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How to Write a Thesis or Dissertation Conclusion
Published on September 6, 2022 by Tegan George and Shona McCombes. Revised on November 11, 2022.
The conclusion is the very last part of your thesis or dissertation . It should be concise and engaging, leaving your reader with a clear understanding of your main findings, as well as the answer to your research question .
In it, you should:
- Clearly state the answer to your main research question
- Summarize and reflect on your research process
- Make recommendations for future work on your thesis or dissertation topic
- Show what new knowledge you have contributed to your field
- Wrap up your thesis or dissertation
Table of contents
Discussion vs. conclusion, how long should your conclusion be, step 1: answer your research question, step 2: summarize and reflect on your research, step 3: make future recommendations, step 4: emphasize your contributions to your field, step 5: wrap up your thesis or dissertation, full conclusion example, conclusion checklist, frequently asked questions about conclusion sections.
While your conclusion contains similar elements to your discussion section , they are not the same thing.
Your conclusion should be shorter and more general than your discussion. Instead of repeating literature from your literature review , discussing specific research results , or interpreting your data in detail, concentrate on making broad statements that sum up the most important insights of your research.
As a rule of thumb, your conclusion should not introduce new data, interpretations, or arguments.
Depending on whether you are writing a thesis or dissertation, your length will vary. Generally, a conclusion should make up around 5–7% of your overall word count.
An empirical scientific study will often have a short conclusion, concisely stating the main findings and recommendations for future research. A humanities dissertation topic or systematic review , on the other hand, might require more space to conclude its analysis, tying all the previous sections together in an overall argument.
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Your conclusion should begin with the main question that your thesis or dissertation aimed to address. This is your final chance to show that you’ve done what you set out to do, so make sure to formulate a clear, concise answer.
- Don’t repeat a list of all the results that you already discussed
- Do synthesize them into a final takeaway that the reader will remember.
An empirical thesis or dissertation conclusion may begin like this:
A case study –based thesis or dissertation conclusion may begin like this:
In the second example, the research aim is not directly restated, but rather added implicitly to the statement. To avoid repeating yourself, it is helpful to reformulate your aims and questions into an overall statement of what you did and how you did it.
Your conclusion is an opportunity to remind your reader why you took the approach you did, what you expected to find, and how well the results matched your expectations.
To avoid repetition , consider writing more reflectively here, rather than just writing a summary of each preceding section. Consider mentioning the effectiveness of your methodology , or perhaps any new questions or unexpected insights that arose in the process.
You can also mention any limitations of your research, but only if you haven’t already included these in the discussion. Don’t dwell on them at length, though—focus on the positives of your work.
- While x limits the generalizability of the results, this approach provides new insight into y .
- This research clearly illustrates x , but it also raises the question of y .
You may already have made a few recommendations for future research in your discussion section, but the conclusion is a good place to elaborate and look ahead, considering the implications of your findings in both theoretical and practical terms.
- Based on these conclusions, practitioners should consider …
- To better understand the implications of these results, future studies could address …
- Further research is needed to determine the causes of/effects of/relationship between …
When making recommendations for further research, be sure not to undermine your own work. Relatedly, while future studies might confirm, build on, or enrich your conclusions, they shouldn’t be required for your argument to feel complete. Your work should stand alone on its own merits.
Just as you should avoid too much self-criticism, you should also avoid exaggerating the applicability of your research. If you’re making recommendations for policy, business, or other practical implementations, it’s generally best to frame them as “shoulds” rather than “musts.” All in all, the purpose of academic research is to inform, explain, and explore—not to demand.
Make sure your reader is left with a strong impression of what your research has contributed to the state of your field.
Some strategies to achieve this include:
- Returning to your problem statement to explain how your research helps solve the problem
- Referring back to the literature review and showing how you have addressed a gap in knowledge
- Discussing how your findings confirm or challenge an existing theory or assumption
Again, avoid simply repeating what you’ve already covered in the discussion in your conclusion. Instead, pick out the most important points and sum them up succinctly, situating your project in a broader context.
The end is near! Once you’ve finished writing your conclusion, it’s time to wrap up your thesis or dissertation with a few final steps:
- It’s a good idea to write your abstract next, while the research is still fresh in your mind.
- Next, make sure your reference list is complete and correctly formatted. To speed up the process, you can use our free APA citation generator .
- Once you’ve added any appendices , you can create a table of contents and title page .
- Finally, read through the whole document again to make sure your thesis is clearly written and free from language errors. You can proofread it yourself , ask a friend, or consider Scribbr’s proofreading and editing service .
Here is an example of how you can write your conclusion section. Notice how it includes everything mentioned above:
The current research aimed to identify acoustic speech characteristics which mark the beginning of an exacerbation in COPD patients.
The central questions for this research were as follows: 1. Which acoustic measures extracted from read speech differ between COPD speakers in stable condition and healthy speakers? 2. In what ways does the speech of COPD patients during an exacerbation differ from speech of COPD patients during stable periods?
All recordings were aligned using a script. Subsequently, they were manually annotated to indicate respiratory actions such as inhaling and exhaling. The recordings of 9 stable COPD patients reading aloud were then compared with the recordings of 5 healthy control subjects reading aloud. The results showed a significant effect of condition on the number of in- and exhalations per syllable, the number of non-linguistic in- and exhalations per syllable, and the ratio of voiced and silence intervals. The number of in- and exhalations per syllable and the number of non-linguistic in- and exhalations per syllable were higher for COPD patients than for healthy controls, which confirmed both hypotheses.
However, the higher ratio of voiced and silence intervals for COPD patients compared to healthy controls was not in line with the hypotheses. This unpredicted result might have been caused by the different reading materials or recording procedures for both groups, or by a difference in reading skills. Moreover, there was a trend regarding the effect of condition on the number of syllables per breath group. The number of syllables per breath group was higher for healthy controls than for COPD patients, which was in line with the hypothesis. There was no effect of condition on pitch, intensity, center of gravity, pitch variability, speaking rate, or articulation rate.
This research has shown that the speech of COPD patients in exacerbation differs from the speech of COPD patients in stable condition. This might have potential for the detection of exacerbations. However, sustained vowels rarely occur in spontaneous speech. Therefore, the last two outcome measures might have greater potential for the detection of beginning exacerbations, but further research on the different outcome measures and their potential for the detection of exacerbations is needed due to the limitations of the current study.
I have clearly and concisely answered the main research question .
I have summarized my overall argument or key takeaways.
I have mentioned any important limitations of the research.
I have given relevant recommendations .
I have clearly explained what my research has contributed to my field.
I have not introduced any new data or arguments.
You've written a great conclusion! Use the other checklists to further improve your dissertation.
In a thesis or dissertation, the discussion is an in-depth exploration of the results, going into detail about the meaning of your findings and citing relevant sources to put them in context.
The conclusion is more shorter and more general: it concisely answers your main research question and makes recommendations based on your overall findings.
While it may be tempting to present new arguments or evidence in your thesis or disseration conclusion , especially if you have a particularly striking argument you’d like to finish your analysis with, you shouldn’t. Theses and dissertations follow a more formal structure than this.
All your findings and arguments should be presented in the body of the text (more specifically in the discussion section and results section .) The conclusion is meant to summarize and reflect on the evidence and arguments you have already presented, not introduce new ones.
For a stronger dissertation conclusion , avoid including:
- Important evidence or analysis that wasn’t mentioned in the discussion section and results section
- Generic concluding phrases (e.g. “In conclusion …”)
- Weak statements that undermine your argument (e.g., “There are good points on both sides of this issue.”)
Your conclusion should leave the reader with a strong, decisive impression of your work.
The conclusion of your thesis or dissertation shouldn’t take up more than 5–7% of your overall word count.
The conclusion of your thesis or dissertation should include the following:
- A restatement of your research question
- A summary of your key arguments and/or results
- A short discussion of the implications of your research
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How to Write a Research Paper Conclusion
Wrapping up a paper may seem simple enough, but if you don’t know how to write a research paper conclusion, it can sometimes be the hardest part of the paper-writing process.
In this guide, we share expert advice on how to write a research paper conclusion. We explain what to put (and what not to put) in a research paper conclusion, describe the different types of conclusions, and show you a few different research paper conclusion examples.
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What is a research paper conclusion?
A research paper conclusion should summarize the main points of the paper, help readers contextualize the information, and as the last thing people read, be memorable and leave an impression. The research paper conclusion is the best chance for the author to both reiterate their main points and tie all the information together. All in all, it’s one of the most important parts of writing a research paper .
Research paper conclusions are generally one paragraph long , although more complicated topics may have longer conclusions. Although conclusions don’t normally present new information or data that wasn’t mentioned in the article, they often reframe the issues or offer a new perspective on the topic.
6 elements to include in a research paper conclusion
1 urgency or consequences.
A good conclusion answers the question, Why should the reader care? To connect the information to the reader, point out why your topic should matter to them. What happens if the problem persists, or how can the problem be solved? Feel free to mention common obstacles that feed the problem, implications of the data, or a recommended action for fixing it.
2 Reminder of thesis statement
Research paper conclusions are a great place to revisit your initial thesis statement , a sentence that encapsulates the main topic or problem your paper addresses. Thesis statements are discussed heavily at the beginning of a paper, but they can be even stronger when you reintroduce them at the end, after you’ve presented all your evidence.
3 Recap of main points
Although you don’t want to repeat yourself just for the sake of repetition, a recap of your main points can be helpful to your reader. Think of these as your paper’s “key takeaways,” the parts you want readers to remember. Save the details for the body text and use the conclusion to remind the reader of your strongest supporting evidence before they put your paper down.
4 Parallels to the introduction
The introduction and the conclusion are two sides of the same coin. A useful strategy to consider as you approach writing a research paper conclusion is to follow the same structure or address the same themes as you do in the introduction. For example, if you pose a question in your introduction, you can answer it directly in your conclusion. Keep this in mind when writing your research paper outline so you can properly plan both parts.
5 Limitations of the study
Although this isn’t applicable to every research paper, if you’re writing about actual tests or studies you’ve conducted, there are some ethical requirements for what you put in a research paper conclusion. Specifically, you’re expected to address the limitations of your study; these may include criticisms or flaws in your process that might have affected the results, such as using suboptimal participation groups. It’s best to call these out yourself rather than having a colleague call them out later.
Above all, every research paper conclusion should be written with conciseness . In general, conclusions should be short, so keep an eye on your word count as you write and aim to be as succinct as possible. You can expound on your topic in the body of your paper, but the conclusion is more for summarizing and recapping.
5 elements not to include in a research paper conclusion
1 dry summary.
Summarizing may be a crucial part of research paper conclusions, but it’s not the only part. Your conclusion should be more than just a summary; it should shape the way your reader thinks about your topic. Don’t just repeat the facts: Contextualize them for the reader, offer a new perspective, or suggest a step for solving the problem.
2 Generic or clichéd phrasing
Just like our advice for how to write a conclusion for a more general essay, you should also avoid generic or clichéd phrasing in research paper conclusions. Some words or phrases are overused in conclusions to the point of becoming trite. If you want your conclusion to seem fresh and well-written, avoid these phrases:
- in conclusion
- in summary or in summation
3 New data or evidence
Conclusions are not the place to introduce new evidence or data, especially if they are significant enough to reframe your entire argument. Hard facts and supporting evidence belong in the body of the paper; when the reader is absorbing this section, they’re still actively learning about the topic. By the conclusion, the reader is almost done forming their opinion. The conclusion is more about retrospection; introducing unexpected information there can frustrate readers just as much as it surprises them.
4 Ignoring negative results
It might be tempting to sugarcoat negative results or ignore them completely, but that will only harm your paper in the end. It’s always best to own up to any shortcomings in your research and admit them overtly. Your transparency not only helps validate your other research, but it also prevents critics from pointing out these same shortcomings in a more damaging way.
5 Ambiguous resolutions
Part of the appeal of research paper conclusions is the closure they bring; they’re supposed to wrap up arguments and clean up any loose ends. If your conclusion is ambiguous, it can give the impression that your research was incomplete, inadequate, or fundamentally flawed. Rather, write your conclusion with direct language and take a firm stance. Even if the data was inconclusive, state definitively that it was inconclusive. This kind of clarity in writing makes you sound both confident and competent.
Types of research paper conclusions with examples
Although there are no formal types of research paper conclusions, in general they tend to fall into the categories of summary , commentary , and new perspective . Bear in mind that these aren’t mutually exclusive—the same research paper conclusion can summarize and present a new perspective at the same time. Consider mixing and matching parts from each to create the unique blend your own paper needs.
Research paper conclusion example: Summary
The most common type of research paper conclusion is the straight summary, which succinctly repeats the key points of the paper. Keep in mind that a conclusion should do more than merely summarize, so be sure to add some lines that offer extra value or insight.
Like all great scientists, Isaac Newton was able to condense his ideas, however complicated, into the simple and brief laws discussed above. Newton’s law of inertia, his law of action/reaction, and his equation of F=ma —along with his law of gravity, also discussed above—combine to form the very foundation of classical mechanics. Without his laws, physics as we know it wouldn’t exist.
Research paper conclusion example: Commentary
The conclusion can be an opportunity for a writer to share their own personal views. This is especially useful in scientific writing, where the body of the paper is reserved for data and facts, and the conclusion is the only section for personal opinion. Just be careful about getting too subjective—this is still a research paper, not a personal essay .
As you can see by the cause-and-effect relationships pointed out above, an attack on journalism in one part of the world is an attack on journalism everywhere. Though the issue might seem distant, it’s actually right on our doorstep. All of us need to start standing up to the powers that censor the truth and defend the brave journalists who risk their lives to deliver it.
Research paper conclusion example: New perspective
Research paper conclusions are the perfect place to offer a new perspective on your topic. After presenting all your evidence and research, you can now draw connections and synthesize the data to create a unifying theory or new angle. The conclusion is the best place to include this, as the reader is already familiar with all the essential details.
You’ll notice that the studies we examined all come to the same conclusion: Remote working increases both production and employee satisfaction. Ultimately, the idea that remote work hinders productivity is a lie. In fact, the research suggests clearly that remote work should be increased, not done away with. If remote work becomes the norm instead of the exception, businesses could actually achieve new heights.
Research paper conclusion FAQs
What is the purpose of a research paper conclusion.
The purpose of a research paper conclusion is to summarize the main points of the paper, help the reader contextualize the information, and leave a lasting impression on the reader.
What should you include in a research paper conclusion?
A research paper conclusion should include a summary of the key points in your paper. Additionally, the conclusion can reframe the research in a way that’s easier for the reader to understand, often by adding urgency or explaining consequences. The conclusion is also used to mention the limitations of your research, such as an inadequate number of participants.
What are the different kinds of research paper conclusions?
Although there are no formal categories of research paper conclusion, in general research paper conclusions tend to fall into the categories of summary, commentary, and new perspective. Bear in mind that these aren’t mutually exclusive—the same research paper conclusion can both summarize the paper and present a new perspective.
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This resource outlines the generally accepted structure for introductions, body paragraphs, and conclusions in an academic argument paper. Keep in mind that this resource contains guidelines and not strict rules about organization. Your structure needs to be flexible enough to meet the requirements of your purpose and audience.
Conclusions wrap up what you have been discussing in your paper. After moving from general to specific information in the introduction and body paragraphs, your conclusion should begin pulling back into more general information that restates the main points of your argument. Conclusions may also call for action or overview future possible research. The following outline may help you conclude your paper:
In a general way,
- Restate your topic and why it is important,
- Restate your thesis/claim,
- Address opposing viewpoints and explain why readers should align with your position,
- Call for action or overview future research possibilities.
Remember that once you accomplish these tasks, unless otherwise directed by your instructor, you are finished. Done. Complete. Don't try to bring in new points or end with a whiz bang(!) conclusion or try to solve world hunger in the final sentence of your conclusion. Simplicity is best for a clear, convincing message.
The preacher's maxim is one of the most effective formulas to follow for argument papers:
Tell what you're going to tell them (introduction).
Tell them (body).
Tell them what you told them (conclusion).
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A conclusion is an important part of the paper; it provides closure for the reader while reminding the reader of the contents and importance of the paper. It accomplishes this by stepping back from the specifics in order to view the bigger picture of the document. In other words, it is reminding the reader of the main argument. For most course papers, it is usually one paragraph that simply and succinctly restates the main ideas and arguments, pulling everything together to help clarify the thesis of the paper. A conclusion does not introduce new ideas; instead, it should clarify the intent and importance of the paper. It can also suggest possible future research on the topic.
An Easy Checklist for Writing a Conclusion
It is important to remind the reader of the thesis of the paper so he is reminded of the argument and solutions you proposed.
Think of the main points as puzzle pieces, and the conclusion is where they all fit together to create a bigger picture. The reader should walk away with the bigger picture in mind.
Make sure that the paper places its findings in the context of real social change.
Make sure the reader has a distinct sense that the paper has come to an end. It is important to not leave the reader hanging. (You don’t want her to have flip-the-page syndrome, where the reader turns the page, expecting the paper to continue. The paper should naturally come to an end.)
No new ideas should be introduced in the conclusion. It is simply a review of the material that is already present in the paper. The only new idea would be the suggesting of a direction for future research.
As addressed in my analysis of recent research, the advantages of a later starting time for high school students significantly outweigh the disadvantages. A later starting time would allow teens more time to sleep--something that is important for their physical and mental health--and ultimately improve their academic performance and behavior. The added transportation costs that result from this change can be absorbed through energy savings. The beneficial effects on the students’ academic performance and behavior validate this decision, but its effect on student motivation is still unknown. I would encourage an in-depth look at the reactions of students to such a change. This sort of study would help determine the actual effects of a later start time on the time management and sleep habits of students.
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Home » Research Paper Conclusion – Writing Guide and Examples
Research Paper Conclusion – Writing Guide and Examples
Table of Contents
Research Paper Conclusion
A research paper conclusion is the final section of a research paper that summarizes the key findings, significance, and implications of the research. It is the writer’s opportunity to synthesize the information presented in the paper, draw conclusions, and make recommendations for future research or actions.
The conclusion should provide a clear and concise summary of the research paper, reiterating the research question or problem, the main results, and the significance of the findings. It should also discuss the limitations of the study and suggest areas for further research.
Parts of Research Paper Conclusion
The parts of a research paper conclusion typically include:
Restatement of the Thesis
The conclusion should begin by restating the thesis statement from the introduction in a different way. This helps to remind the reader of the main argument or purpose of the research.
Summary of Key Findings
The conclusion should summarize the main findings of the research, highlighting the most important results and conclusions. This section should be brief and to the point.
Implications and Significance
In this section, the researcher should explain the implications and significance of the research findings. This may include discussing the potential impact on the field or industry, highlighting new insights or knowledge gained, or pointing out areas for future research.
Limitations and Recommendations
It is important to acknowledge any limitations or weaknesses of the research and to make recommendations for how these could be addressed in future studies. This shows that the researcher is aware of the potential limitations of their work and is committed to improving the quality of research in their field.
The conclusion should end with a strong concluding statement that leaves a lasting impression on the reader. This could be a call to action, a recommendation for further research, or a final thought on the topic.
How to Write Research Paper Conclusion
Here are some steps you can follow to write an effective research paper conclusion:
- Restate the research problem or question: Begin by restating the research problem or question that you aimed to answer in your research. This will remind the reader of the purpose of your study.
- Summarize the main points: Summarize the key findings and results of your research. This can be done by highlighting the most important aspects of your research and the evidence that supports them.
- Discuss the implications: Discuss the implications of your findings for the research area and any potential applications of your research. You should also mention any limitations of your research that may affect the interpretation of your findings.
- Provide a conclusion : Provide a concise conclusion that summarizes the main points of your paper and emphasizes the significance of your research. This should be a strong and clear statement that leaves a lasting impression on the reader.
- Offer suggestions for future research: Lastly, offer suggestions for future research that could build on your findings and contribute to further advancements in the field.
Remember that the conclusion should be brief and to the point, while still effectively summarizing the key findings and implications of your research.
Example of Research Paper Conclusion
Here’s an example of a research paper conclusion:
In conclusion, our study aimed to investigate the relationship between social media use and mental health among college students. Our findings suggest that there is a significant association between social media use and increased levels of anxiety and depression among college students. This highlights the need for increased awareness and education about the potential negative effects of social media use on mental health, particularly among college students.
Despite the limitations of our study, such as the small sample size and self-reported data, our findings have important implications for future research and practice. Future studies should aim to replicate our findings in larger, more diverse samples, and investigate the potential mechanisms underlying the association between social media use and mental health. In addition, interventions should be developed to promote healthy social media use among college students, such as mindfulness-based approaches and social media detox programs.
Overall, our study contributes to the growing body of research on the impact of social media on mental health, and highlights the importance of addressing this issue in the context of higher education. By raising awareness and promoting healthy social media use among college students, we can help to reduce the negative impact of social media on mental health and improve the well-being of young adults.
Purpose of Research Paper Conclusion
The purpose of a research paper conclusion is to provide a summary and synthesis of the key findings, significance, and implications of the research presented in the paper. The conclusion serves as the final opportunity for the writer to convey their message and leave a lasting impression on the reader.
The conclusion should restate the research problem or question, summarize the main results of the research, and explain their significance. It should also acknowledge the limitations of the study and suggest areas for future research or action.
Overall, the purpose of the conclusion is to provide a sense of closure to the research paper and to emphasize the importance of the research and its potential impact. It should leave the reader with a clear understanding of the main findings and why they matter. The conclusion serves as the writer’s opportunity to showcase their contribution to the field and to inspire further research and action.
When to Write Research Paper Conclusion
The conclusion of a research paper should be written after the body of the paper has been completed. It should not be written until the writer has thoroughly analyzed and interpreted their findings and has written a complete and cohesive discussion of the research.
Before writing the conclusion, the writer should review their research paper and consider the key points that they want to convey to the reader. They should also review the research question, hypotheses, and methodology to ensure that they have addressed all of the necessary components of the research.
Once the writer has a clear understanding of the main findings and their significance, they can begin writing the conclusion. The conclusion should be written in a clear and concise manner, and should reiterate the main points of the research while also providing insights and recommendations for future research or action.
Characteristics of Research Paper Conclusion
The characteristics of a research paper conclusion include:
- Clear and concise: The conclusion should be written in a clear and concise manner, summarizing the key findings and their significance.
- Comprehensive: The conclusion should address all of the main points of the research paper, including the research question or problem, the methodology, the main results, and their implications.
- Future-oriented : The conclusion should provide insights and recommendations for future research or action, based on the findings of the research.
- Impressive : The conclusion should leave a lasting impression on the reader, emphasizing the importance of the research and its potential impact.
- Objective : The conclusion should be based on the evidence presented in the research paper, and should avoid personal biases or opinions.
- Unique : The conclusion should be unique to the research paper and should not simply repeat information from the introduction or body of the paper.
Advantages of Research Paper Conclusion
The advantages of a research paper conclusion include:
- Summarizing the key findings : The conclusion provides a summary of the main findings of the research, making it easier for the reader to understand the key points of the study.
- Emphasizing the significance of the research: The conclusion emphasizes the importance of the research and its potential impact, making it more likely that readers will take the research seriously and consider its implications.
- Providing recommendations for future research or action : The conclusion suggests practical recommendations for future research or action, based on the findings of the study.
- Providing closure to the research paper : The conclusion provides a sense of closure to the research paper, tying together the different sections of the paper and leaving a lasting impression on the reader.
- Demonstrating the writer’s contribution to the field : The conclusion provides the writer with an opportunity to showcase their contribution to the field and to inspire further research and action.
Limitations of Research Paper Conclusion
While the conclusion of a research paper has many advantages, it also has some limitations that should be considered, including:
- I nability to address all aspects of the research: Due to the limited space available in the conclusion, it may not be possible to address all aspects of the research in detail.
- Subjectivity : While the conclusion should be objective, it may be influenced by the writer’s personal biases or opinions.
- Lack of new information: The conclusion should not introduce new information that has not been discussed in the body of the research paper.
- Lack of generalizability: The conclusions drawn from the research may not be applicable to other contexts or populations, limiting the generalizability of the study.
- Misinterpretation by the reader: The reader may misinterpret the conclusions drawn from the research, leading to a misunderstanding of the findings.
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How to Write a Conclusion for a Research Paper
- Posted on May 12, 2023
The key to an impactful research paper is crafting an effective conclusion. The conclusion provides a final opportunity to make a lasting impression on the reader by providing a powerful summary of the main argument and key findings.
A well-written conclusion not only summarizes your research but also ties everything back to your thesis statement. Plus, it provides important takeaways for your reader, highlighting what they should remember from your research and how it contributes to the larger academic discourse.
Crafting an impactful conclusion can be tricky, especially in argumentative papers. However, with our expert tips and tricks, you can rest assured that your conclusion will effectively restate the main argument and thesis statement in a way that resonates with your audience and elevates your research to new heights.
Why is a Conclusion Necessary for a Research Paper?
The conclusion of a research paper is essential in tying together the different parts of the paper and offering a final perspective on the topic. It reinforces the main idea or argument presented and summarizes the key points and findings of the research, highlighting its significance.
Additionally, the conclusion creates a full circle of the research by connecting back to the thesis statement presented at the paper’s beginning. It provides an opportunity to showcase the writer’s critical thinking skills by demonstrating how the research supports the main argument.
The conclusion is essential for a research paper because it provides closure for the reader. It serves as a final destination that helps the reader understand how all the different pieces of information fit together to support the main argument presented. It also offers insights into how the research can inform future studies and contribute to the larger academic discourse.
It also ensures that the reader does not get lost in the vast amount of information presented in the paper by providing a concise and coherent summary of the entire research. Additionally, it helps the reader identify the paper’s main takeaway and understand how the research contributes to the larger body of knowledge in the field.
Leave a Lasting Impression
A well-crafted conclusion is an essential element of any research paper. Its purpose is to leave a lasting impression on the reader and tie together the different parts of the paper.
To achieve this goal, a conclusion should summarize the main points and highlight the key findings of the research. By doing so, the reader can easily understand the focus and significance of the study.
A strong conclusion should also discuss any important findings that can be applied in the real world. This practical perspective gives readers a better sense of the impact and relevance of the research.
Summarize Your Thoughts
The conclusion of a research paper should be concise and provide a summary of the writer’s thoughts and ideas about the research.
It should go beyond simply restating the main points and findings and address the “so what” of the research by explaining how it contributes to the existing body of knowledge on the same topic. This way, the conclusion can give readers a better understanding of the research’s significance and relevance to the broader academic community.
Demonstrate How Important Your Idea Is
Moving beyond a superficial overview and delving into the research in-depth is crucial to create a compelling conclusion. This entails summarizing the key findings of the study, highlighting its main contributions to the field, and placing the results in a broader context. Additionally, it would help if you comprehensively analyzed your work and its implications, underscoring its value to the broader academic community.
The conclusion section of a research paper offers an opportunity for the writer to present new insights and approaches to addressing the research problem.
Whether the research outcome is positive or negative, the conclusion provides a platform to discuss practical implications beyond the scope of the research paper. This discussion can help readers understand the potential impact of the research on the broader field and its significance for future research endeavors.
How to Write a Killer Conclusion with Key Points
When writing a conclusion for a research paper, it is important to cover several key points to create a solid and effective conclusion.
Restate the Thesis
When crafting a conclusion, restating the thesis statement is an important step that reminds readers of the research paper’s central focus. However, it should not be a verbatim repetition of the introduction.
By restating the thesis concisely and clearly, you can effectively tie together the main ideas discussed in the body of the paper and emphasize the significance of the research question. However, keep in mind that the restated thesis should capture the essence of the paper and leave the reader with a clear understanding of the main topic and its importance.
Summarize the Main Points
To write an impactful conclusion, summarizing the main points discussed in the body of the paper is essential. This final section provides the writer with a last opportunity to highlight the significance of their research findings.
However, it is equally important to avoid reiterating information already discussed in the body of the paper. Instead, you should synthesize and summarize the most significant points to emphasize the key findings. By doing so, the conclusion can effectively tie together the research findings and provide a clear understanding of the importance of the research topic.
Discuss the Results or Findings
The next step is to discuss the results or findings of the research. The discussion of the results or findings should not simply be a repetition of the information presented in the body of the paper.
Instead, it should provide a more in-depth analysis of the significance of the findings. This can involve explaining why the findings are important, what they mean in the context of the research question, and how they contribute to the field or area of study.
Additionally, it’s crucial to address any limitations or weaknesses of the study in this section. This can provide a more balanced and nuanced understanding of the research and its implications. By doing so, the reader will have a better understanding of the scope and context of the study, which can ultimately enhance the credibility and validity of the research.
Ruminate on Your Thoughts
The final step to crafting an effective conclusion is to ruminate on your thoughts. This provides an opportunity to reflect on the meaning of the research and leaves the reader with something to ponder. Remember, the concluding paragraph should not introduce new information but rather summarize and reflect on the critical points made in the paper.
Furthermore, the conclusion should be integrated into the paper rather than presented as a separate section. It should provide a concise overview of the main findings and suggest avenues for further research.
Different Types of Conclusions
There are various types of conclusions that can be employed to conclude a research paper effectively, depending on the research questions and topic being investigated.
Summarizing conclusions are frequently used to wrap up a research paper effectively. They restate the thesis statement and provide a brief overview of the main findings and outcomes of the research. This type of conclusion serves as a reminder to the reader of the key points discussed throughout the paper and emphasizes the significance of the research topic.
To be effective, summarizing conclusions should be concise and to the point, avoiding any new information not previously discussed in the body of the paper. Moreover, they are particularly useful when there is a clear and direct answer to the research question. This allows you to summarize your findings succinctly and leave the reader with a clear understanding of the implications of the research.
On the opposite end of the spectrum are externalizing conclusions. Unlike summarizing conclusions, externalizing conclusions introduce new ideas that may not be directly related to the research findings. This type of conclusion can be beneficial because it broadens the scope of the research topic and can lead to new insights and directions for future research.
By presenting new ideas, externalizing conclusions can challenge conventional thinking in the field and open up new avenues for exploration. This approach is instrumental in fields where research is ongoing, and new ideas and approaches are constantly being developed.
Editorial conclusions are a type of conclusion that allows the writer to express their commentary on the research findings. They can be particularly effective in connecting the writer’s insights with the research conducted and can offer a unique perspective on the research topic. Adding a personal touch to the conclusion can help engage the reader and leave a lasting impression.
Remember that regardless of the type of conclusion you choose, it should always start with a clear and concise restatement of the thesis statement, followed by a summary of the main findings in the body paragraphs. The first sentence of the conclusion should be impactful and attention-grabbing to make a strong impression on the reader.
What to Avoid in Your Conclusion
When crafting your conclusion, it’s essential to keep in mind several key points to ensure that it is effective and well-received by your audience:
- Avoid introducing new ideas or topics that have not been covered in the body of your paper.
- Refrain from simply restating what has already been said in your paper without adding new insights or analysis.
- Do not apologize for any shortcomings or limitations of your research, as this can undermine the importance of your findings.
- Avoid using overly emotional or flowery language, as it can detract from the professionalism and objectivity of the research.
- Lastly, avoid any examples of plagiarism. Be sure to properly cite any sources you have used in your research and writing.
Example of a Bad Conclusion
- Recapitulation without Insight: In conclusion, this paper has discussed the importance of exercise for physical and mental health. We hope this paper has been helpful to you and encourages you to start exercising today.
- Introduction of New Ideas: In conclusion, we have discussed the benefits of exercise and how it can improve physical and mental health. Additionally, we have highlighted the benefits of a plant-based diet and the importance of getting enough sleep for overall well-being.
- Emotional Language: In conclusion, exercise is good for your body and mind, and you should definitely start working out today!
Example of a Good Conclusion
- Insights and Implications: In light of our investigation, it is evident that regular exercise is undeniably beneficial for both physical and mental well-being, especially if performed at an appropriate duration and frequency. These findings hold significant implications for public health policies and personal wellness decisions.
- Limitations and Future Directions: While our investigation has shed light on the benefits of exercise, our study is not without limitations. Future research can delve deeper into the long-term effects of exercise on mental health and explore the impact of exercise on specific populations, such as older adults or individuals with chronic health conditions.
- Call to Action: In conclusion, we urge individuals to prioritize exercise as a critical component of their daily routine. By making exercise a habit, we can reap the many benefits of a healthy and active lifestyle.
When writing a research paper, the conclusion is one of the most crucial elements to leave a lasting impression on the reader. It should effectively summarize the research and provide valuable insights, leaving the reader with something to ponder.
To accomplish this, it is essential to include vital elements, such as restating the thesis , summarizing the main points, and discussing the findings. However, it is equally important to avoid common mistakes that can undermine the effectiveness of the conclusion, such as introducing new information or repeating the introduction.
So to ensure that your research is of the highest quality, it’s crucial to use proper citations and conduct a thorough literature review. Additionally, it is crucial to proofread the work to eliminate any errors.
Fortunately, there are many available resources to help you with both writing and plagiarism prevention. Quetext , for example, offers a plagiarism checker, citation assistance, and proofreading tools to ensure the writing is top-notch. By incorporating these tips and using available resources, you can create a compelling and memorable conclusion for readers.
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Conclusion Examples: Strong Endings for Any Paper
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Some might argue that a conclusion is one of the most important components of any research paper or article. It's your last opportunity to make a good impression on your reader. If you can confidently say you’ve fully answered the question posed, or are leaving the readers with a thought-provoking consideration, you've done well. Explore a variety of different papers with great conclusion examples.
Professional Conclusion Examples
When it comes to good conclusion examples, a good rule of thumb is to restate your thesis statement if you have one. Your conclusion should also refer back to your introduction, summarize three main points of your essay and wrap it all up with a final observation. If you conclude with an interesting insight, readers will be happy to have spent time on your writing. See how a professional writer creates a thought-provoking conclusion.
Professional Essay Conclusion Example
The New Yorker published an op-ed by Fergus McIntosh titled A Trip to St. Kilda, Scotland's Lost Utopia in the Sea . He's making the case that St. Kilda's inhabitants are not out of touch as so many travelers seem to believe. Take a look at how he brings it all home.
"Mainlanders always knew that St. Kilda was there, and to describe its people as uncontacted is hyperbole — so why does it, in common with other abandoned places and lost or threatened cultures, arouse such fascination? Perhaps it’s because, in our globalizing, urbanizing, capitalist age, such places remind us that there are alternative ways to relate to the world, and the people, around us: they spur our utopian imagination."
Scientific Paper Conclusion Example
In this research paper , the author summarizes her main findings while also supporting the conclusions she's drawn. In an effort to fully engage the reader in her area of study, she proposes suggestions for future research. This was her way of leaving the readers wanting more.
"Recent research on cold-water immersion incidents has provided a more complete understanding of the physiological processes occurring during drowning and near-drowning accidents. Current findings suggest that the cooperative effect of the mammalian diving reflex and hypothermia plays a critical role in patient survival during a cold-water immersion incident. However, the relationship between the two processes is still unclear. Because it is impossible to provide an exact reproduction of a particular drowning incident within the laboratory, research is hampered by the lack of complete details surrounding drowning incidents. Consequently, it is difficult for comparisons to be drawn between published case studies. More complete and accurate documentation of cold-water immersion incidents—including time of submersion; time of recovery; and a profile of the victim including age, sex, physical condition—will facilitate easier comparison of individual situations and lead to a more complete knowledge of the processes affecting long-term survival rates for drowning victims. Once we have a clearer understanding of the relationship between hypothermia and the mammalian diving reflex, and of the effect of such factors as the age of the victim, physicians and rescue personnel can take steps to improve patient care both at the scene and in the hospital."
Report Conclusion Example
This is the end of a book review by Nanette Scarpellini for the Journal of Air Transportation World Wide . Scarpellini uses her conclusion to reiterate her main points about the author making what could be a dull topic entertaining and offering a suggestion for a future edition. Take a look at how she wraps it all up in her conclusion.
"Aviation History is a collection of significant events in aviation accented by the people who made it happen and correlated with world affairs. The book’s use of color and vivid stories helps to make the advancements come to life as something more than significant events on a timeline. While at times the stories may clutter the page, they also breathe life into what is considered by many to be a dull subject. The author’s enthusiasm for the topic is obvious throughout the book. More thorough proofreading could help alleviate some of the confusion that is caused by typos and a few mislabeled illustrations. The credibility of the content does not suffer due to these obvious errors which will likely be corrected in the next edition."
Examples of Conclusions for Students
While not all students are professional writers, you can still wow your audience with your conclusion. As you review these, take note of the manner in which the writer tied their ideas together, made a call to the reader or left off with some compelling food for thought.
College Essay Conclusion Example
Here we have a college entrance essay worth reading . This student recalls when she used to sit in a blue armchair in her parents' café and read, people-watch and imagine. In the conclusion, she refers back to the blue armchair and that cozy world but also looks forward to finding her niche. You'll see why Johns Hopkins uses this on their website for the model of college entrance essays.
"To say that I have figured out all of who I am would be a lie. Unlike the world of fantasy, there is no single defining moment—no Excalibur, no Sorting Hat—that marks my complete evolution. My niche in the world constantly changes, but what remains steadfast is my commitment to a life of service and adventure, albeit it isn’t as cozy as the blue armchair."
Thesis Conclusion Example
When it comes to a thesis or research paper conclusion example, it's important to end it on a high note. See a thesis conclusion example to get an idea for your thesis paper.
The purpose of this research was to identify effective strategies for dealing with repetitive motions identified in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Based on the analysis conveyed, it can be concluded that there are multiple behavior modification therapies important for the improvement of this behavior. Future exploration into behavior modification techniques could be useful to finding further therapy techniques. The amount this could improve the lives of others with repetitive motion behaviors is worth exploring.
Conclusion Example for Project
When you think of a project conclusion, there are all different types of projects out there. You might be doing a literature project or a science project. Whatever the case, you want to end with a bang. Check out a conclusion example for a high school science fair project.
Through my analysis of Huggies and Pampers brand diapers, it’s been proven that Huggies is the sure winner in leak protection and fluid retention. As you can see through my experiment, using Huggies over Pampers can help parents to avoid embarrassing diaper leaks and ensure their baby’s skin stays dry avoiding diaper rash and skin irritation. But that begs the question, is Huggies the best in leak protection among all brands? That would take a bit more research.
Formulating Your Conclusion
There is some important information you need to write a conclusion . In addition to restating your thesis and highlighting your main points, you could add a relevant quotation from an authoritative source. This will not work in every case, but if, for example, you were writing a reflective essay on a piece of literature, you might quote a famous scholar who also reviewed that piece.
Additionally, it may be worth taking this opportunity to tie your argument to a larger context, such as relating your central theme to a particular group in society or even a global concept.
What Not to Do in a Conclusion
When it comes to crafting the perfect conclusion, there are a lot of different things you should do. But there are also a few things you’ll want to avoid.
- While you do need to refer back to your essay or report, don’t just provide a bland summary. Think of the conclusion more as an opportunity to end with a flourish . Spend some time on this last paragraph. You want the reader to finish your essay and think, "Wow. I never considered that," or, "I'm going to remember that."
- Avoid the tired "In conclusion …" Allow readers to sense you're bringing it home with your tone and thoughtful summation. Turn the essay toward them if you can by asking a question or tying your idea to current society.
- Also, hold true to what you've just expressed in your writing. Some might feel tempted to say things like, "This is merely one opinion …" In that single line, you've just undercut everything you worked so hard to draw together. Remember to stand behind the case you just made. Be proud of it and end on the highest note possible.
The Last Word
Take some time to go over your conclusion. Remember, it’s an opportunity to pull your thoughts together and magnify the central theme of your writing. It's the cream cheese frosting to that red velvet cupcake you just baked. Don't allow it to be an after-thought to a paper you want to get off your plate. It could end up being the five or so sentences that a reader carries with them forever. Now that you’ve mastered a great conclusion, learn how to write a strong introduction through examples .
Table of contents Step 1: Restate the problem The first task of your conclusion is to remind the reader of your research problem. You will... Step 2: Sum up the paper Having zoomed back in on the problem, it’s time to summarize how the body of the paper went... Step 3: Discuss the implications
Step 1: Answer your research question Step 2: Summarize and reflect on your research Step 3: Make future recommendations Step 4: Emphasize your contributions to your field Step 5: Wrap up your thesis or dissertation Full conclusion example Conclusion checklist Frequently asked questions about conclusion sections Discussion vs. conclusion
6 elements to include in a research paper conclusion 1 Urgency or consequences. A good conclusion answers the question, Why should the reader care? To connect the... 2 Reminder of thesis statement. Research paper conclusions are a great place to revisit your initial thesis statement, a... 3 Recap of ...
Effective Strategies in Writing a Conclusion Synthesizing instead of summarizing. As mentioned previously, the research conclusion is not a summary of your research... Echoing the introduction. This approach to writing the conclusion brings your reader to a full circle by using or... Redirecting the ...
Conclusions may also call for action or overview future possible research. The following outline may help you conclude your paper: In a general way, Restate your topic and why it is important, Restate your thesis/claim, Address opposing viewpoints and explain why readers should align with your position,
A conclusion is an important part of the paper; it provides closure for the reader while reminding the reader of the contents and importance of the paper. It accomplishes this by stepping back from the specifics in order to view the bigger picture of the document. In other words, it is reminding the reader of the main argument.
How to write a conclusion for your research paper 1. Restate your research topic. Your first step when writing your conclusion should be to restate your research topic. 2. Restate the thesis. Next, restate the thesis of your research paper. You can do this by revising the original thesis... 3. ...
A research paper conclusion is the final section of a research paper that summarizes the key findings, significance, and implications of the research. It is the writer’s opportunity to synthesize the information presented in the paper, draw conclusions, and make recommendations for future research or actions.
The conclusion of a research paper is essential in tying together the different parts of the paper and offering a final perspective on the topic. It reinforces the main idea or argument presented and summarizes the key points and findings of the research, highlighting its significance. Additionally, the conclusion creates a full circle of the ...
Professional Conclusion Examples When it comes to good conclusion examples, a good rule of thumb is to restate your thesis statement if you have one. Your conclusion should also refer back to your introduction, summarize three main points of your essay and wrap it all up with a final observation.