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Evolution of Digital Communication and how it shaped the world we know today

Tchernenko, tatiana (2017).

digital communication thesis

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College of Communication > Academics > Digital Communication and Media Arts > Student Resources > Degree Completion Options > Thesis

​The Master's Thesis allows you to create an original project or write a substantial (75-100 page) written analysis.

The thesis allows you to integrate your studies with more practical applications. For instance, you may choose to shoot a documentary, take on a website project, or work with a community organization to create a media-related project.

You will take two courses to work on your thesis (CMNS 594 & CMNS 595, which will take two of your open electives).

See thesis samples from DCMA alumni.


If you do not meet the 3.7 GPA requirement, you must submit two letters of recommendation to the graduate program director. These letters must be from faculty members with whom you have taken classes. The graduate program director will review the letters and decide whether you are eligible to pursue the thesis option.

Guidelines for Thesis

Paper overview.

If you are writing a paper, you will develop a research plan in consultation with your thesis advisor. The final paper should be a scholarly examination of some aspect of digital communication.

Project Overview

If you are completing a project, you choose the type of project that you want to develop. The project should have a major audiovisual component (i.e. film, video, audio recording, educational program, website, online media content, etc.). You can link the project to an existing organization.

For example, a professional audiovisual project could involve the creation of a website or a short film that addresses a particular issue faced by a media-related organization (profit or non-profit), or it could serve to open up questions related to our culture of media convergence.

While there is no set way to define a professional project or what the tangible result will be, the project must include a written document that reports on your work. You are required to make a professional presentation of the project upon completion.

If you link the project to a media organization, you should make sure that the decision-makers at the organization will provide support and resources to carry out the project.

The original idea for a project and its development are your responsibility. After you define the specific purpose of the project and secure the approval of the organization (if that is the case), you must prepare a project proposal.

Proposal for Papers & Projects

Both the paper and the project should begin with a proposal, about 10-15 pages in length. The proposal should:

If you involve an organization , the proposal should include a signed statement from the organization’s representative who has the authority to give you permission to carry out the project on behalf of the organization.

If the thesis requires research involving human subjects , you need to check the Institutional Review Board website to apply for IRB approval.

Once all committee members approve the proposal, you can continue producing your thesis.

Thesis Timeline

You must give committee members enough time to review your work during each phase of the thesis (typically two weeks ). You should factor these “review” periods into the project timeline. You must submit the final draft of the thesis to committee members at least two weeks before the formal presentation.

You must complete the thesis work during the regular academic year. Although you may work on your thesis during the summer, you must present your thesis during the Autumn, Winter, or Spring term. You should not expect committee members to be available for consultation outside the regular academic year calendar.

Thesis Presentation & Grading

The final step to complete your thesis is a formal, public presentation for faculty, students and other interested parties.

After a review of the final thesis, committee members will determine whether you have met the thesis requirements. You must make any revisions required by the committee before the thesis is accepted for graduation.

The thesis grades are: Pass with Distinction, Pass and Fail. The committee members must agree and sign off on a final thesis form stating that you met all the requirements and passed both the written and project portions of the thesis.

Step-by-Step Procedure for Project & Paper

Procedure for paper.

Procedure for Project

Communication in Digital Design

Communication in digital design is an integrated social and technical process. In this thesis, I open up new avenues regarding the social and information architecture of digital collaboration in AEC. This is the practical and theoretical foundation behind Speckle, the open source data platform for the built environment.

I was supervised by Prof. Sean Hanna, Prof. Bob Sheil and Prof. Robert Aish, while Prof. Alan Penn and Prof. Rob Woodbury were the examiners.

Cite as: Stefanescu, D., 2020. Alternate Means of Digital Design Communication (PhD Thesis). UCL, London.

Problem Statement

The design process exhibits a certain friction in its digital communicative processes that is holding back the aec industry from fully capitalising on the digital revolution..

The original research question, as set out by the InnoChain call, was to analyse how complex digitally based design can be communicated and collated internally, within a design team, and externally, with the various stakeholders involved in the design process. I have broken this down into three more specific questions that each tackle a critical aspect of digital communication in the AEC industry:

Literature Review

This chapter is probably my favourite one. In it, I am establishing a theoretical base around communication in AEC and its relationship with the wickedness of design problems.

The most important takeaway is that communication is an integrated technical process and social phenomena. The social, inferential aspects of it have been neglected in recent research and discourse—or coerced into patterns shaped primarily by metaphors derived from its technical facets.

The process of modern societal & scientific differentiation explains the resulting ontological divergence of disciplines (& stakeholders) in the design process.


Design problems are, nevertheless, a convergent force: productive multi-stakeholder interaction leads to the emergence of shared understanding through iterative ontological displacement and dialogue.


Communication is underpinned by communicative contracts between people - not machines. Technical models of communication describe a machine-to-machine process, whereas inferential models capture the social aspects of communication.

State of the art

Prototypical digital design information systems have evolved from research into how to best manage wicked design problems through data-informed dialogue. With the advent of BIM, research & discourse emphasised technical concerns at the expense of the social aspect of design communication.

Methodology & Speckle

My research unfolded in the context of a living laboratory. In late 2015, I started developing Speckle as a means to contrast current approaches to new ones. Speckle also served (and keeps serving, but that's a different story!) as a vehicle to gather both quantitative and qualitative data in real world scenarios—not just artificial case studies.

Data Representation

Ontological revision; composability vs. completeness.

In this chapter, I am primarily investigating whether sketching with digital representations of design data is beneficial for the design process. To do so, I am comparing Speckle 's self-describing, composable object model strategy against an ontologically complete “one standard” approach.

Key Sections

Does digital ontological revision happen?

Yes; a composable object model enables a productive process of “sketching with data”: end-users do create their own “on the fly” ontologies (18% of total objects are user-defined).

Does this result in a more efficient representation of data?

End-user driven ontological revision produces smaller (in both complexity, as measured by tree depth, and actual size) data structures as opposed to fixed, pre-defined ontologies (IFC).

Data relevancy

This validates the maxim of relevance, whereby in a communicative exchange, information tends to a maximally relevant state (as defined by the lowest possible cognitive cost and the maximum potential impact).

Data Classification

Centralised, file based classification vs. curated, object based system..

In this chapter I make a case for data curation. Sharing files implies a certain bulkiness of thought, and disembodies data from its meaning. Thus, I am looking at how changing the paradigm to an object-based, curatorial approach influences communication in the design process.

Does digital design data lend itself to multiple classifications?

Yes: on average, design models where Speckle was used were broken down into 2.47 separate sub-classifications (sources). Overall, the average count of both sources and receivers per model was 2.78.

Does the above result in a productive informational exchange?

Yes: on average, each single source has at least two receivers (ratio of 2.26 receivers per source). Information produced is consumed.

What are the implications on storage efficiency?

An object-based approach to data persistence is potentially twice as efficient as a file-based one in enabling multiple overlapping classifications of design information.

Data Transaction

Enabling communicative exchanges: nextness, sequentiality..

Message sequentiality (order) and "nextness" (closness) all contribute to a productive exchange of information - they are part of the communicative contract people engaged in dialogue enter into. In this chapter, I investigate how communicative contracts can be upheld—or shaped—in a digital environment.

To what extent can nextness in digital design communication be enabled?

Empirical observations show a five-fold improvement in transaction size. The upper performance limit is not bounded—as such, small transactions can be instantaneous, greatly improving the adjacency of data exchanges.

Does correlating sources and receivers enable a satisfactory level of sequentiality?

Yes, stakeholders, by seeing who is depending on their data, and whom they are dependent on, can successfully navigate design tasks and abstract a mental model of design dependencies.

I'm making three important points in this chapter. First, you can't have a productive design process without composability and ontological flexibility at the data level . Second, the single source of truth metaphor that plagues AEC is wrongly derived from a technical model of communication - it's time to let it go . Last, data centralisation won't work - it's against the DNA of AEC itself .

Composability trumps completeness

A single, centralised, complete object model is not required to have productive communication in digital design.

Composability should be prioritised over completeness/universality. AEC will never have, and does not need, one single standard.

Single source of truth fallacy

The single source of truth design model, while valid for technical communication frameworks, is not a hard requirement in digital design communication.

Stakeholders can productively curate the information they need into leaner, federated models on a need by basis.

Data ownership & residency

Centralisation of data is in direct conflict with the distributed nature of the AEC industry. Data ownership is not a tangential concern: it's a key issue.

The reduced accessibility and closed source nature of data solutions for the built environment is holding AEC back.

Contribution & Impact

I believe that the main contribution of my research project is an integrated technical and sociological rethink of communication in the digital design process that challenges the existing status quo of the AEC industry. Lastly, I show (both practically, through Speckle , and theoretically, through the analyses herein) that digital technologies can embrace the diversity and richness of the design process and open an accessible and ethical pathway towards a digitally integrated built environment.

Speckle continues to grow and serve both practice and research.


This research has been conducted at the Bartlett School of Architecture, UCL, within the InnoChain Early Training Network supported by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Marie Skłodowska-Curie grant agreement No. 642877.

This project would have not been possible without my supervisors, Sean Hanna, Bob Sheil and Robert Aish, whose guidance was invaluable. Similarly, I owe an huge debt of gratitude to Martin Tamke and Mette Ramsgaard-Thomsen who enabled the InnoChain project in the first place, as well as to the generosity of the persons that made this research network possible. Most importantly, to Luis Fraguada, who was a productive and calming presence at McNeel Europe, and to Giovanni Betti, the discussions with which could never end, at HENN Berlin.

Further thanks go to my mother (who showed me the way to Garfinkel, Grice, Sperber and Wilson), my father, my partner and my closest friends. Without your patience and support, this project would have not been done.

Dimitrie Stefanescu, London, October 2019

M.Tech/Ph.D Thesis Help in Chandigarh | Thesis Guidance in Chandigarh

digital communication thesis

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digital communication thesis


digital communication thesis

Thesis and Research Topics in Digital Communication

Digital Communication simply means devices communicating with each other in through digital signals. The signals are digitized and then the information is transferred through these digitized signals from source to destination.

But why Digital Communication or Digitization is needed?

Traditionally, analog signals were used for long distance communication. This mode of communication faces many problems and risks in the form of signal loss, distortion, interference, security breaches etc. To tackle these problems, digital mode of communication is developed which has the minimized the earlier problems to a certain level.

There are many topics in digital communication for project, thesis, and research. In this blog, we have listed some of the latest topics in digital communication.

Following is the list of latest research and thesis topics in Digital Communication:

GSM Communication

IoT(Internet of Things)

Analog-to-Digital Conversion

Cognitive Radio

Audio processing, optical communication.

GSM or Global System for Mobile Communication is an important standard for digital networks of 2nd generation mobile devices and is developed by the European Telecommunications Standard Institute(ETSI). It is one of the most widely used digital wireless technology. The other ones are TDMA(Time Division Multiple Access) and CDMS(Code Division Multiple Access).

The GSM network consists of the following sections:

Base Station Subsystem

Network and Switching Subsystem

GPRS core network

Operations Support System

The base station contains the mobile devices along with the SIM that is inserted into the device. There are two components of base station – the transceiver and the controller. The transceiver manages the protocols of the radio-link. The controller is the connection between the station and the switching centre. GSM uses TDMA(Time Division Multiple Access) and FDMA(Frequency Division Multiple Access) for dividing the bandwidth. It is a very good topic for M.Tech thesis in Digital Communication.

Subscriber Identity Module(SIM) is the most important feature of GSM. As everyone knows, a SIM is a card inserted into a cell phone containing information about the subscriber and the contacts added to that card.

Features of GSM

Following are the important features of GSM:

Spectrum efficiency is improved

International roaming

Fixed Dialing Number(FDN)

SMS(Short Messaging Service)

Real-Time Clock

New services are supported

GSM with other technologies

GSM can be used with other technologies for more enhanced wireless communication. HSCSD(High Speed Circuit Switched Data), GPRS(General Packet Radio System), EDGE(Enhanced Data GSM Environment), UMTS(Universal Mobile Telecommunication Systems) are the examples of this.

Advantages of GSM

The coverage area is more

Variety of phones can operate on GSM

High speed download and upload

Disadvantages of GSM

Same bandwidth is used by multiple users

Electronic interference can occur due to same bandwidth

Limited data-rate

In digital communication, modulation is the process of changing the properties of a signal by adding additional information to that signal. The original signal is the carrier signal having steady wavelength of constant amplitude and frequency. Demodulation is the process of extracting information from the original signal.

The process of modulation is performed by a modulator while demodulation is performed by a demodulator. A modem is a combination of both i.e. it can perform both modulation and demodulation.

Analog Modulation is for analog signals while digital modulation is for digital signals.

Another form modulation is the pulse modulation. In pulse modulation, a sequence of pulses carry the information rather than a modulated signal. Students doing masters can opt this topic for their thesis and research work.

digital communication thesis

Common methods of modulation

The most common methods of modulation are:

Amplitude Modulation

Frequency Modulation

Phase Modulation

Polarization Modulation

Pulse-code Modulation

Internet of Things(IoT)

Internet of Things is a new technology in digital communication for connecting devices to the Internet. It is also known as embedded system in which devices are connected with each other which respond to the changes happening in the surrounding environment. The ‘thing’ in the ‘internet of things’ can be any physical thing from person to devices. The devices in the network has been a unique IP address to collect and transfer data over the network.

Internet of Things allows the embedded devices to connect to the Internet which can be controlled from anywhere. Internet of Things(IoT) is currently the trending thesis topic in digital communication and also in computer science.

The applications of Internet of Things has been broadened from smart homes to smart cities.

Smart Homes

Smart Home is an important application of the Internet of Things(IoT). In this application, any electricity-enabled device can be connected to the network and made to work on your command. Important radio networks used in home automation are ZigBee and Z-waves. These are mesh networks in which message can be received in more than one way. ZigBee is a low-cost and low-power technology used in wireless communication. Z-Wave is a protocol for home automation used for communication between devices using radio frequency for signalling and controlling. There is a Network ID assigned to each Z-Wave Network and each device in the network has a Node ID. To determine the shortest route for message transmission Source Routing Algorithm is used by Z-Wave.

Whenever a device is connected to the network, the Id that is assigned to the device is recognized by the network controller to determine its location and add to the network. Whenever a command is sent by the device, the algorithm depicts how the message should be sent. High-Priority devices are given preference over low-priority devices. The important products that make up the smart home include cameras, thermostat, LED Lights, Motion Sensors, and various other such devices. A Camera is used to track the interior of the house.

IoT in Medical and Health-care

IoT also finds a number of applications in medical and healthcare systems. One of the major application is remote patient monitoring. A patient’s blood pressure, heart beat at a distant location can be tracked through sensors attached to his body. This will help the doctors to estimate his health conditions and also give proper subscriptions. Emergency Notification System is another application of IoT in health-care. It is a method of one-way communication in which people in a group are notified whenever any emergency situation arises.

IoT Security

IoT Security is an area concerned with protecting the IoT devices and network. In IoT network, a number of devices and entities are connected with each other. They always face the risk of security and privacy. The devices passwords are often kept default which is easier for attackers to hack. To look into this matter, Internet of Things Security Foundation(IoTSF) was launched. It promotes best practices and standards for IoT Security.

Analog-Digital Conversion

Analog-to-digital conversion is an important process in which analog signal is converted to digital signal while the content of the signal is not altered. For this purpose, an analog-to-digital converter(ADC) is used. The analog signals are difficult to process and that is why they are converted to digital. The digital signals can be processed, manipulated, transmitted and stored.

The ADC Converter takes analog signal as the input generating digital signal as the output. There are two processes done by the ADC – Sampling and Quantization. The input signal i.e. the analog signal has an infinite resolution. Sampling process determines the maximum bandwidth of the analogue signal that is sampled. 2N digital values are produced by the ADC where N is the number of binary output bits.

digital communication thesis

Applications of Analog-to-Digital Conversion

Following are the main application areas of ADC:

Music Recording

Digital Signal Processing

Scientific Equipments

Rotary Encoder

Types of Analog-to-Digital Converter

Although there are various types of ADC, following are the main ones:

Pipelined ADC

Successive Approximation-Register


In flash ADC, a resistor divides the voltage into 2^n parts which are equal. For each part there is a comparator that compares the input with the supplied voltage. In pipelined ADC, the input is converted in a number of steps which are proportional to the number of data bits. The successive approximation ADC, one bit is evaluated at a time starting from most significant bit to the least significant bit. Sigma-Delta converter is also known as oversampling converter as the signal is sampled at much higher frequency.

Cognitive Radio is an important type in digital communication. In this type of communication, a transceiver is used which can detect that which channel is free and which is occupied. The vacant channels are then occupied for communication. Radio-frequency spectrum is used for sensing the channel. The interference is also minimized while using radio-frequency for sensing. The parameters that the cognitive radio check include channel frequency, free channels, type of data, and modulation. Cognitive Radio is a relatively new technology and an unexplored area for research and thesis.

A lot of development is going on to improve and enhance the features of cognitive radio. For this, a high level of processing is required. There are types of Cognitive Radios: Heterogeneous CR and Spectrum sharing CR.

In heterogeneous system, network centric approach is followed in which several radio access networks (RAN) are operated using same or different radio access technologies(RAT).

Advantages of Cognitive Radio

Cognitive Radio provides a number of advantages as compared to the traditional networks. Following are some of the advantages:

Better Spectrum Sensing – With cognitive radio network, the spectrum sensing capacity of the channel is improved to a significant level.

Better Coverage – The performance will also be better with improved coverage of the network. The data can be sent from one node to another.

Radio jamming can be avoided – By sensing channel availability, the unnecessary jamming of radio frequencies can be avoided.

Better Quality of Service – Through spectrum sensing, high bandwidth channels can be selected thereby improving the Quality of Service(QoS).

Challenges of Cognitive Radio

Following are some of the challenges of Cognitive Radio:

Decision-making – The first and the foremost challenge of cognitive radio network is how the decision for channel availability should be made. Also there are challenges in selection of appropriate decision making algorithms.

Learning Process – There is challenge in selection of learning process that whether it should be supervised or unsupervised. Any wrong choice can disintegrate the whole system.

Cross Layer – The design of the whole network is complex such that there should be coordination between the different layers of the network. Challenges also exists in the form of interoperability, coexistence, cooperation and collaboration.

Security – Security of the system is always the main challenge. For security of the system, certain rules and standards should be imposed on the network. The number of potential interactions are also high due to dynamic nature of the network which can lead to violations.

Sensing – There are also challenges regarding spectrum sensing. The accuracy of spectrum occupancy decision also matters a lot.

Geo-location – The main challenge in this area is how to implement data. The location should be precise in order to properly implement the data.

Audio Processing means altering the characteristics of audio in one way or the other. Audio Processing can be done to enhance audio quality, detect faults and to generate new sounds. Following are the types of audio processing done:

Compression – Reducing the range of the audio signals

Expansion – Expanding the range of the audio signals

Equalization – In this, the level of the signals are increased or decreased according to the requirements.

Limiting – In this, the level of the signal is constrained to specific limit

Phasing – Interesting sound effects are created through phasing

Chorus – Multiple effect is given to a sound from a single source

Application areas of Audio Processing

The main application areas of audio processing include storage, compression, transmission, filtering, echo, noise cancellation etc. The other main applications of Audio Processing include:

Speech Generation

Speech Recognition

Optical Communication is a type of communication in which light signal is used for transmission of data from sender to receiver instead of electric signal. For optical communication, optical fibers are used for transmitting data. The main components of an optical system are:


Light Source


Transmission Channel

Optical Fibers

The message to be sent is encoded by the transmitter into an optical form of signal. Thia optical signal is transmitted to the destination using transmission channel. After reaching the destination, the signal is decoded back into its original form by a receiver.

Optical Communication has a number of advantages thats why it is replacing the electrical mode of transmission. LEDs or Laser is used as the transmitting source which emit light of high wavelength and this light travels through the optical fiber following the concept of total internal reflection. Optical Communication can be a good topic for M.Tech thesis in Digital Communication and Electronics and Communication Engineering.

digital communication thesis

Types of Optical Fibers in Optical Communication

Following are the two types of optical fibers mainly used in optical communication:

Single-mode Optical Fibers – In these type of fibers, one signal is transmitted per fiber and mainly used in telephone and television sets.

Multi-mode Optical Fibers – In these type of fibers, multiple signals are transmitted in a single fiber and used in computer and local area networks.

Photo detectors in Optical Communication

Light signal is the mode of transmission in optical communication. To convert this light signal into electrical signal a device is used known as Photo detector. PN photo diode and avalanche photo diode are the two types of photo detectors used in optical communication.

Benefits of Optical Communication

Optical Communication is replacing the traditional mode of communication due to its following benefits:

High Bandwidth

Low transmission loss

Wide transmission range

No chance of electromagnetic interference

Disadvantages of Optical Communication

In spite of certain benefits, there are some disadvantages of optical communication which are as follows:

Optical fibers are difficult to join and there also occurs loss of light due to scattering.

Optical fibers are very expensive for large scale installation.

Optical fibers are highly susceptible to damage.

Optical fibers cannot be bend or curved.

These were some of the current topics in the field of digital communication for thesis, research and M.Tech projects. Techsparks provide thesis help in Digital Communication. 

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178 Communication Research Topics For Your Paper

178 Communication Research Topics

Imagine what the world would be without communication! How would we get along? I guess there would be no sense in existing after all. That is just a tiny snippet of how important communication is in everyday life. Exchanging information is a key component of coexistence as it creates order and a sense of satisfaction in the end.

However, communication as a discipline cuts across all other niches in the academic world. Students from an Engineering course would also take up communication as a unit of study. Students delve into the transmission, representation, reception, and decoding of information communicated to a greater extent.

Situations When You May Need To Write A Communication Paper

Various scenarios call for a communication paper either as an assignment or a research project in college. The communication papers needed for every situation vary in format and outline. Here are some of the cases when communication papers are necessary:

When writing a resume or cover letter In presentations and reports Internal or external communication in a company Writing a thesis statement

When writing communication papers in these different scenarios, students can develop the following aspects:

Understand the various communication phenomena Ability to direct communication messages towards accomplishing individual and organizational goals Understand various types of communication such as rhetoric, interpersonal or organizational

Such an assignment is peculiar because it deals with students’ communication processes. Therefore, the student can easily relate a communication assignment to the real-world environment.

You will have to conduct extensive digging before writing your paper like any other research project. In writing a communication research paper, you will benefit from the importance of communication in general, such as building better relationships and finding the right solutions to various problems.

It takes a lot of time to create a high-quality writing, so you have all the right to ask dissertation writers for hire to help.

Guidelines On Structure And Step By Step Tips On Writing

To have an award-winning communication paper, you need to understand that structure is always at the heart of it all. A great communication paper follows the structure below:

Solid intro : Begin by presenting a captivating introduction by highlighting the facts, questions, or problems that you will explore in the body. The reader should find more than a million reasons to proceed with your essay by reading the first two lines. A strong thesis statement is also necessary for the introduction. An insightful literature review : It shows the theoretical basis of your research project, thus giving it validity. An in-depth literature review will give room for exploration and further research. Main body : This is where we expect to find all your findings, methodological steps, concepts, analyses, and the outcome. Discussion and conclusion : Depending on your professor’s instructions, you can divide this into two parts or put it as one. In either case, this section will consist of the strengths and weaknesses of your research and any future development or improvements. You could also compare the results found in your research with what other authors have discovered.

Provided you have all your facts at hand, a communication research paper will be the easiest you will ever handle in college. Nonetheless, you can order a custom paper from various online writing experts.

If you want to make an impression with your communication research paper, here are some tips to consider:

Select a thought-provoking and captivating research topic Have a working outline with all the arguments and examples/evidence in place Ensure that you exhaust reading all the possible research materials on your topic Such papers are always in the first person except in unique cases

You can review some of the samples on our essay writer to familiarize yourself with the structure and outline of a communication research paper.

Let’s now explore 178 of the hottest communication research topics to ace your project:

Top Interpersonal Communication Research Topics

World-Class Communication Research Topics For College Students

Possible Topics For Communication Research

Latest Communication Topic For Research

Top-Notch Communication Research Paper Topics

Highly Rated Mass Communication Research Topics

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If you are still unsure which writing idea to use for your project, your expert paper writing help might be what you need. Our service has a team of select paper writers who can crush any task in a snap. You can pay for dissertation today or request a writer to help you with your incomplete task.

Let us help you brainstorm great ideas that will turn your project into a world-class paper!

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10 Digital Miscommunications — and How to Avoid Them

digital communication thesis

Send the right message.

In light of COVID-19 (and all of our heightened stress levels), it’s crucial to take steps to avoid miscommunication when working as part of a virtual team. How do you avoid sending a passive aggressive Slack (“let’s chat.”) or email (“just bumping this up in your inbox!”)? How do you hit the right tone over text? The author offers ten tactical tips for staying connected and remaining supportive of your team, even when you’re not in the same location.

In these difficult times, we’ve made a number of our coronavirus articles free for all readers. To get all of HBR’s content delivered to your inbox, sign up for the Daily Alert newsletter.

As COVID-19 spreads across the world, more and more of us are starting to work from home. In light of this global shift (and all of our heightened stress levels), it’s crucial to take steps to avoid miscommunication when working as part of a virtual team.

We’ve spent the last four years studying the science of emotions and their intersection with our lives at work. We’ve spoken to thousands of workers globally, and one of the most common questions people ask us surrounds just this — how to best communicate in the digital age. How do you avoid sending a passive aggressive Slack (“let’s chat.”) or email (“just bumping this up in your inbox!”)? How do you hit the right tone over text? Did you go too far by adding that exclamation point?

Below are our top tactical tips for staying connected and remaining supportive of your team, even when you’re not in the same location.

1. Add emojis (but proceed with caution).

face with stuck out tongue and winking eye emoji

2. Realize typos send a message.

Typos reveal that we were in a rush or heightened emotional state when we hit send (or that we’re the boss, and don’t need to care about typos). Researcher Andrew Brodsky describes typos as emotional amplifiers : if Mollie sends Liz an angry email filled with typos, Liz will imagine Mollie hammering out that email in a blind rage and perceive the message as really angry. Even if you’re in a rush, it’s best to spend those extra two minutes proofreading your work, or better yet, read it out loud to catch any typos your eyes quickly skip over when reading it in your head.

3. Emotionally proofread your messages.

Typos are not the only thing you should be proofing your messages for. Brian Fetherstonhaugh, the Worldwide Chief Talent Officer at The Ogilvy Group, told us that he frequently asks employees if they have ever successfully defused an emotional issue via email. The answer is inevitably no. But when he asks the same group if they’ve ever inflamed an issue via email? “Everyone puts their hand up,” he said. Always re-read what you’ve written before hitting send to make sure your message is clear and conveys the intended tone. Sending “Let’s talk” when you mean “These are good suggestions, let’s discuss how to work them into the draft” will make the recipient unnecessarily anxious. It’s easy for one-line emails or slack messages to be perceived as passive aggressive in tone. Imagine how you’d feel if you got a message that said, “Per my last email, just following up” or “Help me understand.”

4. Punctuation marks matter even more for one-word or very short sentences.

Responding “Okay.” with a period can come across as more negative in tone than “Okay” without a period. Adding a period adds a finality to your statement and heightens the negative emotion. It can communicate, “This conversation is over” rather than “Okay, sure, we’re in agreement.” As you get to know someone, pay attention to their punctuation style. You may find there are people you work with who always add periods after the word okay, and so you can stop overanalyzing their punctuation.

5. Use richer communication channels when you’re first getting to know each other.

We’re most likely to interpret ambiguity as negative when we’re texting or emailing with people we don’t know well or with more senior colleagues. Say Liz emails Mollie, whom she knows very well, “Your email to the editor could have been better.” Mollie will take the email at face-value. But if Mollie receives the same email from her boss or a new colleague, she may feel anxious, and think that her email was so egregious that she’ll never be allowed to email an editor again. Using video conference when you begin working with someone new helps build trust. In general, seeing each other’s facial expressions will allow you to better read between the lines, chit chat, and develop genuine relationships. After you know the person, you can use email more frequently.

6. Default to video in general, when you can.

At Trello, a project management software company , if even one person on a team works remotely, the group will jump on a video call; this ensures everyone feels included and makes it less likely for information to be lost.  Studies show that around 65% of communication is non-verbal . When you’re not on video, you’re missing emotional cues that come from facial expression and body language. We acknowledge that video won’t always be possible, but it’s best to make it a habit when you are able.

7. Communicate your level of urgency in Slack.

Don’t get us wrong — we love how informal Slack is, but it is by far the easiest form of digital communication to fire out a not-very-thought-through message. You’re just a quick message away from asking someone, “Can you just give this a quick glance?” or “Could you add your ideas to this document?” By sending these messages, though, you’re dumping work on other people. The real-time nature of Slack means that people interpret your requests as urgent, and feel they need to respond right away. So, before sending a request that will take time, ask, “Is this a good time?” If you don’t need a response right away, say, “No rush, but could you help me with something when you have a chance?” And if someone has “Do Not Disturb” mode on, respect it.

8. Don’t panic.

If an email makes you enraged, anxious, or euphoric, wait until the next day to write back. Even better, talk face-to-face when you’ve calmed down. Once you’ve calmed down, you’ll be able to better articulate your emotions, and the needs behind your emotions, rather than just your immediate reactions. When you do reply, re-read your draft through the other person’s eyes. It might be easier to imagine how your reader will interpret your email if you first send it to yourself. (Additional tip: always leave the “To:” field blank until you’re ready to hit send; a friend of ours lost a job offer because he accidentally sent out a half-baked salary negotiation email).

9. Avoid email when you need a “yes.”

An in-person request is more than thirty times more successful than an emailed one. Research shows people see email asks as untrustworthy and non-urgent. If you do enter into an email negotiation, it helps to first schmooze in person, over video chat, or on the phone. In an experiment (titled “Schmooze or Lose” ) that pitted MBA students against each other, half were given only their counterpart’s name and email. The other half were shown a photograph of the other person and told to talk about hobbies, job plans, and hometowns before negotiating. Seventy percent of the first group was able to reach a deal, compared to almost everyone in the second.

10. Don’t send emails or slack messages during off hours if it’s not urgent.

“I am away from the office and checking email intermittently. If your email is not urgent, I’ll probably still reply. I have a problem,” tweeted the parody account Academics Say . Even if you write “don’t read/respond to this until tomorrow/Monday,” chances are the reader will still think about your email all weekend (and might even feel pressure to respond immediately). Try saving the email to your draft folder or schedule it to send later.

Most digital miscommunication happens because we don’t have access to the non-verbal cues, including tone of voice, body language, and facial expressions, that give us valuable emotional context when we’re discussing in person. So these tips can help, but the fail-safe solution is to pick up the phone or get on a video call.

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Thesis and Research Areas in Digital Communication

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16 jul 2019, in communication system , computer vision , signal processing , signal processing , tech update, no comments.

Digital Communication is the medium of communication which is used to transfer data or information between two devices or medium in the form of a digital signal. Digital communication technology used for long-distance communication. Digital communication is the latest tending technology for students in doing their M. tech Thesis or research work. There are lots of topics are available under digital communication technology. We will discuss all available topics in digital communication. We provide complete IEEE based thesis and research help to students in their research work on digital communication for M.tech, Masters, and Ph.D. also provide the best topic for their research work.

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