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thesis toothpill

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MINI THESIS SCHOOLWIDE ENRICHMENT MODEL MARA JUNIOR SCIENCE COLLEGE TUN GHAFAR BABA 2020 INNOVATIVE PRODUCT OF A SOLUBLE A TOOTHPILL WITH EFFERVESCENT EFFECT (INNOVATION) 1. Fakhri Aiman Bin Amrenorman (507) MJ195164 2. Muhammad Mustaqim Bin Jamaluddin (507) MJ195059 3. Aizad Zulqarnaen bin Mohd Zuber (507) MJ195016 1 ADVISOR: Miss Samsunnisha Begum Binti M. Sultan Suhaibuddeen CHAPTER TABLE OF CONTENT PAGE 1 3 2 CONTENT 4 3 5 Acknowledgement 6 4 Author’s Certification 7 5 Advisor’s Certification Abstract 8 Preface 8 Introduction 9 1.1 Problem Statement 10 1.2 Background and Importance 10 1.3 Objective 10 Literature Review 2.1 Reviews of Past Project 11 2.2 Advantages and Disadvantages of product. 11 2.3 Innovation Summary 11 Methodology 11 3.1 Data Collecting 12 3.2 Laboratory Experimentations 14 14 3.2.1 Apparatus 14 3.2.2 Materials 3.2.3 Procedure 15 3.3 Product Survey Responses 16 3.4 Estimated Cost 17 3.3 Planning and Organization Results and Assessment 18 4.1 Laboratory Experimentations 19 4.2 Product Survey Responses 4.3 Ideas to Improve Project Conclusion 5.1 Advantages and Disadvantages References 2 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We are truly indebted to many individuals who help us complete this SEM project. We would not have completed the project without their dedication to sacrifice their time to help us. First and foremost, we would like to thank our facilitator, Miss Samsunnisha Begum Binti M. Sultan Suhaibuddeen. Her guidance and support are highly appreciated. Next, we would like to thank our supervisor from University Putra Malaysia, Pn. Sazlinda binti Kamarudin. Without her willingness to help us with the materials and methods, we would not have succeed in this project. Then, we would like to thank all of our parents. Their sacrifices made this project easier to complete. Thank you to all that helped us to complete this SEM project. 3 AUTHOR’S CERTIFICATION We hereby declare that this thesis of ours entitled innovative product of a soluble a toothpill with effervescent effect is a result of our own research for SEM project except as written in the references. The thesis had not been accepted for any SEM project is not currently submitted in candidature of any other project. Name : Muhammad Fakhri Aiman Bin Amrenorman Date : 21 January 2020 Signature : Name : Muhammad Mustaqim Bin Jamaluddin Date : 21 January 2020 Signature : Name : Aizad Zulqarnaen bin Mohd Zuber Date : 21 January 2020 Signature : 4 ADVISOR’S CERTIFICATION I hereby certify that I have read this thesis and proven that it was their work and original products. Name : Miss Samsunnisha Begun Binti M. Sultan Suhaibuddeen Date : 21 January 2020 Signature : 5 ABSTRACT INNOVATIVE PRODUCT OF A SOLUBLE A TOOTHPILL WITH EFFERVESCENT EFFECT toothpaste is undeniably one of the most important thing we use every morning and night. Despite toothpaste being useful, the tube of the toothpaste being stored in, can cause pollution due to it being made from plastic. Another problem is the toothpaste tube is not suitable for traveling because it may burst because of the pressure exerted while in the luggage. Therefore alternatives must be discovered. In this project, we aim to produce an organic toothpill that is refillable to reduce plastic usage. The toothpaste we are producing is pill-shaped so it can be easily stored . The organic substances are specifically weighed in specific ratios and mixed together in a jar to be compress into pill-shape. The mixture is then tested for solubility and pH to get the most suitable product to be used safely and functions as the normal toothpaste. New method is used to add effervescent effect in to the toothpill while maintaining the best pH in alkaline level. Among 33 respondents of student of MRSM TUN GHAFAR BABA , 66.7% give positive responses to the toothpill. This research shows that this product is safely used to human ,more eco-friendly by reducing uses of plastics and saving spaces in packaging. MUHAMMAD FAKHRI AIMAN BIN AMRENORMAN 13 DECEMBER 2019 6 PREFACE Day by day, nature is getting polluted by humans. One of the most common material that is destroying nature is plastic. Therefore, we must reduce our daily usage of plastics as it will take a very long time to decompose plastics. Awareness is being raised until now to minimize plastic usage. In our researched, we discovered a way to replace the ingredients of toothpaste with natural ingredients, made them portable and also reduce plastic usage. Since regular toothpaste tubes are non-refillable, we found out a way to make our version of toothpaste to be refillable. Thus, reducing the usage of plastic. 7 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1.1 PROBLEM STATEMENT The idea is generated from our group leader, Muhammad Fakhri Aiman Bin Amrenorman when he saw a toothpaste commercial. He thought about making an easy-to-use solid toothpaste that is made from organic materials and is aimed to aid the process of brushing one’s teeth during travel. After a group discussion, we ended up agreeing with his idea. Plastic is one of the most significant factors of pollutions in the entire world. Innovations must be done to find the perfect alternatives to replace plastics in various products. For our research, we purposely made toothpaste solid so that it can be stored in bottles that can be reused. As we know, toothpaste tube will be thrown away as soon as they are finished, reffering to Lindsay McCormick (2019) from an interview on FOX busines,she state that “ one billion toothpaste tubes end up in landfill every single year which is enough plastic ti fill up Empire State Building 50 times in on year”. This will cause masive pollutions that will affect the mother nature. By reducing plastic usage, we hope to help the Earth by reducing the main factor of pollution. 1.2 BACKGROUND AND IMPORTANCE The toothpaste that we are using right now are packed in a plastic tube that cannot or hard to be recycled. As we know toothpaste tube takes years to decompose plastic used is also no biodegradeable and can take anywhere from 500 to 700 to break down. That is why nowadays toothpaste tube have mostly linear life cycle’ stated by Vldamir Puskas (2017) in his article. These toothpaste will be made into a tablet that will dissolve in water and packed in a recyclable bottle. 8 1.3 OBJECTIVE This study us solely to done to: a) reduce plastic usage. b) raise awareness for the whole world to know the effects of using plastics in their daily life. c) ease the appliance of toothpaste to brush our teeth. 9 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 REVIEW OF PAST PROJECT A research has been conducted about this kind of toothpaste that being made into a tablet. The past project was conducted by Sara Ponte and Nichole Pinch in 2017. In this project, the workability of the toothpaste is tested by giving some testimony to taste its flavour and how it feels after using it. The toothpaste contains cream of tartar, soda bicarbonate, soda saccharin. All this substances are compressed until a tablet shape is formed. For the flavouring, they used black pepper oil, gunpowder tea, sea salt and chili powder. 2.2 ADVANTANGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF PAST PROJECT This project helps in reducing the usage of toothpaste tube that piles up to 15 billion tubes every year worldwide. It helps our Earth by reducing the plastic usage which are the main issue right now. The flavour of the toothpaste are not suitable for kids due to its weird taste. 2.3 INNOVATION SUMMARY In Malaysia, other than straws and plastic bag, toothpaste tube also contribute to the high rate of plastic waste disposal which cause problem to society and country itself since it can lead to pollution. Because of this, we came out with an idea to replace the toothpaste into tablet form that does not need to be packed in a plastic tube. At the same time, it is a concern that natural coarse aggregate used in the toothpaste tube which is petroleum is a non- renewable source. So, an alternative needs to be introduced in order to conserve petroleum for the future usage. 10 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY 3.1 DATA COLLECTING This study uses three types of data research methods to receive the required information. • Laboratory experimentations • Product survey responses 3.2 LABORATORY EXPERIMENTATIONS 3.2.1 APPARATUS a) Compressor b) 500 ml beaker c) Spatula d) Electronic weighing balance e) pH meter 3.2.2 MATERIALS a) Xylitol b) Bentonite Clay c) Baking powder d) Citric acid e) Water 11 3.2.3 PROCEDURE 1. Weigh each material individually according to the specific ratio of Xylitol: Bentonite clay : Baking powder : Citric acid. 2. Mix the weighed materials into a jar and mix thoroughly. 3. Insert 10 g of mixture into the tablet template and apply pressure to the template until the mixture is packed enough to form a solid tablet., 4. Remove the tablet from the template. 12 5. Test the tablet by dissolving it in 100 ml of water . record the pH of solution and time taken for tablet to completely dissolve in water. 6. Repeat step 1. until step 5. by not adding citric acid with ratio of bentonite clay : xylitol : baking powder is 1:1:1 . 7. Tabulate all the data recorded . 13 3.3 PRODUCT SURVEY RESPONSES This product had been tested to be used as replacement to toothpaste among the student of MRSM Tun Ghafar Baba. The responses are tabulated in pie chart to show the contrast between number of positive and negative responses about our product from the respondent. 3.4 ESTIMATED COST ITEM PRICE (RM/kg) QUANTITY (kg) COST (RM) Xylitol 167.40 0.06 10.10 Bentonite Clay 118.00 0.06 7.08 Baking Powder 8.90 0.09 0.80 Citric Acid 110.40 0.01 1.10 TOTAL 19.08 3.5 PLANNING AND ORGANISATION RESEARCH PROGRESS June July TIME (MONTH) Dis Jan 2019 2019 Aug Sept Oct Nov 2019 2020 Introducing the main idea 2019 2019 2019 2019 to EC Advisor Discussing the plan of the investigation Identifying the pros and cons of the project Writing the thesis Meeting with supervisor at UPM Further discussion Creating the prototype Creating the final product Product survey responses & Project presentations 14 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS AND ASSESSMENT 4.1 LABORATORY EXPERIMENTATIONS The mixture have made for several times to obtain the best ratio for each substances used in our product. The substances used are bentonite clay, baking powder, xylitol and citric acid. Every mixture is tested their solubility by solving it in water. Water in this test represent as saliva in mouth. eSUBSTANCE MASS IN A MASS IN A RATIO (n) pH value Trial 1 Trial 2 MIXTURE (Kg) TABLET (g) 58 Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 1 Trial 2 Bentonite clay 0.1 0.200 2.5 2.73 1 6 Xylitol 0.1 0.200 2.5 2.73 1 6 Baking powder 0.1 0.300 2.5 4.09 1 9 Citric acid 0.1 0.033 2.5 0.45 1 1 Mass substance in a tablet = n / sum of n * mass of a tablet ( 0.01 kg ) The table shows the test conducted to determine the pH value for each ratio used, 1:1:1:1 or 6:6:9:1, for (bentonite clay : xylitol : baking powder : citric acid). Presence of citric acid cause the decreasing of pH value, so the pH value suitable for teeth must be slightly above 7. The pH is measured using pH meter shows the first trial get acidic pH, 5 which is not suitable to neutralize the acid produced by bacterial activities in our mouth. The second trial shows the best result is with pH value of 8. CITRIC ACID TIME TAKEN FOR A TABLET VOLUME OF A RATE OF TO COMPLETELY DISSOLVE IN TABLET (mm3) SOLUBILITY WATER (s) (mm3/s) Presence of 15 100 6.67 citric acid No presence of 30 100 3.33 citric acid Rate of solubility = volume of a tablet / time taken to completely dissolve in water 15 The table shows the test of rate of solubility of a tablet in 100 ml of water. The presence of citric acid show the rate of solubility 6.67 mm3s-1 which is higher than a tablet without citric acid, 3.33 mm3s. this is important for a tablet to mould in mouth faster and easier when dissolve in saliva. The graph represent as graph of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy ( FTIR ) test conducted to determine the bond in the organic substances present in the toothpill. The result show different type of bond formation in toothpill for example C=C at 995.27 shows bonding is strong from alkene group 4.2 PRODUCT SURVEY RESPONSES This product had been tested to be used as replacement to toothpaste among the student of MRSM Tun Ghafar Baba. The responses are tabulated in pie chart to show the contrast between number of positive and negative responses about our product from the respondent. 16 The pie chart shows 66.7% positive responses and 33.3% negative responses. This means 2/3 of the responses agrees our toothpill can replace our toothpaste, while 1/3 disagrees. The study found that xylitol acts as a natural sweetener to make the tablet toothpaste to be more appealing taste-wise. Bentonite clay rich in minerals that help the user to remineralize their teeth while the baking powder help in neutralize the teeth from sugar acid. The presence of citric acid help in effervescent effect that make our product easily dissolve in mouth. The combined ingredients also made the tablets very easy to apply and appealing to people living in the modern day. However, the texture of the tablet toothpaste might take some time to get used to as it does not feel exactly like regular toothpaste. 4.3 IDEAS TO IMPROVE PROJECT Further research should be done to improve the taste and texture of this toothpill products to make it more appealing for consumers. 17 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION 5.1 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF THE PROJECT The main advantage of this product is that it will reduce plastic usage. The toothpaste is also easily transportable as it will not squeeze out if you were to put it in a bag with other appliances. The combination of the materials will do almost everything that a regular toothpaste will do but in a different way. For instance, the commercial toothpaste nowadays are being sold with only few purposes for teeth as marketing strategies such as toothpaste with teeth- whitening and sugar acid neutralizer purposes are sold separately with different price while our product can do the same but in same price. However, this product is not expected to be cheap if it was to be made in a small scale. This is because, some of the ingredients might cost more if bought in small portions. Secondly, our product does not taste like regular toothpaste to be widely commercial as a new look of toothpaste todays 18 BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Internet – Online Posting Bite Toothpaste Bit https://bitetoothpastebits.com/pages/ingredients LauraParker.A Whopping 91% Plastic Isn’t Recycled.20 December 2018. National Geographic,20 January 2020. https://www.nationalgeographic.com/news/2017/07/plastic-produced-recycling-waste- ocean-trash-debris-environment/ Tricia Mool. How The PH Of Toothpaste Can Affect your Enamel.Colgate, 20 January 2020. https://www.colgate.com/en-us/oral-health/life-stages/adult-oral-care/ph-of- toothpaste-and-enamel-0316 Katie Wells, Benefits Of Bentonite Clay.31 July 2019.Wellness Mama, 12 December 2019. https://wellnessmama.com/5915/bentonite-clay-benefits/ Kristeen Cherney. Can Store-bought Baking Soda Really Treat Acid Reflux?.24 April 2018. Healthline,12 December 2019 https://www.healthline.com/health/gerd/baking-soda 2. Visit Level 2, Faculty of Science, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor. 21 December 2019. 3. Television programs Mornings With Maria.Lindsay McCormick.18 February 2019.Vegan Toothpaste Pill Aims To Cut Plastic At Landfills.FOX Business Network.FOX Business. Headquartered in 21st Century Fox's studios, Manhattan, 19


Sunday, January 12, 2014

Contoh tesis kajian saintifik 2013, 7 comments:.


goods of sharing


Thanks this helps a lot to me

tesis ni kertas kerja ke?

this is definitely what i looking for

thankyou so much!! very nice and this is what i've looking for!! :) i'm very grateful doo!!

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Monday, september 20, 2010, projek sem mrsm, 7 comments:.

mcm mane benda ni dijamin tidak memudaratkan ??

Saya kna buat projek sem dalam 2 bulan lagi kna present, ade recommandation x ? kalau boleh nk unsur kimia, senang nk dri bahan dalam lab chemist. yang terbaru, group saya nk buat glowing stick, is it ok?

camne nk buat hipotesis

Mcm mana nk buat thesis utk projek ni

bagaimana saya nak berhubung dengan awak ye?

saya nak buat projek ni, saya perlukn bantuan awak

a Hermit Lass

| apabila kau sibuk dengan duniamu, maka akhiratmu akan luput -nabi saw

Thursday, June 6, 2013

contoh thesis mrsm

6 legit comments:

Luv this entry

Suka baca .. Anak saya baru masuk MRSM katanyer dah mula prog mini UA.. Moga berjaya ngn cemerlang

Suka baca... Nice info! Pray for my son .. He just registered as anak MARA last week!

Seronok den baco ..

Seronok den baco...

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