Writing Degrees
So, you want to pursue a creative writing degree program in the United States. Wonderful!...
Three UK Scholarships for 2023: Details, Deadlines, and Tips
In this article, you’ll learn about three scholarships available to students looking to study in...
Make sure your writing is the best it can be with our expert English proofreading and editing.
Purdue Online Writing Lab College of Liberal Arts
Welcome to the Purdue OWL
This page is brought to you by the OWL at Purdue University. When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice.
Copyright ©1995-2018 by The Writing Lab & The OWL at Purdue and Purdue University. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use.
This section contains information on The Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS) method of document formatting and citation. These resources follow The Chicago Manual of Style (17th edition), which was issued in 2017.
Since The Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS) is primarily intended as a style guide for published works rather than class papers, these guidelines will be supplemented with information from, Kate L. Turabian’s Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations (8th ed.), which is largely based on CMOS with some slight alterations.
To see a side-by-side comparison of the three most widely used citation styles, including a chart of all CMOS citation guidelines, see the Citation Style Chart.
Please use the example at the bottom of this page to cite the Purdue OWL in CMOS.
A Note on Citations
Unlike many citation styles, CMOS gives writers two different methods for documenting sources: the Author-Date System and the Notes-Bibliography (NB) System. As its name suggests, Author-Date uses parenthetical citations in the text to reference the source's author's last name and the year of publication. Each parenthetical citation corresponds to an entry on a References page that concludes the document. In these regards, Author-Date is very similar to, for instance, APA style.
By contrast, NB uses numbered footnotes in the text to direct the reader to a shortened citation at the bottom of the page. This corresponds to a fuller citation on a Bibliography page that concludes the document. Though the general principles of citation are the same here, the citations themselves are formatted differently from the way they appear in Author-Date.
If you are using CMOS for school or work, don't forget to ensure that you're using your organization's preferred citation method. For examples of these two different styles in action, see our CMOS sample papers:
Author-Date Sample Paper
NB Sample Paper
General CMOS Guidelines
- Text should be consistently double-spaced, except for block quotations, notes, bibliography entries, table titles, and figure captions.
- A prose quotation of five or more lines, or more than 100 words, should be blocked.
- CMOS recommends blocking two or more lines of poetry.
- A blocked quotation does not get enclosed in quotation marks.
- A blocked quotation must always begin a new line.
- Blocked quotations should be indented with the word processor’s indention tool.
- Page numbers begin in the header of the first page of text with Arabic number 1.
- For CMOS and Turabian’s recommendations, see “Headings,” below.
Supplemental Turabian Style Guidelines
- Margins should be set at no less than 1”.
- Typeface should be something readable, such as Times New Roman or Courier.
- Font size should be no less than 10 pt. (preferably, 12 pt.).
Major Paper Sections
- The title should be centered a third of the way down the page.
- Your name, class information, and the date should follow several lines later.
- For subtitles, end the title line with a colon and place the subtitle on the line below the title.
- Double-space each line of the title page.
CMOS Title Page
- Different practices apply for theses and dissertations (see Kate L. Turabian’s A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, ad Dissertations [8 th ed.].
- Titles mentioned in the text, notes, or bibliography are capitalized “headline-style,” meaning first words of titles and subtitles and any important words thereafter should be capitalized.
- Book and periodical titles (titles of larger works) should be italicized.
- Article and chapter titles (titles of shorter works) should be enclosed in double quotation marks.
- The titles of most poems should be enclosed in double quotation marks, but the titles of very long poems should be italicized.
- Titles of plays should be italicized.
- For example, use lowercase terms to describe periods, except in the case of proper nouns (e.g., “the colonial period,” vs. “the Victorian era”).
- A prose quotation of five or more lines should be “blocked.” The block quotation should match the surrounding text, and it takes no quotation marks. To offset the block quote from surrounding text, indent the entire quotation using the word processor’s indentation tool. It is also possible to offset the block quotation by using a different or smaller font than the surrounding text.
- Label the first page of your back matter, your comprehensive list of sources, “Bibliography” (for Notes and Bibliography style) or “References” (for Author-Date style).
- Leave two blank lines between “Bibliography” or “References” and your first entry.
- Leave one blank line between remaining entries.
- List entries in letter-by-letter alphabetical order according to the first word in each entry, be that the author's name or the title of the piece..
- For two to three authors, write out all names.
- For four to ten authors, write out all names in the bibliography but only the first author’s name plus “et al.” in notes and parenthetical citations.
- When a source has no identifiable author, cite it by its title, both on the references page and in shortened form (up to four keywords from that title) in parenthetical citations throughout the text.
- Write out publishers’ names in full.
- Do not use access dates unless publication dates are unavailable.
- If you cannot ascertain the publication date of a printed work, use the abbreviation “n.d.”
- Provide DOIs instead of URLs whenever possible.
- If no DOI is available, provide a URL.
- If you cannot name a specific page number when called for, you have other options: section (sec.), equation (eq.), volume (vol.), or note (n.).
CMOS Bibliography Page
- Note numbers should begin with “1” and follow consecutively throughout a given paper.
- Note numbers are superscripted.
- Note numbers should be placed at the end of the clause or sentence to which they refer and should be placed after all punctuation, except for the dash.
- Note numbers are full-sized, not raised, and followed by a period (superscripting note numbers in the notes themselves is also acceptable).
- In parenthetical citation, separate documentation from brief commentary with a semicolon.
- Do not repeat the hundreds digit in a page range if it does not change from the beginning to the end of the range.
For more information on footnotes, please see CMOS NB Sample Paper .
While The Chicago Manual of Style does not include a prescribed system for formatting headings and subheads, it makes several recommendations.
- Maintain consistency and parallel structure in headings and subheads.
- Use headline-style for purposes of capitalization.
- Subheadings should begin on a new line.
- Subheadings can be distinguished by font-size.
- Ensure that each level of hierarchy is clear and consistent.
- Levels of subheads can be differentiated by type style, use of boldface or italics, and placement on the page, usually either centered or flush left.
- Use no more than three levels of hierarchy.
- Avoid ending subheadings with periods.
Turabian has an optional system of five heading levels.
Turabian Subheading Plan
Here is an example of the five-level heading system:
Tables and Figures
- Position tables and figures as soon as possible after they are first referenced. If necessary, present them after the paragraph in which they are described.
- For figures, include a caption, or short explanation of the figure or illustration, directly after the figure number.
- Cite a source as you would for parenthetical citation, and include full information in an entry on your Bibliography or References page.
- Acknowledge reproduced or adapted sources appropriately (i.e., photo by; data adapted from; map by...).
- If a table includes data not acquired by the author of the text, include an unnumbered footnote. Introduce the note by the word Source(s) followed by a colon, then include the full source information, and end the note with a period.
How to Cite the Purdue OWL in CMOS
On the new OWL site, contributors’ names and the last edited date are no longer listed at the top of every page. This means that most citations will now begin with the title of the resource, rather than the contributors' names.
Footnote or Endnote (N):
Corresponding Bibliographical Entry (B):
“Title of Resource.” List the OWL as Publishing Organization/Web Site Name . http://Web address for OWL resource.
“General Format.” The Purdue OWL. https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/717/02/.
Author Date In-text Citation:
("General Format" 2017).
Author Date References Page Citation:
Year of Publication. “Title of Resource.” List the OWL as Publishing Organization/Web Site Name . http://Web address for OWL resource.
2017. “General Format.” The Purdue OWL . https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/717/02.
Generate accurate Chicago citations for free
The Scribbr Citation Generator will automatically create a flawless Chicago citation
- Knowledge Base
- Chicago Style
Chicago Style Citation Guide | Templates & Citation Examples
Notes and bibliography is the most common type of Chicago style citation, and the main focus of this article. It is widely used in the humanities. Citations are placed in footnotes or endnotes , with a Chicago style bibliography listing your sources in full at the end.
Author-date style is mainly used in the sciences. It uses parenthetical in-text citations , always accompanied by a reference list at the end.
Generate accurate Chicago citations with Scribbr
Table of contents, citing sources with notes, chicago note citation examples, creating a chicago style bibliography, chicago author-date style, frequently asked questions about chicago style citation.
To cite sources in Chicago notes and bibliography style, place a superscript number at the end of a sentence or clause, after the punctuation mark, corresponding to a numbered footnote or endnote .
Footnotes appear at the bottom of each page, while endnotes appear at the end of the text. Choose one or the other and use it consistently.
Most word-processing programs can automatically link your superscript numbers and notes.
Full notes vs. short notes
Citations can take the form of full notes or short notes. Full notes provide complete source information, while short notes include only the author’s last name, the source title, and the page number(s) of the cited passage. The usual rule is to use a full note for the first citation of each source, and a short note for subsequent citations of the same source.
Guidelines can vary across fields, though; sometimes you might be required to use full notes every time, or conversely to use short notes every time, as long as all your sources are listed in the bibliography. It’s best to check with your instructor if you’re unsure which rule to follow.
Multiple authors in Chicago notes
When a source has multiple authors, list up to three in your note citations. When there are four or more, use “ et al. ” (Latin for “and others”).
A Chicago footnote or endnote citation always contains the author’s name and the title of the source. The other elements vary by the type of source you’re citing.
Page number(s) should be included if you are referring to a specific part of the text. The elements of the citation are separated by commas , and the note always ends with a period. The page range is separated by an en dash .
Navigate through the Chicago citation examples using the tabs below.
- Book chapter
- Journal article
When citing a book , if an edition is specified, include it in abbreviated form (e.g., 2nd ed.). If the book was accessed online, add a URL.
When citing a chapter from a multi-authored book, start with details of the chapter, followed by details of the book.
To cite a journal article , you need to specify the volume and issue as well as the date. It’s best to use a DOI instead of a URL.
Web pages often have no author or date specified. If the author is unknown, start with the title in a full note, and use the website name as author in a short note. If the publication date is unknown, include the date you accessed the information (e.g., accessed on March 12, 2022).
Receive feedback on language, structure, and formatting
Professional editors proofread and edit your paper by focusing on:
- Academic style
- Vague sentences
- Style consistency
See an example
The bibliography lists full references for all your sources. It appears at the end of your paper (before any appendices ).
Author names are inverted in the bibliography, and sources are alphabetized by author last name. Each source is listed on a new line, with a hanging indent applied to sources that run over onto multiple lines.
If a source has multiple authors, list up to 10 in the bibliography. If there are 11 or more, list the first seven followed by “et al.”
When to include a bibliography
It is not mandatory to include a bibliography if you have cited your sources with full notes. However, it is recommended to include one in most cases, with the exception of very short texts with few sources.
Check with your instructor if you’re not sure whether to include one.
Chicago style bibliography examples
Bibliography entries vary in format according to source type. Formats and examples for some common source types are shown below.
In the (social) sciences, you may be told to use author-date style instead. In this style, citations appear in parentheses in the text.
Unlike note citations, author-date citations look the same for all source types .
Author-date citations are always accompanied by a reference list. The reference list is similar to a bibliography: It appears at the end of your text and lists all your sources in full.
The only difference is that the publication year comes straight after the author name, to match with the in-text citations. For example, the book reference from above looks like this in author-date style.
Chicago Author-Date Quick Guide
In a Chicago style footnote , list up to three authors. If there are more than three, name only the first author, followed by “ et al. “
In the bibliography , list up to 10 authors. If there are more than 10, list the first seven followed by “et al.”
The same rules apply in Chicago author-date style .
To automatically generate accurate Chicago references, you can use Scribbr’s free Chicago reference generator .
In a Chicago footnote citation , when the author of a source is unknown (as is often the case with websites ), start the citation with the title in a full note. In short notes and bibliography entries, list the organization that published it as the author.
In Chicago author-date style , treat the organization as author in your in-text citations and reference list.
When an online source does not list a publication date, replace it with an access date in your Chicago footnotes and your bibliography :
If you are using author-date in-text citations , or if the source was not accessed online, replace the date with “n.d.”
Page numbers should be included in your Chicago in-text citations when:
- You’re quoting from the text.
- You’re paraphrasing a particular passage.
- You’re referring to information from a specific section.
When you’re referring to the overall argument or general content of a source, it’s unnecessary to include page numbers.
In Chicago notes and bibliography style , the usual standard is to use a full note for the first citation of each source, and short notes for any subsequent citations of the same source.
However, your institution’s guidelines may differ from the standard rule. In some fields, you’re required to use a full note every time, whereas in some other fields you can use short notes every time, as long as all sources are listed in your bibliography . If you’re not sure, check with your instructor.
In Chicago author-date style , your text must include a reference list . It appears at the end of your paper and gives full details of every source you cited.
In notes and bibliography style, you use Chicago style footnotes to cite sources; a bibliography is optional but recommended. If you don’t include one, be sure to use a full note for the first citation of each source.
Is this article helpful?
Other students also liked.
- Chicago In-text Citations | Styles, Format & Examples
- Creating a Chicago Style Bibliography | Format & Examples
- Chicago Style Footnotes | Citation Format & Examples
More interesting articles
- Chicago Author-Date Style | A Complete Guide to Citing Sources
- Chicago Style Citation Examples | Website, Book, Article, Video
- Chicago Style Format for Papers | Requirements & Examples
- Citing a Journal Article in Chicago Style | Format & Examples
- Citing a Newspaper Article in Chicago Style | Format & Examples
- Citing a Speech in Chicago style | Format & Examples
- Citing a YouTube Video in Chicago Style | Format & Examples
- How to Cite a Book in Chicago Style | Format & Examples
- How to Cite a Movie in Chicago Style | Format & Examples
- How to Cite a Website in Chicago Style | Formats & Examples
- How to Cite an Image in Chicago Style | Format & Examples
- How to Cite an Interview in Chicago Style | Format & Examples
- How to Cite the Bible in Chicago Style | Format & Abbreviations
- How to Format a Turabian/Chicago Style Title Page | Example
- How to Write an Annotated Bibliography in Chicago/Turabian Style
- Introduction to Turabian Style | Citations & Formatting
Dissertation—A document submitted to earn an advanced degree, such as a doctorate, at a university. This guide will show you how to create notes-bibliography style citations for theses and dissertations in a variety of formats using the 17th edition of the Chicago Manual of Style.
Citing a Published Thesis Note-Bibliography Note: First-name Last-name, "Title of Thesis: Subtitle," (Publisher, Year). Example: Mihwa Choi, “Contesting Imaginaires in Death Rituals during the Northern Song Dynasty,” PhD diss., (University of Chicago, 2008). Short Note: Last-name, "Title of Thesis." Example: Choi. “Contesting Imaginaires."
Cite your source automatically in Chicago style Cite Using citation machines responsibly Powered by The material on this page focuses primarily on one of the two CMOS documentation styles: the Notes-Bibliography System (NB), which is used by those working in literature, history, and the arts.
The Chicago Manual of Style ’s footnote referencing system uses superscript numbers to point to citations. For instance: Usually at the end of a sentence, like this.1. The footnote format for a thesis or dissertation in Chicago referencing is similar to the one used for a book.
Titles in the text as well as in notes and bibliographies are treated with quotation marks or italics based on the type of work they name. Book and periodical titles (titles of larger works) should be italicized. Article and chapter titles (titles of shorter works) should be enclosed in double quotation marks.
To automatically generate accurate Chicago references, you can use Scribbr’s free reference generator: Chicago Reference Generator To apply Chicago format: Use a standard font like 12 pt. Times New Roman. Double-space the text. Use 1 inch margins or larger. Indent new paragraphs by ½ inch. Place page numbers in the top right or bottom center.
To cite sources in Chicago notes and bibliography style, place a superscript number at the end of a sentence or clause, after the punctuation mark, corresponding to a numbered footnote or endnote. Footnotes appear at the bottom of each page, while endnotes appear at the end of the text.