Marshall Plan Essay
Truman doctrine: part of the us policy of containment.
The spread of communism by forming key alliances and by strengthening noncommunist countries bordering the Soviet Union is what the Policy of containment aimed to prevent.
The Berlin Aircrafts, Korean War, And The Cuban Missile Crisis
The USA is worrying about communism! The soviet union’s new form of government is spreading around Europe and the USA is starting to worry about communism. Democratic nations such as the US are trying to stop communism from spreading. Throughout the essay we would be defining USA’s Policy of containment, stop the flow of communism.We will be going over 3 important events during the cold war, The Berlin Aircrafts, Korean War, and The Cuban Missile Crisis.
Foreign Policy Development in the 20th Century Essay
The United States continued to use their power in Europe for their benefit. The Untied States, Canada, and ten European nations formed a mutual defense pact called NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) which an attack against one of them would be an attack against all of them, all for one, one for all. The Americans were able to keep Russia out, Untied States in, and Germany down which was perfect for them.
How The United States Contained Communism in the Cold War Essay
During the cold war, the United States engaged in many aggressive policies both at home and abroad, in which to fight communism and the spread of communist ideas. Faced with a new challenge and new global responsibilities the U.S. needed to retain what it had fought so strongly for in World War II. It needed to contain the communist ideas pouring from the Soviet Union while preventing communist influence at home, without triggering World War III. With the policies of containment, McCarthyism, and brinkmanship, the United States hoped to effectively stop the spread of communism and their newest threat, the Soviet Union.
The Marshall Plan Essay
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First and foremost, a great deal of Europe’s success would not have happened without its initial aid from the United States. After helping destroy so much of the continent, the U.S. pumped billions and billions of dollars back into the European economy through The Marshall Plan. It was named after Secretary of State George C. Marshall, who said “The world of suffering people looks to us for leadership. Their thoughts, however, are not concentrated alone on this problem. They have more immediate and terribly pressing concerns where the mouthful of food will come from, where they will find shelter tonight, and where they will find warmth. Along with the great problem of maintaining the peace we must solve the
Effects Of The Marshall Plan
Citizens of Europe were living in shambles (See Fig 2). Politically, Americans knew spreading capitalistic ways in Europe would gain support from the Europeans, giving the United States trade partners. During the Cold War, Germany became the center of all the tensions between Capitalism and Communism. Germany was the ideal gateway between East and West Europe. Its location made it a suitable place for these political struggles to occur. This angered the Soviets because they too wanted to influence their ways on Europe. The Marshall Plan, following the Truman Doctrine-- which supplied $400 million to countries under totalitarian regimes (Turkey and Greece), appeared to be another anti-communist move made by the United States. However, the United States still successfully achieved the goal of making Europe economically stable.
Summary: Attacks On Pearl Harbor
February 1945: Yalta Conference: The Yalta conference was meeting held by the leaders of the 3 most powerful allied countries: the US, USSR, and Great Britain. They were there to discuss reparations in Germany. They all agreed that Germany should have a military power. Stalin, however, wanted $20 billion from Germany to pay for reparations, but FDR and Churchill disagreed. At the end of the conference, they all agree to divide Germany into four zones. The US, USSR, Great Britain, and France will each get a zone. This also led to the division of Berlin. The Yalta conference left Berlin and Germany divided until the end of the Cold War.
Restricting Communism with the Marshall Plan
The speech was created primarily Charles Bohlen, a Soviet expert and Marshall’s special assistant, and later revised by Marshall. Department officials, including George Kennan and William Clayton saw the Marshall Plan as a way of restricting Communist growth in Europe, by strengthening the struggling democratic European nations . After the end of WWII in 1945, the majority of Europe was in ruins; over a third of the European industry was destroyed by the war, resulting in weak economies, and millions of people unemployed and starving, causing low morale. As economies were not improving at a rapid enough pace, combined with high unemployment and a hungry population, people started to look for change. Communism began to look promising, and was becoming increasingly popular in Europe through rebels and partisans. In an attempt confine the spread of Communism, Marshall was sent to Moscow to negotiate with Stalin. Initially, Stalin welcomed the possibility of Soviet participation in a U.S funded European reconstruction program. However, Stalin opposed the “idea of a coordinated multilateral aid programme, which was seen to threaten the Soviet political and economic position in Eastern Europe”, and withdrew all support and insisted that
Containment: Vietnam War and Communism Essay examples
After the defeat of the Axis powers in World War II it was apparent that the victors would come out as the new world powers. With the United States and the Soviet Union being the strongest nations of the victorious Allies they were the two countries who emerged as the new world powers but their views varied drastically. The Democratic United States and the Communist Soviets butted heads about each others views and the U.S. wanted to halt the spread of communism so it couldn’t get to the rest of the world. The U.S. adopted a policy of containment to keep communism in the USSR and the other places it had spread. The U.S.’s main goal was to prevent the spread of communism and they did everything
The Dispute To Communism Dbq Analysis
Almost as soon as World War II had ended, the Cold War began, and the Soviets wasted no time in spreading their communist ideals to nearby countries by forcefully establishing communist governments. Soon after, they held on tightly to their eastern block of Germany as a first defense from western political thought, even going as far as blockading Berlin from any form of help, especially from the West. The West quickly responded by airlifting supplies that included food, coal, etc. . This marked the first instance of the American policy of containment, which was the idea that the Soviet Union and Soviet communism should not be allowed to spread (Background Essay). As time went on and acts of communism began to burst out globally, the U.S. policy of containment became an effective
Key Events In Ww2
Marshall Plan- The Marshall Plan was a major aid package allocated to re-build Western Europe following the end of WWII. The main objectives of the Marshall Plan besides rebuilding war-torn Europe were decreasing interstate barriers and regulations, and encouraging increases in productivity, trade union membership, and adopting modern business practices.
Cold War Containment Or Hegemony Essay
With over 13 billion dollars in aid being delivered to Europe under the Marshall Plan, from 1948 to 1952 many European economies grew at an unprecedented rate. The mutual assistance of the aid led to softening of national competition between many countries in Europe, and served the dual purposes of modernization and cooperation for European countries. At the same time as the Marshal plan was being implemented, the Soviet Union enacted what was know as the, “Cominform” that sought to counter the American influence in post war Europe. This program organized by the Kremlin would work with communist parties in European countries through propaganda efforts to
Aspects Of The Truman Policy Of Containment
2. After WWII, Germany was divided into four zones. West Germany was occupied by the U.S., Britain, and France. Whereas East Germany was occupied by the Soviet Union. Berlin
USA policy of containment
In June 1947, the United States announced the Marshall Plan, intended to help economic recovery in Europe and thus prevent the spread of Communism in a Europe that was increasingly becoming “a breeding ground of hate”, thus providing a comforting environment for the rise of the Marxist ideology. At first, the Marshall Plan seemed to be a success, with economic aid worth $17 billion being made available to Europe and ensuring the protection of democratic governments in Turkey and Greece. Marshall Aid did help economic recovery in Europe, erasing unemployment and improving living standards greatly. Most Western European nations were happy to accept American aid in order to redevelop their economies. However, Stalin forbade any Eastern European countries from accepting the Plan and setup organizations like the Cominform and Comecon instead, to further tighten Stalin’s grip over Eastern Europe.
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Free Marshall Plan Essays and Papers
The Marshall Plan
propaganda located in the appendix, that suggests the Marshall Plan did achieve success in stopping communism from spreading into Western European economies (Clare). One German Politian praised the Marshall saying, "The Marshall Plan contributed directly to Europe’s economic recovery, to restoring morale, and to the containment of communism” (Wallace). Word Count: 558 Section C: Evaluation of Sources Machado, Barry. In Search of a Usable Past: The Marshall Plan and Postwar Reconstruction Today. Published
The Importance Of The Marshall Plan
In World War 2, two groups of powers--the Axis and Allies--relentlessly fought against each other for dominance, resulting in many countries left in ruins with limited supplies and support, until George Catlett Marshall, an American soldier and U.S. Army chief, proposed a plan to rebuild Europe’s economy. He stated that, “‘Our policy is not directed against any country, but against hunger, poverty, and chaos’”(Zarr 38). Constant fighting lead Europe in terrible ruins with an estimate of 60 million
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The Marshall Plan First and foremost, a great deal of Europe’s success would not have happened without its initial aid from the United States. After helping destroy so much of the continent, the U.S. pumped billions and billions of dollars back into the European economy through The Marshall Plan. It was named after Secretary of State George C. Marshall, who said “The world of suffering people looks to us for leadership. Their thoughts, however, are not concentrated alone on this problem. They
Significance Of The Marshall Plan On Europe
What was the significance of the Marshall Plan on Post-war Europe? *FOURTH DRAFT* September 2, 1945, marked the end of the Second World War, a day in which soldiers could finally leave foreign shores for home, but they would soon discover that home was not how they left it. For World War II had taken its toll on Europe. On both sides all that had been built before now lay in ruin and desolation, with economic disaster and extreme poverty now left to govern its inhabitants. Industrial production was
the United States created the Marshall Plan. The Marshall Plan was able to distribute aid and assets to countries around Europe with the aim of recovering from World War 2. Although many nations still fell into many conflicts which involved communism, overall the Marshall Plan fulfilled many of its goals such as economic stability. The impact of the Marshall Plan had a great effect on modern day society. Taking place on June 5, 1947, Secretary of State George Marshall addressed numerous individuals
How Successful Was The Marshall Plan
Introduction The European Recovery Program (ERP), also called the Marshall Plan was a plan for foreign aid announced by Georges Marshall (Secretary of State of the US, 1947-1949), in June 1947 at Harvard University to help rebuild Western Europe largely destroyed by World War II (Holm, 2017, p. xv). Under the presidency of Harry Truman, the recovery program was designed in 1947 and adopted by law in April 1948. Thereafter, US$13 billion financial support, food aid and technical assistance were provided
The Marshall Plan and Accomplishments of George Marshall
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George C. Marshall was an essential player in the mid twentieth century. His military expertise and planning abilities led us to victory in world war two. The same made the Marshall plan so effective in reviving Europe’s down economy and standard of living. As secretary of state and defense his leadership skills and reputation as an honest man made him the perfect fit for the job. To say the least, George Marshall had a vast influence over this country while he was in power. On September 1st
Benefits Of The Marshall Plan
The European Recovery Program, or the Marshall Plan as it is more commonly known, was vital in sparking economic recovery in Europe between 1948 and 1951. Through this plan, over $13 billion was used to finance said economic recovery which would further restore Europe’s confidence in terms of its economic future. This American initiative to help Western European countries recover from the detrimental effects of World War II, aided in rebuilding devastated regions, get rid of trade barriers, make
Overview of the Marshall Plan
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Throughout history America has always been known as being one of the first countries to step in to help or fix a problem. This was the same case when it came to the Marshall Plan. Although many may say the Marshal Plan is another example of imperialism in the guise of help, this is not the case because was it fulfilling its moral responsibility to help those in need. World War II was a devastating war that lasted from about 1939 to 1945. When many think of World War II, they think of the devastation
Post World War II: The Marshall Plan in Western Europe
To what extent did the Marshall Plan aid Western Europe amidst the devastation of post-WWII? A. Plan of Investigation As one of the major theatres of the Second World War, Western Europe was left thoroughly ravaged. Conditions were bleak financially and this area was considered to be the most susceptible to communism. Not only was it geographically closest to a Soviet threat, but it was also the most socially vulnerable. This investigation will attempt to answer the following question: To what extent
The stress, exacerbated by the distrust and underhanded tactics between the United States and Soviet powers, coupled with arguments over territory and policy, forced the hands of both nations to engage War. At the zenith of the tensions, The Marshall Plan marked the end of conventional diplomatic solutions, due to the fact that finally, Soviets and Americans had to choose their stance on what they thought was best for political progress. “Leninism and totalitarianism created a structure of thought
The Marshall Plan was proposed by Secretary of State-- George C. Marshall at Harvard University on June 5, 1947. Marshall mentioned the terrible condition of Europe at the beginning of the speech, and he convinced that US should set up an aid program for Europe to recover their economy. The Marshall Plan was a 4-year aid program which the United States had to give over $12 billion to the countries in Western Europe to help them rebuild their economy since most part of Europe was devastated by World
Causes Of The Marshall Plan
keep eastern communists from escaping to the western democracy. This was done by trapping them in their own little self-contained city. Eastern refuges poured into the western Berlin because they were re-building their city due ‘’The Marshall Plan.’’ The Marshall Plan was a program to help aid the need of European economy’s after World War 2. They did this to boost economies to keep the spread of Communism from the east. At first it was a make shift wall made overnight using anything they could to
Understanding the Marshal Plan
of the Cold War would be played out in war torn Europe, where numerous countries suc... ... middle of paper ... ...cent French harbors had been destroyed during World War II, and completely restored two years after the implementation of the Marshall Plan. Not only that, Americans would show European new ways of doing business. For example, Americans taught the Europeans in order to attain higher productivity, they needed to eliminate tariffs, smash national barriers to trade, integrate their economies
The Consequences of Excessive Government Intervention
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to the Marshall plan as an example of one of the many great accomplishments of big government (McKenna & Feingold, 2012). Mr. Madrick is not being completely truthful with this claim. The Marshall plan gave European countries almost $100 billion to help rebuild, and is also credited with saving European economies after World War II. Tyler Cowen, an economist from George Mason university, points out in his study of the plan, that the economies that received the most funding under the plan actually
Factors of Successful Financial Centers
The Business Dictionary defines a financial center as a city or district that has a heavy concentration of financial institutions that offer a highly developed commercial and communications infrastructure and where great number of domestic and international trading transactions are conducted. Moreover, a global financial center is a concentration of an extensive variety of international financial businesses and transactions in one location. With there being many financial centers around the world
Marshall Plan Throughout World War II, America and other large nations have been giving large amounts of money to help rebuild small countries, and get them on their “feet”. The Marshall Plan today is now focused on building a global economy within many different and under developed countries. However the United States has been focusing on the Asian countries more so than the ones in their own backward. When I refer to our “backyard” I am speaking of Latin America. They too are an under privileged
US in the World
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cities that have been utterly annihilated. George Marshall was ... ... middle of paper ... ...b. 01 Jun. 2014 . "Meiji Restoration". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2014. Web. 01 Jun. 2014. . Stearns, Peter N., et al. World Civilization: The Global Edition. Upper Saddle River: Pearson Education Inc., 2011. Print. “The Marshall Plan.” George C. Marshall Foundation. George C. Marshall Foundation., 2009. Web. 1 Jun. 2014. < http://www
Truman’s Policy of Containment: As related to the Individual and Society
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Truman’s Policy of Containment: As related to the Individual and Society Containment in foreign policy is known as the strategy suggested by George Kennan to prevent Soviet expansionism by exerting counter pressure along Soviet borders. The Truman Doctrine was the name given to a speech President Truman delivered to a joint session of Congress on March 12, 1947, in which he proclaimed a new policy and role for the United States in global affairs. Specifically, the president sought $400 million
Foreign Aid Essay
American politics, specifically, American foreign policy is a very controversial topic of study and subsequent discussion. Foreign aid, defined by the Merriam-Webster dictionary as “the transfer of capital goods from one country to another”, is crucial to U.S. foreign policy. But how can foreign aid, which represents only about 0.2 percent of Gross National Product and less than 1 percent of the federal budget , be important to something as crucial as foreign policy? A few questions must be asked
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Historical Political Event: The Marshall Plan Term Paper
Introduction, overview of the marshall plan, motivations behind the plan, impact of the marshall plan.
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The paper discusses the Marshall plan of 1947 as a major historical political event of the United States. It begins by acknowledging that this plan was developed from the realization by American policy makers that Europe required aid in order to recover form the devastations caused by the war. The plan was proposed by the then secretary of state, George Marshall who stated that Europe’s weakened economy made her vulnerable to economic and political collapse (Cox & Kennedy-Pipe, 2005). European countries were required to collectively come up with a proposal on the type of aid required and then notify the US. As such, European cooperation was a prerequisite for receiving aid through the plan (Scott, 1995). The paper recognizes that the Marshall Plan was a comprehensive scheme that was proposed for a number of reasons. The first was that the rate of recovery following the War was very slow. Cox and Kennedy-Pipe (2005) state that the US had interest in the recovery of European economy since such a recovery had impacts on its long term economic well being. The aid would also strengthen economies and thus prevent the outbreak of another war. The Marshall plan was also used as a tool for the containment policy which sought to curb Soviet expansionism and influence in the continent. The plan also hoped to prevent nationalistic sentiments that had previously led to the rise of the NAZI party. The paper also reviews some of the positive and negative outcomes of the Marshall Plan. On the positive, the plan is seen to have resulted in the successful reconstruction of Western Europe. The plan also lad the ground works for the integration of European nations, a plan which has culminated in the emergence of the European Union. The plan also acted as a reconciliation tool and former wartime enemies were able to work together in cooperation for the development of the continent. American capitalism was also embedded in European values as a result of the Marshall Plan. On the negative, the paper notes that the plan was a catalyst to the outbreak of the Cold War. The plan also led to the division of Germany into East and West (Chollet & Goldgeier, 2006). The paper concludes by reasserting that the Marshall plan played a monumental role in the revival of Europe and is to be credited with the lasting peace and prosperity that the European countries enjoy.
In its history, the United States of America has had a number of significant political events which have had major consequences for the country and even the international community. One of these monumental events in the political history of the US is the Marshall Plan of 1947. This plan which was designed by the then Secretary of State, George Marshall, is considered by many to be the most successful aid plan implemented by the US. Through the Marshall Plan, American leaders were able to recast the war-torn Europe in the image of American neocapitalism (Hogan, 1985). As a result of this plan, West Europe was able to quickly recover from the wartime devastations. This paper will set out to articulate what the Marshall Plan was and the reasons for its implementation. The impacts that this plan had on the recipient countries in Europe will also be discussed so as to reaffirm the significance of this political event.
What became known as the Marshall Plan was announced during the Harvard University address by George Marshall in 5 June, 1947. The US government was concerned that the economic deterioration experienced by Europe after the war had made the continent weak and therefore vulnerable to economic and political collapse. President Truman engaged in active delegation by relying on the expertise of Marshall to come up with the European Recovery Program (ERP) (Cottam et al., 2009). This plan would be a comprehensive scheme that provided “mutual aid” and joint action in Europe as a whole with the intention of pointing Europeans in the right direction (Hogan, 1985, p.46). European countries were therefore called upon to consult with each other on the type of aid that they needed in order to recover and then notify the US which was prepared to offer financial aid to assist in the recovery. An assessment of the conditions in Europe revealed that the continent was in genuine need of assistance. May (1948) states that the US had a sufficient margin to offer this assistance since the US had been experiencing economic growth since the prewar years and even during the war years. Adopting a capitalistic economy was a major precondition that a country had to fulfill before it could be eligible for aid from the US.
Two years after the end of the Second World War, Europe was still lagging behind economically and reconstruction efforts were going on at a slow pace. Following these deteriorating economic and political realities in Europe following the war, the US felt compelled to act. Cox and Kennedy-Pipe (2005) contend that while the motives behind the generous offer by the US were complex, the primary objective was to stabilize Western Europe. This stabilization was to be achieved through economic reconstruction and political cooperation among the Western European states. A huge motivation for the ERP was US self-interest. Hogan (1985) who was a chief historian of the plan declared that the measure “rested squarely on an American conviction that European economic recovery was essential to the long-term interests of the United States” (49). The US recognized that a stable Europe was best for her prosperity since any European war would involve the US (Cottam et al., 2009). Assisting Europe through the ERP was therefore seen as a partly self-serving act. The Marshall Plan effectively promised American aid to a European Recovery Program that would be designed to establish a solid economic foundation for European States (May, 1948). The ERP also aimed at curtailing Soviet influence in Europe. In the postwar years, the Soviet Union was the most economically and politically potent force in Europe. The US was concerned that the Soviet Union would make attempts to influence the weakened European states and export her communist ideals to these countries. The British Foreign Secretary, Ernest Bevin made the case that without economic aid, Britain and indeed the whole of Europe would be unable to resist Soviet pressure (Cox & Kennedy-Pipe, 2005). As such, the Marshall plan was to be used as a tool by the US to combat Soviet influence without resorting to military action. The Marshall Plan hoped to prevent nationalistic sentiments among European citizens. Cottam et al (2009) declare that nationalism is one of the most dangerous sources of political behavior in the 20th century. The poor economic state of Europe resulted in inflation and decreased quality of living which were conditions that encouraged nationalistic tendencies. Nationalistic tendencies could result in popular support for militant nationalism which would be detrimental to European peace (Hogan, 1985). For example, German nationalism had been to blame for WWII since it was nationalistic sentiments which had led to mass voting for the Nazis. The Marshall plan recognized the link between economics and militant nationalism and therefore sort to prevent nationalism by easing the burdens of the war devastated Europe. Ekovich (2006) proposes that the US was interested in seeing an integrated European since the country owed its success to the political and economic integration which had come about from the unification of the colonies. American politicians therefore hoped to influence the unification of Europe through the aid plan. While it was emphasized that the initiatives towards unification should come from the European countries themselves, the US attempted to influence this with the Truman Administration pushing for European integration at least on an economic level.
- Positive Impacts
The Marshall Plan had a number of positive impacts on Europe. Perhaps the most important outcome of the Marshall Plan is that it led to the successful reconstruction of Western Europe with the countries achieving significant economic growth. While there is disagreement as to the effectiveness of the plan with some opponents suggesting that it resulted in the wasted of over $12 billion of tax payer money, there is general agreement that the plan provided the necessary support to revive the European economy (Hogan, 1985). The plan laid the ground works for the integration of European nations. Through the Marshall Plan, American policy makers attempted to integrate Europe in order to create the era of “lasting peace and prosperity” (Hogan, 1985). Cottam et al. (2009) demonstrate that long-term solutions to conflicts can be achieved through developing common identities. Integration strategies are therefore best suited to restore harmony between antagonistic parties. These integration efforts were pushed forward through strategies such as the establishment of collective responsibility for reviewing national requirements for all the countries that received aid under the Marshall Plan. European countries were required to form an international economic infrastructure before they could be eligible for aid from the US. The Marshall Plan also acted as a reconciliation tool for the former war-time enemies. Cottam et al. (2009) state that reconciliation calls for a changed psychological orientation towards the other. The Marshall plan forced the European nations to regard each others as partners in development. Through the plan, the US forced the major antagonists in the war, German, France, and Britain to come up with a way to work together (Ekovich, 2006). At the onset of negotiations, France was opposed to having Germany as part of the proposed European Economic Union and it sought to have the country excluded from the aid plans. However, US applied diplomatic pressure to foster peaceful cooperation between the former enemies and by the end; France and Germany were able to work together in a mutually beneficial way. The Marshal Plan increased confidence in the American capitalism ideal which had not been fully embraced by Western European countries such as France. From the onset, the plan required recipient states to adopt a capitalistic economy to make them eligible for aid. By the end of the plan, Western Europe emerged as the economic power which increased the continent’s faith in a capitalistic economic system. The plan was therefore instrumental in saving the European states which had suffered huge devastations in the war from the influence of the Soviet Union.
- Negative Impacts
Historians agree that the Marshall plan was the key catalyst to the outbreak of the Cold War which lasted for decades. This is because the Cold War began after the plan was announced the Soviet Union together with East European states decided not to participate. Scott (1995) asserts that the Marshall Plan effectively “divided Europe into two competing blocs, each led by one of the emergent superpowers” (p.22). The adversity between these two blocs lasted for over 5 decades and resulted in many proxy wars and establishment of spheres of influence by the two powers. The cold war resulted in massive military buildups on both sides due to the suspicion with which each side regarded the other (Cottam et al., 2009). The Marshall Plan was also responsible for the splitting of Germany into two parts. Chollet and Goldgeier (2006) argue that since US and British officials hoped to keep Moscow out of the plan, they were unable to gain the cooperation of the Soviet Union and therefore keep Germany intact. This move had negative impacts on the people of Eastern Germany who were left vulnerable to the Communist forces. East Germany continued to lag behind economically compared to West German and this situation only started to reverse itself after the fall of the Berlin Wall.
This paper set out to discuss the Marshall Plan of 1947 as a significant historical political event. It has shown that a major goal of the plan was to stabilize Western Europe and foster future peace and prosperity for the region. The Plan achieved its objectives and led to the emergence of a strong and stable Europe. The paper has demonstrated how the US used the Marshall plan as a tool for reconciliation among the former wartime enemies with great success. However, not all the impacts of the plan were positive and it has been noted that the Marshall plan precipitated the Cold War due to Russia’s refusal to associate herself with the plan. From this paper, it is clear that the purposes of the Marshall Plan were multiple and the consequences of the plan were monumental.
Chollet, D. & Goldgeier, J.M. (2006). The Faulty Premises of the Next Marshall Plan. Washington Quarterly , 29(1), 7-19. Cottam, M., Dietz-Uhler, B. & Mastors, E. (2009). Introduction to Political Psychology. NY: Psychology Press. Cox, M. & Kennedy-Pipe, C. (2005). The Tragedy of American Diplomacy? Rethinking the Marshall Plan. Journal of Cold War Studies , 7(1), 97-134. Ekovich, S. (2006). American views of European Integration: A Brief History . NY: JEL. Hogan, J.M. (1985). American Marshall Planners and the Search for a European Neocapitalism. Journal of American Historical Review . 90(1), 44-73 May, S. (1948). Measuring the Marshall Plan. Foreign Affairs . 26(3), 457-469. Scott, P. (1995). Soviet reaction to the Marshall Plan: Opportunity or Threat? Problems of Post-communism , 42(5), 22-31.
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There are a few simple things you can do to make planning for the future easier. Things like establishing a savings habit, making it automatic, and calculating how much you’ll need.
Business planning is important because it establishes the direction of the organization. When people plan before launching a business, they avoid many pitfalls that others do not anticipate.
The three major types of planning are operational planning, tactical planning and strategic planning. These types of planning occur subsequently. Operational planning facilitates tactical planning, which in turn facilitates strategic planni...
The speech outlined a rough framework for what would soon become the European Recovery Program, known colloquially as the Marshall. Page 2. Essay #245 plan. The
June 5th 1947. Marshall Plan. This was a program of economic aid offered by the United States to any European country. The plan was rejected outright by Stalin
In June 1947, the United States announced the Marshall Plan, intended to help economic recovery in Europe and thus prevent the spread of Communism in
In June 1947, the United States announced the Marshall Plan, intended to help economic recovery in Europe and thus prevent the spread of Communism in
Free Essays from 123 Help Me | propaganda located in the appendix, that suggests the Marshall Plan did achieve success in stopping communism from spreading.
Essay by David Roll (guest post)*. George C. Marshall. Few realized it at the time but the “Marshall Plan” speech, delivered by Secretary of State.
Marshall, for whom it was named, it was crafted as a four-year plan to reconstruct cities, industries and infrastructure heavily damaged during
The Marshall Plan was the containment of communism. By rescuing, Europe, America hoped to change the political and economic landscape that
The plan was proposed by the then secretary of state, George Marshall who stated that Europe's weakened economy made her vulnerable to economic
On April 3, 1948, President Truman signed the Economic Recovery Act of 1948. It became known as the Marshall Plan, named for Secretary of
essay, it has nevertheless eliminated one argument which was always to be.