50 Verbs of Analysis for English Academic Essays
Note: this list is for advanced English learners (CEFR level B2 or above). All definitions are from the Cambridge Dictionary online .
Definition: to have an influence on someone or something, or to cause a change in someone or something.
Example: Experts agree that coffee affects the body in ways we have not yet studied.
Definition: to increase the size or effect of something.
Example: It has been shown that this drug amplifies the side effects that were experienced by patients in previous trials.
Definition: to say that something is certainly true .
Example: Smith asserts that his findings are valid, despite criticism by colleagues.
Definition: Something that characterizes another thing is typical of it.
Example: His early paintings are characterized by a distinctive pattern of blue and yellow.
Definition: to say that something is true or is a fact , although you cannot prove it and other people might not believe it.
Example: Smith claims that the study is the first of its kind, and very different from the 2015 study he conducted.
Definition: to make something clear or easier to understand by giving more details or a simpler explanation .
Example: The professor clarified her statement with a later, more detailed, statement.
Definition: t o collect information from different places and arrange it in a book , report , or list .
Example: After compiling the data, the scientists authored a ten-page paper on their study and its findings.
Definition: to judge or decide something after thinking carefully about it.
Example: Doctor Jensen concluded that the drug wasn’t working, so he switched his patient to a new medicine.
Definition: to prove that a belief or an opinion that was previously not completely certain is true .
Example: This new data confirms the hypothesis many researchers had.
Definition: to join or be joined with something else .
Example: By including the criticisms of two researchers, Smith connects two seemingly different theories and illustrates a trend with writers of the Romanticism period.
Definition: to show or find the difference between things that are compared .
Example: Smith differentiates between the two theories in paragraph 4 of the second part of the study.
Definition: to reduce or be reduced in s i ze or importance .
Example: The new findings do not diminish the findings of previous research; rather, it builds on it to present a more complicated theory about the effects of global warming.
Definition: to cause people to stop respecting someone or believing in an idea or person .
Example: The details about the improper research done by the institution discredits the institution’s newest research.
Definition: to show.
Example: Smith’s findings display the effects of global warming that have not yet been considered by other scientists.
Definition: to prove that something is not true .
Example: Scientists hope that this new research will disprove the myth that vaccines are harmful to children.
Definition: to notice or understand the difference between two things, or to make one person or thing seem different from another.
Example: Our study seems similar to another one by Duke University: how can we distinguish ourselves and our research from this study?
Definition: to add more information to or explain something that you have said.
Example: In this new paper, Smith elaborates on theories she discussed in her 2012 book.
Definition: to represent a quality or an idea exactly .
Example: Shakespeare embodies English theater, but few can understand the antiquated (old) form of English that is used in the plays.
Definition: to copy something achieved by someone else and try to do it as well as they have.
Example: Although the study emulates some of the scientific methods used in previous research, it also offers some inventive new research methods.
Definition: to improve the quality , amount , or strength of something.
Example: The pharmaceutical company is looking for ways to enhance the effectiveness of its current drug for depression.
Definition: to make something necessary , or to involve something.
Example: The scientist’s study entails several different stages, which are detailed in the report.
Definition: to consider one thing to be the same as or equal to another thing.
Example: Findings from both studies equate; therefore, we can conclude that they are both accurate.
Definition: to discover or get proof of something.
Example: The award establishes the main causes of global warming.
Definition: to make someone remember something or feel an emotion .
Example: The artist’s painting evokes the work of some of the painters from the early 1800s.
Definition: to show something.
Example: Some of the research study participants exhibit similar symptoms while taking the medicine.
Definition: to make something possible or easier .
Example: The equipment that facilitates the study is expensive and of high-quality.
Definition: the main or central point of something, especially of attention or interest .
Example: The author focuses on World War II, which is an era she hasn’t written about before.
Definition: to act as a warning or sign of a future event .
Example: The sick bird at the beginning of the novel foreshadows the illness the main character develops later in the book.
Definition: to develop all the details of a plan for doing something.
Example: Two teams of scientists formulated the research methods for the study.
Definition: to cause something to exist .
Example: The study’s findings have generated many questions about this new species of frog in South America.
Definition: to attract attention to or emphasize something important .
Example: The author, Dr. Smith, highlights the need for further studies on the possible causes of cancer among farm workers.
Definition: to recognize a problem , need, fact , etc. and to show that it exists .
Example: Through this study, scientists were able to identify three of the main factors causing global warming.
Definition: to show the meaning or truth of something more clearly , especially by giving examples .
Example: Dr. Robin’s study illustrates the need for more research on the effects of this experimental drug.
Definition: to communicate an idea or feeling without saying it directly .
Example: The study implies that there are many outside factors (other than diet and exercise) which determine a person’s tendency to gain weight.
Definition: to include something as part of something larger .
Example: Dr. Smith incorporates research findings from 15 other studies in her well-researched paper.
Definition: to show, point , or make clear in another way.
Example: Overall, the study indicates that there is no real danger (other than a lack of sleep) to drinking three cups of coffee per day.
Definition: to form an opinion or guess that something is true because of the information that you have.
Example: From this study about a new medicine, we can infer that it will work similarly to other drugs that are currently being sold.
Definition: to tell someone about parti c ular facts .
Example: Dr. Smith informs the reader that there are some issues with this study: the oddly rainy weather in 2017 made it difficult for them to record the movements of the birds they were studying.
Definition: to suggest , without being direct , that something unpleasant is true .
Example: In addition to the reported conclusions, the study insinuates that there are many hidden dangers to driving while texting.
Definition: to combine two or more things in order to become more effective .
Example: The study about the popularity of social media integrates Facebook and Instagram hashtag use.
Definition: to not have or not have enough of something that is needed or wanted .
Example: What the study lacks, I believe, is a clear outline of the future research that is needed.
Definition: to make something legal or acceptable .
Example: Although the study legitimizes the existence of global warming, some will continue to think it is a hoax.
Definition: to make a problem bigger or more important .
Example: In conclusion, the scientists determined that the new pharmaceutical actually magnifies some of the symptoms of anxiety.
Definition: something that a copy can be based on because it is an extremely good example of its type .
Example: The study models a similar one from 1973, which needed to be redone with modern equipment.
Definition: to cause something to have no effect .
Example: This negates previous findings that say that sulphur in wine gives people headaches.
Definition: to not give enough c a re or attention to people or things that are your responsibility .
Example: The study neglects to mention another study in 2015 that had very different findings.
Definition: to make something difficult to discover and understand .
Example: The problems with the equipment obscures the study.
Definition: a description of the main facts about something.
Example: Before describing the research methods, the researchers outline the need for a study on the effects of anti-anxiety medication on children.
Definition: to fail to notice or consider something or someone.
Example: I personally feel that the study overlooks something very important: the participants might have answered some of the questions incorrectly.
Definition: to happen at the same time as something else , or be similar or equal to something else .
Example: Although the study parallels the procedures of a 2010 study, it has very different findings.
Converse International School of Languages offers an English for Academic Purposes course for students interested in improving their academic English skills. Students may take this course, which is offered in the afternoon for 12 weeks, at both CISL San Diego and CISL San Francisco . EAP course graduates can go on to CISL’s Aca demic Year Abroad program, where students attend one semester at a California Community College. Through CISL’s University Pathway program, EAP graduates may also attend college or university at one of CISL’s Pathway Partners. See the list of 25+ partners on the CISL website . Contact CISL for more information.
152 Analysis Verbs
Analysis verbs are helpful in demonstrating your higher-order thinking skills. They help you to show that you haven’t just understood what you read, but that you can also critique it.
Use analysis verbs as a way of demonstrating your mastery of a topic. But instead of simply using the same verb over and over again, try to mix up your use of analysis verbs to convey the most precise meaning you can in each context.
Below are over 150 examples of analysis verbs that you can use. Make sure you choose wisely for your situation.
Analysis Verbs List
- Casts Doubt
- Misses the Point
Examples of Analysis Verbs in a Sentence
Advises – Johnson advises that students should finish their essays at least two weeks before due date.
Advocates – The writer advocates for one perspective over another.
Affects – The study affects how we perceive the data.
Alleges – The author alleges that earlier research was poorly conducted.
Alludes – In his speech, the student alludes to recent studies.
Amplifies – The new information amplifies the theory.
Argues – The professor argues that their position is more valid.
Articulates – The student articulates her ideas well.
Asserts – The article asserts that the data was valid.
Assesses – The teacher assesses that the students had poor understanding of the material.
Attributes – The article attributes the cause of the changes to the researcher’s intervention.
Bolsters – The new evidence bolsters the case.
Builds – The professor builds upon their previous arguments in their new book.
Casts Doubt – The study casts doubt on the previous research.
Certifies – The article certifies that the data is accurate.
Characterizes – The article characterizes the data as accurate.
Claims – The author claims that they have found new information.
Clarifies – The author clarifies what they mean in the second paragraph.
Collates – The study accurately collates the data.
Compares – The study compares their findings to previous findings.
Compels – The evidence compels the jury to find the defendant guilty.
Complies – The study complies with the requirements for methodological rigor.
Concedes – The author concedes that they were wrong.
Concludes – The study concludes that there is a correlation between sleep and grades.
Confirms – The new data confirms the theory.
Connects – The study connects the dots to generate new data.
Constructs – The professor constructs an argument.
Contradicts – The new evidence contradicts the old evidence.
Contrasts – The article contrasts the two perspectives.
Conveys – The author conveys their feelings about the subject matter.
Correlates – The study correlates the two datasets effectively.
Creates – The study creates a strong argument.
Criticizes – The article criticizes the government’s response to the crisis.
Critiques – The student critiques the article.
Deconstructs – The professor deconstructs the popular theory.
Deepens – The research deepens our understanding of the phenomenon.
Defends – The author defends their position.
Demonstrates – The experiment demonstrates that the data is accurate.
Denies – The author denies that the previous study is accurate.
Denotes – The study denotes that there is a link between the two datasets.
Derives – The student derives their conclusion from the data.
Develops – The author develops a new theory.
Deviates – The results deviate from what was expected.
Differentiates – The article differentiates between the two types of research.
Diminishes – The impact of the evidence diminishes over time.
Disagrees – The two scientists disagree about the results of the experiment.
Discards – The author discards the irrelevant evidence.
Discredits – The study discredits the old evidence.
Disproves – The new evidence disproves the theory.
Distinguishes – The article distinguishes between the two types of research.
Eclipses – The new evidence eclipses the old evidence.
Elaborates – The author elaborates on their point in the second paragraph.
Elevates – The writer elevates their position.
Elicits – The writer elicits a response from their readers.
Embellishes – The author embellishes the story with details.
Embodies – The book embodies the ideals of the movement.
Emphasizes – The author emphasizes their point with an example.
Encourages – The teacher encourages the students to think outside the box.
Enhances – The study enhances the strength of previous studies.
Equates – The article equates the two phenomena.
Establishes – The study establishes a connection between the two concepts.
Evaluates – The professor evaluates the students’ papers.
Evokes – The article evokes a feeling of frustration.
Exaggerates – The article exaggerates its findings.
Examines – The study examines the points in more depth than ever before.
Exemplifies – The student exemplifies their knowledge of the material.
Exhibits – The author exhibits a depth of knowledge around the topic.
Exonerates – The new evidence exonerates the accused.
Expands – The theory expands previous knowledge on the topic.
Exposes – The article exposes previously unknown information.
Extends – The research extends our understanding of the phenomenon.
Extrapolates – The scientist extrapolates from past trends to make predictions.
Facilitates – The author facilitates knowledge transfer through detailed writing.
Forecasts – The study forecasts future trends.
Foreshadows – The author foreshadows that new findings will come soon.
Formulates – The study formulates a hypothesis.
Frames – The article frames the issue in a new light.
Furnishes – The study furnishes evidence to support its claims.
Gauges – The scholar gauges people’s reactions through a new blog post on the topic.
Generates – The scholar generates a new theory by bringing together a range of different ideas.
Highlights – The article highlights the importance of the issues.
Hints – The article hints that there may be a link between the data.
Hypothesizes – The researcher hypothesizes that there is a link between two concepts.
Illustrates – The author illustrates their point with an example.
Imagines – The author imagines a future where their findings will change the world.
Imparts – The teacher imparts knowledge to her students.
Implies – The study implies that there is a link between the two concepts.
Incorporates – The author incorporates three new ideas in their new book.
Indicates – The study indicates that there is a link between the two concepts.
Infers – The reader infers from the data that there is a link between the two concepts.
Insinuates – The article insinuates that there is a problem with previous studies.
Integrates – The author integrates three ideas into one thesis very well.
Interprets – The author interprets previous studies in the wrong way.
Invents – The author invents a new way to look at the issue.
Investigates – The scholar investigates the issue.
Isolates – The study isolates a group of people to focus on.
Justifies – The study justifies its cost by pointing to the revolutionary findings.
Lambasts – The article lambasts the previous scholars’ inaction on the topic.
Lauds – The article lauds the efforts of the university to improve its work.
Legitimizes – The author legitimizes previous studies.
Limits – The study limits its focus to a specific group of people.
Magnifies – The article magnifies the effects of climate change.
Maintains – The author maintains that this is a worthwhile argument despite some critique.
Manipulates – The author manipulates the data in the study to meet their biases.
Misses the Point – The article misses the point of the issue.
Negates – The study negates the hypothesis that there is a link between social media and depression.
Neglects – The article neglects to mention the other side of the issue.
Obscures – The author obscures the fact that they don’t have much evidence to support their claims.
Omits – The article omits vital information about the issue.
Optimizes – The author optimizes their argument by structuring their paragraphs well.
Overlooks – The article overlooks the fact that there are other ways to look at the issue.
Draws Parallels – The article draws parallels between two previously unlinked concepts.
Particularizes – The article particularizes the issue.
Perpetuates – The article perpetuates false narratives.
Personifies – The article personifies the issue well.
Persuades – The article persuades the reader to take action.
Pivots – The author pivots from talking about the effects of the issue to talking about what we can do to solve it.
Points Out – The article points out that climate change is a global problem.
Predicts – The article predicts that the problem will get worse.
Prejudices – The study prejudices the results by only looking at one group of people.
Presupposes – The article presupposes that the reader knows a lot about the issue.
Probes – The author probes the issue with new questions.
Problematizes – The article problematizes the issue.
Promotes – The article promotes the idea that we need to take action.
Proposes – The article proposes a new way to look at the issue.
Proves – The article proves that the issue is real and happening.
Provokes – The article provokes the reader to think about the issue more deeply.
Queries – The article queries the validity of the issue.
Rationalizes – The company rationalizes its actions.
Recapitulates – The article recapitulates the main points of the issue but doesn’t add new data.
Refutes – The article refutes previous claims.
Reinforces – The article reinforces the idea that the issue is a big problem.
Reiterates – The article reiterates the main points on the issue.
Reveals – The study reveals that there is a link between two concepts.
Ridicules – The article ridicules the other scholar’s ideas.
Sensationalizes – The article sensationalizes the findings from their dataset to gain attention.
Simplifies – The article simplifies the issue too much.
Speculates – The article speculates on the future of the issue.
Strengthens – The article strengthens the reader’s understanding of the issue.
Substantiates – The article substantiates the idea that the issue is serious.
Supports – The article supports previous studies.
Underlines – The article underlines the importance of taking action on this issue.
Undermines – The article undermines the reader’s trust in previous research.
Unifies – The article unifies the different perspectives on the issue.
Urges – The article urges the reader to take action on the issue.
Validates – The study validates the link between the two concepts.
Verifies – The article verifies the claims made in the previous study.
Vilifies – The article vilifies its opponents.
Warns – The article warns that the effects will only get worse over time.
Weakens – The article weakens the reader’s understanding of the issue.
Withstands – The article withstands scrutiny.
Not all of the above analysis verbs will be perfect for every situation, but one of them will be perfect for you! Select a range of verbs for analysis when writing a critical review. Similarly, for people seeking analysis verbs for learning outcomes, try to select ones that perfectly capture what you want to see from your students.
Chris Drew (PhD)
Dr. Chris Drew is the founder of the Helpful Professor. He holds a PhD in education and has published over 20 articles in scholarly journals. He is the former editor of the Journal of Learning Development in Higher Education.
- Chris Drew (PhD) https://helpfulprofessor.com/author/admin/ 12 Examples of Socialism in America
- Chris Drew (PhD) https://helpfulprofessor.com/author/admin/ 10 Command Economy Examples
- Chris Drew (PhD) https://helpfulprofessor.com/author/admin/ 10 Communism Examples
- Chris Drew (PhD) https://helpfulprofessor.com/author/admin/ Meaningful Learning: Definition, Benefits, Examples
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Student Academic Success Center
Analysis verbs, download pdf handout: verbs for analysis.
Instead of simply retelling an author's argument with summary verbs such as "says," "discusses," and "talks about," try creating claims using the analysis verbs in this handout.
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20 verbs for analytical writing
In my classroom, we spend a great deal of time analyzing language and techniques in literature. Often one we have read and discussed a text, my students are confident with their ideas. They have things to say about the language used, the structure, or the form. Yet they can struggle to put these ideas to paper.
I avoid using sentence frames for literature essay writing whenever I can. They are hugely restrictive and it is boring to mark a whole set of essays that read the same.
One way to improve how close analysis is written up is to focus on the verbs of analysis. I have these 20 posters up in my classroom and I refer to them frequently. I also have them printed in a small task card size so students can have them on their desks.
These verbs not only help students focus their thinking and ideas, but also allow them to bring some variety to their analytical writing. We are avoiding the overuse of ‘this suggests’ and ‘this implies’!
This list of 20 verbs is free for you to download here!
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100+ Research Vocabulary Words & Phrases
The academic community can be conservative when it comes to enforcing academic writing style , but your writing shouldn’t be so boring that people lose interest midway through the first paragraph! Given that competition is at an all-time high for academics looking to publish their papers, we know you must be anxious about what you can do to improve your publishing odds.
To be sure, your research must be sound, your paper must be structured logically, and the different manuscript sections must contain the appropriate information. But your research must also be clearly explained. Clarity obviously depends on the correct use of English, and there are many common mistakes that you should watch out for, for example when it comes to articles , prepositions , word choice , and even punctuation . But even if you are on top of your grammar and sentence structure, you can still make your writing more compelling (or more boring) by using powerful verbs and phrases (vs the same weaker ones over and over). So, how do you go about achieving the latter?
Below are a few ways to breathe life into your writing.
1. Analyze Vocabulary Using Word Clouds
Have you heard of “Wordles”? A Wordle is a visual representation of words, with the size of each word being proportional to the number of times it appears in the text it is based on. The original company website seems to have gone out of business, but there are a number of free word cloud generation sites that allow you to copy and paste your draft manuscript into a text box to quickly discover how repetitive your writing is and which verbs you might want to replace to improve your manuscript.
Seeing a visual word cloud of your work might also help you assess the key themes and points readers will glean from your paper. If the Wordle result displays words you hadn’t intended to emphasize, then that’s a sign you should revise your paper to make sure readers will focus on the right information.
As an example, below is a Wordle of our article entitled, “ How to Choose the Best title for Your Journal Manuscript .” You can see how frequently certain terms appear in that post, based on the font size of the text. The keywords, “titles,” “journal,” “research,” and “papers,” were all the intended focus of our blog post.
2. Study Language Patterns of Similarly Published Works
Study the language pattern found in the most downloaded and cited articles published by your target journal. Understanding the journal’s editorial preferences will help you write in a style that appeals to the publication’s readership.
Another way to analyze the language of a target journal’s papers is to use Wordle (see above). If you copy and paste the text of an article related to your research topic into the applet, you can discover the common phrases and terms the paper’s authors used.
For example, if you were writing a paper on links between smoking and cancer , you might look for a recent review on the topic, preferably published by your target journal. Copy and paste the text into Wordle and examine the key phrases to see if you’ve included similar wording in your own draft. The Wordle result might look like the following, based on the example linked above.
If you are not sure yet where to publish and just want some generally good examples of descriptive verbs, analytical verbs, and reporting verbs that are commonly used in academic writing, then have a look at this list of useful phrases for research papers .
3. Use More Active and Precise Verbs
Have you heard of synonyms? Of course you have. But have you looked beyond single-word replacements and rephrased entire clauses with stronger, more vivid ones? You’ll find this task is easier to do if you use the active voice more often than the passive voice . Even if you keep your original sentence structure, you can eliminate weak verbs like “be” from your draft and choose more vivid and precise action verbs. As always, however, be careful about using only a thesaurus to identify synonyms. Make sure the substitutes fit the context in which you need a more interesting or “perfect” word. Online dictionaries such as the Merriam-Webster and the Cambridge Dictionary are good sources to check entire phrases in context in case you are unsure whether a synonym is a good match for a word you want to replace.
To help you build a strong arsenal of commonly used phrases in academic papers, we’ve compiled a list of synonyms you might want to consider when drafting or editing your research paper . While we do not suggest that the phrases in the “Original Word/Phrase” column should be completely avoided, we do recommend interspersing these with the more dynamic terms found under “Recommended Substitutes.”
A. Describing the scope of a current project or prior research
B. outlining a topic’s background, c. describing the analytical elements of a paper, d. discussing results, e. discussing methods, f. explaining the impact of new research, wordvice writing resources.
For additional information on how to tighten your sentences (e.g., eliminate wordiness and use active voice to greater effect), you can try Wordvice’s FREE APA Citation Generator and learn more about how to proofread and edit your paper to ensure your work is free of errors.
Before submitting your manuscript to academic journals, be sure to get proofreading services and English editing services from Wordvice, including academic editing services , cover letter editing , manuscript editing , and research paper editing services .
We also have a collection of other useful articles for you, for example on how to strengthen your writing style , how to avoid fillers to write more powerful sentences , and how to eliminate prepositions and avoid nominalizations . Additionally, get advice on all the other important aspects of writing a research paper on our academic resources pages .
Rhetorical Analysis Essay Outline: Examples & Strategies
Rhetorical analysis is never a simple task. This essay type requires you to analyze rhetorical devices in a text and review them from different perspectives. Such an assignment can be a part of an AP Lang exam or a college home task. Either way, you will need a solid outline to succeed with your writing. And we can help you nail it.
Our specialists will write a custom essay on any topic for $13.00 $10.40/page
In this article by our custom-writing team, you will find:
- the structure of a rhetorical analysis essay;
- a detailed guide and tips for writing a rhetorical essay outline;
- an example and a template for you to download.
- 📚 Rhetorical Analysis Structure
- Body Paragraphs
- 📑 Example Outline & Template
📚 structure of a rhetorical analysis essay: pre-writing.
The first thing you need to know before you start working on your essay is that the analysis in your paper is strictly rhetorical. In other words, you don’t need to discuss what the author is saying. Instead, it’s a take on how the author says it.
And to understand “how,” you need to find rhetorical appeals. An appeal is a technique that the author uses to convince the reader. The main ones are logos, ethos, and pathos.
The whole analysis is structured around them and divided into 3 parts: appeals in the text’s introduction, in the body paragraphs, and in its conclusion.
Remember that it’s essential to structure your essay in chronological order. To put it simply, it’s better not to describe the appeals from the conclusion before the ones in the introduction. Follow the structure of the text you’re analyzing, and you’ll nail it.
Rhetorical Analysis Triangle
We’ve already mentioned ethos, pathos, and logos. The rhetorical triangle is another name for these 3 main appeals. Let’s examine them in more detail:
In your essay, it’s best to mention all 3 appeals. It’s also necessary to measure their effectiveness and give examples. A good strategy is to find the appeals in the text, underline them, and analyze them before writing the outline.
Each appeal can be characterized by the following:
- Diction. Diction is the words that the author uses to describe the idea. When analyzing diction, you want to find words that stand out in the text.
- Syntax. Simply put, syntax is the order of words used by the author. You can also look at the sentence length as a part of the syntax.
- Punctuation. This characteristic is all about the usage of punctuation marks. Aside from commas, it’s good to pay attention to colons and dashes. Authors can use them to focus the audience’s attention on something or create a dramatic disjunction.
- Tone. It’s the author’s attitude towards the discussed idea. The tone is a combination of diction, syntax, and punctuation. For example, you can tell if the author is interested or not by evaluating the length of sentences.
Remember that all 3 appeals are artistic proofs, and you shouldn’t confuse them with factual evidence. The difference between them lies in the amount of effort:
- Citing factual evidence requires no skill. You create proof just by mentioning the fact.
- In the case of artistic proof , you must use your knowledge of rhetoric to create it.
SOAPS: Rhetorical Analysis
SOAPS is a helpful technique for conducting a rhetorical analysis. It’s fairly popular and is recommended for AP tests. SOAPS stands for:
Receive a plagiarism-free paper tailored to your instructions.
Answering the questions above will make it easy for you to find the necessary appeals.
✍️ How to Write an Outline for a Rhetorical Analysis Essay
Now that you’ve found the appeals and analyzed them, it’s time to write the outline. We will explain it part by part, starting with the introduction.
How to Write an Introduction for a Rhetorical Analysis Essay
In a rhetorical analysis, the introduction is different from that of a regular essay. It covers all the necessary information about the author of the text:
- Name (or names, if there are several authors.)
- Genre and title of the reviewed work.
The author claims that cats are better pets than dogs.
- The target audience that the writer is aiming at.
- The context in which the text was produced, e.g. a specific event.
Aside from that, a rhetorical essay introduction should include a hook and a thesis statement. Want to know how to write them? Keep reading!
How to Write a Hook for a Rhetorical Analysis Essay
A hook is a sentence that grabs the reader’s attention. You can do it by presenting an interesting fact about the author. You may also use an inspiring or amusing quote. Make sure your hook is connected with the text you are writing about.
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For example, if you’re analyzing MLK’s I Have a Dream speech, you can hook the reader with the following sentence:
Martin Luther King is widely considered the most famous speaker in history.
Our article on hooks in writing can provide you with e great ideas.
Thesis Statement for Rhetorical Analysis Essay
In a rhetorical analysis essay, you don’t need to create a thesis statement in the usual sense. Instead, you describe the main point made by the author using a rhetorically accurate verb (such as “claims” or “asserts”) followed by a “that” clause.
For example, your thesis can focus on the techniques that the author uses to convince the audience. If we look at the I Have a Dream speech, we will notice several stylistic elements:
It’s not a complete list, but that’s enough to form a decent thesis.
We also need to mention the ideas behind the speech. The main idea is, obviously, equality. So, we’ll put it in our thesis as well. As a result, we have something like this:
Through the skillful usage of metaphor, repetition, and symbolism Martin Luther King effectively fills his audience’s hearts with the idea of unity and equality.
Rhetorical Analysis Body Paragraphs
If you are writing a generic 5-paragraph essay, you can divide your essay’s body into 3 parts:
- A paragraph about appeals in the text introduction.
- A section about rhetorical devices in the text’s body.
- A paragraph about rhetorical devices in the text’s conclusion.
Sometimes there is no distinct structure in a text. If that’s the case, just analyze the appeals in chronological order. You can also split the analysis based on the type of appeals. For example:
- A paragraph about emotional appeals.
- A section about logical appeals.
- A paragraph about ethical appeals.
Each of your essay’s body paragraphs should have 3 key elements:
- Topic sentence that shows what appeal you will discuss in the section.
- Examples that illustrate the rhetorical device you want to showcase.
- Your take on the effectiveness of the given device.
It’s good to remember that every appeal you talk about needs an example. If you can illustrate your claim about a strategy with more examples, then go for it. The more examples, the better.
Good Transition Words for Rhetorical Analysis Essay
Transition words allow you to follow up one idea with another. They also help build connections between paragraphs. Choosing correct transition words depends on the strategy you use. If you want to build a sequence of a cause and its effect, you will need words like “thus” or “hence.” If you’re going to clarify something, you should use a different set of words.
Here’s a list of helpful transition words suitable in different contexts:
Rhetorical Analysis Verbs to Use
A rhetorical analysis essay is a serious work that often touches on complex topics. Regular verbs like “tells us” or “shows” don’t always fit it. To make your paper more inclusive and precise, consider using strong verbs .
Strong verbs (or power verbs) are typically used when talking about the author. That includes their strategies, attitude, personality, or ideas.
For example, instead of “the author says,” you can use “suggests” or “clarifies,” depending on the context.
Some other rhetorically accurate verbs include:
- Sheds light
You don’t have to use strong verbs only. If you feel like “says” suits your point better than any strong verb, feel free to use it.
Rhetorical Analysis Essay Conclusion
The conclusion is the ending of your paper. It sums your essay up and underlines the points you’ve made in the body paragraphs. A good conclusion should accomplish several things:
- Paraphrasing the thesis . You shouldn’t just rewrite the thesis from the introduction. The restatement is usually used to demonstrate a deeper understanding of your point.
- A summary of the body paragraphs . Again, simple repetition is not enough. We need to link the points to our thesis and underline the importance of our statements.
- Final thoughts . A powerful epilogue will leave a good impression about your work.
Make sure to avoid including any new ideas or statements. The conclusion is exclusively for summarizing. If you found yourself putting a new assertion in the ending, it’s probably a good idea to restructure your body paragraphs.
📑 Rhetorical Analysis Essay Example Outline & Template
To make the writing process even easier for you, we will show you what an outline for your essay can look like. As an example, we will outline a rhetorical analysis of MLK’s I Have a Dream speech. We are going to structure it according to the appeals.
Have a look:
- Hook . An interesting fact about the MLK or his quote. An emotional start about the importance and the lasting legacy of the speech will also work.
- The speaker’s name, occupation, and years of life.
- The context in which the subject of our essay was produced.
- The speech’s target audience.
- Thesis statement . Point out the appeals you are going to write about. Describe their impact on the author’s general argumentation.
- Underline the often use of metaphor. Set “lonely island of poverty” and “ocean of material prosperity” as examples.
- Talk about the usage of repetition. Use the constant repetition of “I have a dream…” as an illustration.
- Demonstrate the use of logos. Mention King citing President Lincoln as an authority for his argumentation.
- Showcase the ethos of the speech. Notice that MLK’s Civil Rights Movement logic correlates with social ethics at the time.
- Comparing segregation to a “bad check.”
- Referring to the Civil Rights Movement as “my people.”
- Comparing the acquisition of equality to “cashing a check.”
- Restate the thesis. Demonstrate a deeper understanding of the point made in the introduction.
- Summary of the body paragraphs. Connect them to the thesis statement. Give a final take on King’s rhetorical strategies and evaluate their effectiveness.
- Closing thought. Finish by stating the primary goal of your analysis.
Alternatively, you can structure your essay in chronological order. Below you’ll find a template you can use for this type of rhetorical analysis. Simply download the PDF file below and fill in the blanks.
Rhetorical Analysis Outline Template
(your essay’s title)
The speaker/author is (state the author’s name.) The purpose of the text is to (state the text’s purpose.) The text is intended for (describe the text’s intended audience.)
Check out the rhetorical analysis samples below to get some ideas for your paper.
- Greta Thunberg’s Speech: Rhetorical Analysis
- Rhetorical Analysis: “In Defense of the ‘Impractical’ English Major” by C. Gregoire and “Top 10 Reasons You’re Not Wasting Your Time as an English Major” by S. Reeves
- Siren et al.’s Study on Red Wines: Rhetorical Analysis
- Steve Jobs’ Commencement Speech Rhetorical Analysis
- Brooks’ “Reading Too Much Political News…” Rhetorical Analysis
- The Speech “Beyond Vietnam: A Time to Break Silence” by Martin Luther King, Jr: Rhetorical Analysis
- Rhetorical Analysis Through Lyrics: “The Times They Are A-Changing” and “The Wind of Change”
- Roiphe’s Confessions of a Female Chauvinist Sow: Rhetorical Analysis
- “Snack Attack”: Rhetorical Analysis
- Rhetorical Analysis of “Hidden Intellectualism” by Gerald Graff
We hope this article helped you with your assignment. Make sure to tell us what part helped you the most in the comments. And good luck with your studies!
- How to Write a Reflection Paper: Example & Tips
- How to Write a Narrative Essay Outline: Template & Examples
- What Is a Discourse Analysis Essay: Example & Guide
- How to Write a Critical Thinking Essay: Examples & Outline
- How to Write a Precis: Definition, Guide, & Examples
- How to Write a Process Analysis Essay: Examples & Outline
🤔 Rhetorical Analysis Essay Outline FAQs
According to SOAPS, the main 5 elements of a rhetorical analysis are:
1. Subject, or the author’s ideas. 2. Occasion, or the text’s background. 3. Audience, or the people who would find the text interesting. 4. Purpose, or the reasoning behind the writing. 5. Speaker’s characteristics, or the author’s personal beliefs.
1. Logos— the appeal to logic. It includes argumentation, statistics, and facts. 2. Ethos— the ethical appeal. Ethos appeal to the morality and ethical norms of the target audience. 3. Pathos —the appeal to the reader’s emotions. 4. Kairos— the time of the argument.
Every rhetorical analysis ends with a conclusion. A good conclusion should:
1. Restate the thesis. 2. Summarize the points and strategies described in the body paragraphs. 3. End with concluding thoughts on the analysis.
A thesis for a rhetorical analysis is a bit different from the usual one. It needs to include the author’s appeals and the main point the author is trying to make. Like any other thesis, it must structure the further analysis and be connected to every paragraph.
Kairos is the timeliness of the argument. It is the appeal of the right time. The usage of kairos usually means that the author’s text is relevant for a certain period of time only.
- Rhetorical Analysis: Miami University
- Rhetorical Analysis Essay: Formatting: California State University, East Bay
- The Rhetorical Triangle: Understanding and Using Logos, Ethos, and Pathos: Louisiana State University
- The Rhetorical Triangle: The University of North Carolina at Charlotte
- General Notes on Rhetorical Analysis: Deer Valley Unified School District
- SOAPS: Rhetorical Analysis of a Reading Source: Kent Campus
- How To Write a Rhetorical Analysis in 8 Simple Steps: Indeed
- Rhetorical Analysis: Texas A&M University
- Rhetorical Analysis Thesis Statements: Virginia Wesleyan University
- What Are Logos, Ethos, Pathos, and Kairos?: University of Louisville
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Nie wieder prokastinieren mit unseren Lernerinnerungen.
Think about these two sentences:
- "Fatima was in the chair and looked happy when there was music around her."
- "Fatima perched on the chair and smiled as she listened to the music."
You might notice that the second sentence feels like a clearer description of what's going on. That's because of action verbs ! Many verbs you use every day are examples of action verbs. Their function in a sentence is to explain the action the subject is taking.
Action Verb Definition
Action verb: Also called a dynamic verb, an action verb expresses an action in a sentence.
In other words, the function of an action verb is to tell readers what the subject of the sentence is doing.
Action Verb Examples
Action verbs show up everywhere in our speech and writing. Try listing out the first few verbs that pop into your head. Most of them are probably action verbs! Here is a list of some action verb examples in English:
You can find an action verb in a sentence by asking, "what does the subject do?" Take this example sentence: "Henry paints a picture." What does Henry do? Henry paints.
Action Verbs vs. Linking Verbs
It's important to know the difference between the action verb and another common type of verb, the linking verb .
Linking verb: a verb that expresses a state of being in a sentence instead of an action.
Linking verbs link the subject together with the rest of the sentence . They show what the subject is instead of what it does .
Here are some examples of linking verbs in use:
She is a musician.
In the above sentence, the linking verb "is" doesn't express any kind of action. It just connects "she" with "a musician."
He seemed sad.
In the same way as in the previous example, the linking verb "seem" doesn't tell the reader what the subject is doing. It connects it with the adjective "sad."
Linking verbs are very common and useful in language, but in descriptive writing, it's encouraged to use action verbs when you can (more on that later!)
Types of Action Verbs
There are two main types of action verbs: transitive and intransitive .
Transitive Action Verbs
Transitive action verbs take an object. That means that something is doing the action, and something else is being acted upon. In linguistics, you would say this kind of verb takes two arguments: a subject and an object.
Here are some examples of transitive action verbs in use:
Henry paints a picture.
In the above sentence, "Henry" is the subject, the one doing the painting. "Paints" is the action verb, expressing the action of the sentence. "A picture" is the object, the thing being painted.
The duchess declined the invitation.
In this example, "the duchess" is the subject, the one declining. "Declined" is the action verb. "The invitation" is the object, the thing being declined.
Intransitive Action Verbs
Intransitive action verbs do not take an object. That means that something is doing the action, but nothing is being acted upon. These verbs take one argument .
Here are some examples of intransitive action verbs in use:
"Caroline" is the subject, the one doing the laughing. The action verb "laughed" can't easily take an object. "Caroline laughed the movie" doesn't make sense.
The dog sleeps.
"The dog" is the subject, the one sleeping. Again, the action verb "sleeps" can't take an object. "The dog sleeps the bed" doesn't make sense.
Some verbs can be used as both transitive and intransitive . For example, you can say "Doug cleaned" with no object or "Doug cleaned the kitchen" with an object. Transitivity is about how you use the word , not just the word itself!
Using Action Verbs for Effective Description
As already mentioned, it's a good idea to replace linking verbs with action verbs where you can in a descriptive essay. Using action verbs can make your writing clearer and more specific. Here are some tips for using action verbs effectively in your writing.
Look Out for the Links
Using more action verbs doesn't have to mean rewriting your entire paragraph. Making some little changes to the verbs can make a big difference. Picking out the linking verbs is a great start.
When you're done writing a sentence, try to find all of the linking verbs. Look for verbs like these examples:
- Forms of the verb to be , including be , been , being , am , is , are , was , and were .
- Verbs that express an impression of something, including seems , looks , appears , sounds , tastes , smells , and feels .
Shawna looked tired when she was in the kitchen after being in the garden.
The three linking verbs in the above sentence ("looks," "was," and "being") express an impression instead of an action.
Sometimes the same word can be used as both an action verb and a linking verb. For example, in the sentence "Luke feels sick," the verb "feels" is a linking verb, linking "Luke" with "sick" rather than expressing an action. In the sentence "Luke feels the cold wind," the verb "feels" is an action verb, showing what Luke is doing.
Replace Them with Actions
When you've found the linking verbs in your writing, try replacing them with more descriptive action verbs!
This is just like identifying action verbs in a sentence. Look at the phrase with the linking verb and ask, "what is the subject doing?" This can help you come up with a more descriptive vocabulary.
The following example demonstrates how one could identify the linking verbs in the previous example and replace them with action verbs:
- What was Shawna doing that made her look tired?Maybe she yawned or rubbed her eyes .
- What was she doing in the kitchen?Maybe she was washing the dishes or brewing a cup of tea .
- What was she doing in the garden?Maybe she was planting seeds or pulling weeds .
Consider how to swap from of these verbs for a better description : "Shawna yawned while brewing a cup of tea after planting seeds in the garden."
Thinking about doing instead of being will fill your essay with action verbs. The more you practice this in your writing, the clearer your description will become.
Sometimes a linking verb really is the best option. If you try to come up with good descriptive action verbs to replace a linking verb, and nothing reads naturally, just leave it the way it is.
Using more action verbs in your writing applies beyond descriptive essays too! When looking for jobs, it's encouraged to include lots of action words in your resume and cover letters. This makes you come across as a more powerful job candidate. Building skills with action words in writing now will help you through your whole career!
Action Verbs - Key Takeaways
- An action verb expresses an action in a sentence by telling readers what the subject is doing.
- An action verb is different from a linking verb which links the subject with the rest of the sentence by telling readers what the subject is.
- There are two types of action verbs: transitive, which takes an object, and intransitive, which doesn't take an object.
- Using more action verbs in your descriptive essay can make your writing clearer and more specific.
- Try to find the linking verbs in your writing and replace them with more descriptive action verbs. Ask yourself, "what is the subject doing?"
Frequently Asked Questions about Action Verbs
--> what is an action verb.
An action verb (also called a dynamic verb) expresses an action in a sentence.
--> What are some examples of action verbs?
Some examples of action verbs are: jump, sit, sigh, eat, remove, laugh, run, accept, smile, stand, adjust, own, decline, love, sleep, yell, clean, catch.
--> What is the function of an action verb?
An action verb expresses an action in a sentence by showing what the subject is doing.
--> What are transitive and intransitive action verbs?
Transitive action verbs take a subject and an object (e.g. "Henry paints a picture"). Intransitive action verbs take a subject but do not take an object (e.g. "Caroline laughed").
--> What follows a linking verb or action verb?
A linking verb is followed by the argument that needs to be connected with the subject (e.g., in the sentence "Sharon is happy" the linking verb "is" connects "Sharon" with "happy"). An action verb is followed by an object if the verb is transitive and nothing if the verb is intransitive. The rest of the sentence then follows.
Final Action Verbs Quiz
What is an action verb?
What is the function of an action verb?
To show what the subject is doing
What is a linking verb?
A linking verb expresses a state of being in a sentence, instead of an action.
Isaac smiled .
Is this an example of a transitive or intransitive action verb?
Which of these sentences uses "looked" as an action verb?
Shawna looked out the window.
Are words like am , is , are , was , and were examples of linking verbs or action verbs?
Which of these sentences use action verbs? (select all that apply)
Sean felt the cool breeze in his hair.
Which of these sentences use action verbs?
(select all that apply)
Lea is a florist.
True or false: an action verb is either transitive or intransitive.
Which of these sentences uses "appears" as an action verb?
Don appears in the middle of the room.
You are playing the piano.
They are growing weary.
I laughed loudly.
Are words like sit , chuckle , throw , consume , and drive examples of linking verbs or action verbs?
Identify the action verb and note whether it is transitive or intransitive.
The action verb in this sentence is “laughed.” This is an action verb because it tells the reader what Bob is doing. It is intransitive because it can’t take an object.
Consider the sentence Jenny cleaned the bathroom. Is the verb cleaned used as transitive or intransitive here?
Identify the linking verbs in this sentence
Grayson looked sad when he was in the pool.
looked and was are linking verbs because they express an impression instead of an action.
Spot the sentence with the most action verbs.
Maura appeared happy after being with John.
What follows a transitive action verb?
- History of English Language
- Language Acquisition
- Free Response Essay
of the users don't pass the Action Verbs quiz! Will you pass the quiz?
More explanations about Rhetoric
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50 Verbs of Analysis for English Academic Essays Affects Definition: to have an influence on someone or something, or to cause a change in someone or something. Example: Experts agree that coffee affects the body in ways we have not yet studied. Amplifies Definition: to increase the size or effect of something.
Analysis verbs are helpful in demonstrating your higher-order thinking skills. They help you to show that you haven't just understood what you read, but that you can also critique it. Use analysis verbs as a way of demonstrating your mastery of a topic.
Analysis Verbs Download PDF Handout: Verbs for Analysis Instead of simply retelling an author's argument with summary verbs such as "says," "discusses," and "talks about," try creating claims using the analysis verbs in this handout. BACK TO ALPHABETICAL LIST BACK TO TOPIC SEARCH Need personalized feedback on an essay or other course assignment?
Often, interpreting the verbs used in essay questions can help to focus how the question should be answered. ... Analysis Analysis questions call for breaking down the overall structure of the ideas or concepts into components and explaining them. Discuss Examine, analyze carefully, and present pro and con considerations regarding the ...
Active Verbs Note of Caution: Only use the verbs you're familiar with unless you take the time to examine the definition in the dictionary. This is NOT a list of synonyms. Each word has specific usage patterns that are unique to its meaning. Literary Essay Report or Persuasive Essay that refers to an expert's opinion or research studies
Analysis verbs are verbs that are used in an analysis to explain a source, argument, hypothesis, fact or data item. This inherently reveals your opinion about the source such that selecting an accurate verb is a critical element of analysis.
These verbs not only help students focus their thinking and ideas, but also allow them to bring some variety to their analytical writing. We are avoiding the overuse of 'this suggests' and 'this implies'! This list of 20 verbs is free for you to download here! While you are here - consider signing up for my weekly newsletter.
verbs into your writing when discussing the writer's rhetorical choices. Below is a list of verbs that are considered weak because they imply summary and a list of verbs that are considered strong because they imply analysis. Strive to use the stronger verbs in your essays to help push yourself away from summary
VERB TENSE FOR ANALYSIS OF LITERATURE AND HISTORY . Writing about literature . 1. Whether you are dealing with fiction, poetry, or nonfiction literature, use the present tense ... on early drafts of your essays you can refer to the authorial persona always as the "author" and use the author's name to refer to the historical person.
MARKER VERBS FOR ESSAYS OF ANALYSIS Abbreviated List *COMMUNICATES Concludes Connects Declares Implies Informs Introduces Provides Reports Reveals Signifies States Suggests *CONVEYS Expresses Relates Reveals *REVEALS Clarifies Demonstrates Displays Illustrates *ENHANCES Exaggerates Reinforces *EXAMINES Analyzes
If you are not sure yet where to publish and just want some generally good examples of descriptive verbs, analytical verbs, and reporting verbs that are commonly used in academic writing, then have a look at this list of useful phrases for research papers. 3. Use More Active and Precise Verbs. Have you heard of synonyms? Of course you have.
Rhetorical analysis verbs (RAVs) are verbs that describe moves made by a writer/speaker. They allow you to write about what a writer/speaker is "doing" in the most precise way possible. This handout lists out RAV options in specific categories.
An analytical essay answers how something does what it does or why it is as it is. Therefore, a thesis statement in an analysis paper should be answering a HOW or WHY question. A strong thesis makes a claim about the subject that needs proving. It provides the writer (and the reader) with a clearly focused lens through which to view the subject.
A rhetorical analysis essay is a serious work that often touches on complex topics. Regular verbs like "tells us" or "shows" don't always fit it. To make your paper more inclusive and precise, consider using strong verbs. Strong verbs (or power verbs) are typically used when talking about the author.
Based on the analysis from 14 students writing an essay, it shows that the students use both regular and irregular verb (past) in their students' writing essays. Both regular and irregular verbs ...
The organizer provides the following for each element of style: name of the element, its rhetorical function, and active verbs to use in the student's writing with examples.NO DEFINITIONS are provided on this handout (although there is space for students to write Subjects: ELA Test Prep, Writing, Writing-Essays Grades: 11th - 12th Types:
Research the structure of your text. This, the standard version of our text analyser, shows you summary statistics about your text to help you understand its complexity and readability. It's perfect for use by students, translators, writers and anyone wanting to understand their text statistically. Our advanced text analyser gives a much more ...
Copula Verbs Correlative Conjunctions Dangling Participle Declaratives Demonstrative Pronouns Dependent Clause Descriptive Adjectives Determiner Ellipsis Exclamatives Fronting Future Tense Gerunds Grammatical Mood Grammatical Voices Imperative Mood Imperatives Indefinite Pronouns Independent Clause Indicative Mood Infinitive Mood Interjections