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What Are Aftermarket Parts?
Aftermarket parts are vehicle components that are not made by the original component manufacturer. Aftermarket parts are used as replacement parts in vehicles for several reasons. Here’s a quick guide to car replacement parts.
Original Equipment Manufacturer Parts
Vehicle manufacturers want you to use replacement auto parts that are made by the original equipment manufacturer (OEM.) If your car is in a collision, auto body parts should be OEM components to ensure the structural integrity of the vehicle. When you need a new starter or water pump in your vehicle, you may not need an OEM part to get your car running again. OEM parts can be discontinued or hard to find, especially if you drive an older vehicle.
Aftermarket parts are developed to work the same as OEM parts. However, the manufacturer of aftermarket parts can use different types of materials to create the same component. Wiring, metal and plastic used in aftermarket parts can be inferior or superior to the materials in OEM parts, depending on the goals of the manufacturer. If a part is constructed of shoddy smaller components to lower production costs, the aftermarket part is not a good value. If the manufacturer created an aftermarket part to solve a technical or supply issue with an OEM vehicle part, the aftermarket part can be a good investment. Aftermarket parts can be very suitable replacement parts or car-repair nightmare fuel, but you usually get what you pay for in this case. A really cheap aftermarket part will not be as good as a higher-priced, higher-quality aftermarket part.
Pros and Cons of Aftermarket Parts
The lower price compels people to choose aftermarket parts over OEM parts. Aftermarket parts are available in a wide price range. OEM parts are generally more expensive than aftermarket parts with less of a price range from which to choose.
Some aftermarket parts give better performance than OEM parts, but superior aftermarket parts can be more expensive than average aftermarket components and OEM parts. Aftermarket parts allow you to customize your vehicle with variations of OEM parts. Aftermarket parts are often easier to find and can be delivered to you or your mechanic.
In some cases, you void your vehicle warranty unless you use an OEM part for repairs. Some mechanics will not provide guarantees on aftermarket parts, since the parts can be of questionable quality. Aftermarket components have a higher failure rate, so a repair job will need to be done twice if the part is bad. Cheaper aftermarket parts are generally not warrantied against failure. Most OEM parts come with guarantees in case of component failure.
In at least 21 states, auto body repair shops don’t need to inform you if they plan to use aftermarket parts to make collision repairs on your vehicle. However, in states including Ohio, body repair estimates must include information about aftermarket part use. Check the laws in your state to learn more about rules for OEM and aftermarket parts in auto repair.
Your car can lose value when you use cheaper aftermarket parts for repairs. If you lease a vehicle, you could lose your security deposit by using aftermarket car parts in the vehicle.
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What Are the Two Parts of an Effective Thesis?
A thesis statement informs the reader the point of your composition. An effective thesis contains two parts: your argument proposal and support for your claim. The first part declares your argument, and the second part states the point of the paper. Your thesis argument statement lets the reader know you are trying to persuade him to your point of view. The reader is not convinced yet but interested to understand how he might be persuaded. Writing your solid thesis statement idea will force you to think of the thesis in more logical, succinct and clear terms. The final draft form of this thesis statement will take shape as your paper evolves.
The Effective Thesis Offers Your Viewpoint
Place the most significant concept of your expository writing, the thesis statement, at the end of the introductory paragraph to focus your paper ideas. An effective two-part thesis argument statement offers the reader your viewpoint or insight in a mere sentence or two that reflects your main idea. Not only does the thesis allow the reader a good grasp of the paper's intent, but it helps the writer fully comprehend the thesis concept to demonstrate the logical structure and order for support that follows.
Inform the Reader What You Are Arguing About
Identify the two basics of an effective thesis: what the composition's ideas concern--indicating the type of required support--and what the composition's ideas are, which include the order of that support with problems explained. The thesis proposal informs the reader what you are arguing about, and the thesis angle ascertains what your ideas are about this proposal.
The Thesis Expresses the Main Idea of Your Composition
Assure that the thesis expresses the main idea of your paper and answers all questions posed by your essay. A thesis is not a fact, opinion or topic that can be answered with simply yes or no. An effective thesis has an arguable, well-thought-out and definable claim that refrains from overused general terms and abstractions.
Maintain the Thesis' Important Characteristics Throughout Your Essay
Revise the adjustable working thesis as you write the composition while maintaining the thesis' significant characteristics. If you come up with a fundamental, essential or organizing question about your composition, an effective two-part thesis must answer that question. The two parts of an effective thesis provide a definable and arguable claim that simply incorporates discussion relevant to your paper supported with specific evidence.
- Writing Center at Harvard University; Developing a Thesis; Maxine Rodburg, et al.; 1999
- Essay Town Academic Writing Blog; Art Thesis; 2011
- Empire State College; Shaping Information; Cathy Copley, et al.; 1996
Research and Writing Guides
Writing a paper? Don't get lost.
How to structure a thesis
Starting a thesis can be daunting. There are so many questions in the beginning: How do you actually start your thesis? How do you structure it? What information should the individual chapters contain? Each educational program has different demands on your thesis structure, which is why asking directly for the requirements of your program should be a first step. However, there is not much flexibility when it comes to structuring your thesis in general. The generic structure of your thesis looks like this:
- 1. Abstract
The abstract is the overview of your thesis and generally very short. It is recommended to write it last, when everything else is done.
- 2. Introduction
The introduction chapter is there to give an overview of your thesis' basics or main points. It should answer the following questions:
- Why is the topic being studied?
- How is the topic being studied?
- What is being studied?
In answering the first question "why", you should know what your personal interest in this topic is and if and why it is relevant in general. Why does it matter in real life? You can also give background information here. By answering these questions, you can ground your whole paper from the onset and the readers will not have to answer these questions themselves. In answering the "how", you should briefly explain how you are going to reach your research goal. Some prefer to answer that question in the methods chapter, but you can give a quick overview here. And finally, you should explain "what" you are studying. You could put your research question in this part. It is recommended to rewrite the introduction one last time when the writing is done to make sure it connects with your conclusion. Learn more about how to write a good thesis introduction in our thesis introduction guide .
- 3. Literature review
Literature review is often part of the introduction, but it can be a separate section. It is an evaluation of previous research on the topic showing that there are gaps that your research will attempt to fill. A few tips for your literature review:
- Use a wide array of sources
- Show both sides of the coin
- Make sure to cover the classics in your field
- Present everything in a clear and structured manner
The methodology chapter outlines which methods you choose to gather data, how the data is analyzed and justifies why you chose that methodology. It shows how your choice of design and research methods is suited to answering your research question. Make sure to also explain what the pitfalls of your approach are and how you have tried to mitigate them. Discussing yourself where your study might come short can give you more credibility as it shows the reader that you are aware of the limitations of your study.
The results chapter outlines what you found out in relation to your research questions or hypotheses. It generally contains the facts of your research and does not include a lot of analysis, because that happens mostly in the discussion chapter. Whats helps making your results chapter better is to clearly visualize your results, using tables and graphs, especially when summarizing, and to be consistent in your way of reporting. This means sticking to one format to help the reader evaluate and compare the data.
- 6. Discussion
The discussion chapter includes your own analysis and interpretation of the data you gathered, comments on your results and explains what they mean. This is your opportunity to show that you have understood your findings and their significance. Point out the limitations of your study, provide explanations for unexpected results, and note any questions that remain unanswered.
- 7. Conclusion
This is probably your most important chapter. This is where you highlight that your research objectives have been achieved, and how you have contributed to all parties involved with your research. In this chapter you should also point out the limitations of your study, because showing awareness of your limitation gives a better grounding on your thesis. You can talk about your personal learnings here and also make suggestions for future research.
Remember to check if you have really answered all your research questions and hypotheses in this chapter in a short and clear manner. Your thesis should be tied up nicely in the conclusions chapter and show clearly what you did, what results you got and what your learnings were. Learn more about how to write a good conclusion in our thesis conclusion guide .
- Frequently Asked Questions about structuring a thesis
The basic elements of a thesis are: Abstract, Introduction, Literature Review, Methods, Results, Discussion, and Conclusion.
It's recommended to start a thesis by writing the literature review first. This way you learn more about the sources, before jumping to the discussion or any other element.
It's recommended to write the abstract of a thesis last, once everything else is done. This way you will be able to provide a complete overview of your work.
Usually, the discussion is the longest part of a thesis. In this part you are supposed to point out the limitations of your study, provide explanations for unexpected results, and note any questions that remain unanswered.
The order of the basic elements of a thesis are: 1. Abstract, 2. Introduction, 3. Literature Review, 4. Methods, 5. Results, 6. Discussion, and 7. Conclusion.
- Related Articles
Parts of a thesis sentence.
A thesis sentence has to contain two parts:
- Topic – what the essay is about.
- Angle – your idea about the topic. This second part, your idea/insight/claim/argument about a topic, is the important characteristic in creating a thesis sentence for a college essay. The angle makes a promise to your reader about your insight into, claim, or logical argument about the topic. Your angle in your thesis sentence indicates and controls what the rest of the essay will be about.
Note above that I’ve called the angle a number of different things: idea, insight, claim, argument. Even though you may have slightly different angles when you’re writing for different purposes, all of these variations of the angle have one really important thing in common: they all offer your own viewpoint on your topic. Your own viewpoint, backed up by examples and evidence, is the important thing in a college essay.
One mistake that a lot of beginning college writers make is to focus on the topic as opposed to the angle in a thesis sentence. Beginning writers often think it’s enough to describe a management theory or a historical event or a psychological philosophy to show knowledge gained. However, if a writing assignment is to write an essay or “paper,” the likely expectation is that you’ll offer your own argument or angle to show how you’ve evaluated and applied knowledge gained, e.g., Although management theory Y supports the worker’s own initiative much more fully than management theory X, contingency theory is most often applied in the contemporary workplace, because of a number of characteristics of 21st century businesses.
Note that the sample thesis you just read has a third part, what’s often called a “because clause,” or some indication of reasons why you are making the claim you’re making in the angle. You may decide to use a “because clause” in certain cases and not in others; decide if your thesis would be clearer to both you as a writer and to your reading audience with the inclusion of these additional reasons in your thesis.
As you start to develop a working thesis sentence for an essay, take time to review and analyze that working thesis to make sure that all of the parts are feasible:
- Is there an actual thesis sentence with a topic and an angle? Relying only on an essay topic, or relying only on an essay title, is not enough.
- Does the angle offer a debatable insight (again, not just a topic and not just a statement of fact)?
- Is the angle supportable with examples and evidence?
- Is the angle appropriate for the scope of the essay (e.g., angle is not too broad or too narrow)?
- If there are reasons included in a “because clause,” are those reasons clear, direct, and related to the claim in the angle?
The following video is lengthy, but contains some useful information about writing the different parts of a thesis.
- Parts of a Thesis Sentence. Authored by : Susan Oaks. Provided by : Empire State College, SUNY OER Services. Project : College Writing. License : CC BY-NC: Attribution-NonCommercial
- video Academic Writing Tutorial: Writing Effective Thesis Statements. Authored by : David Wright. Provided by : [email protected] CTL, Furman University, Ultimate YouTube Resource. Located at : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DIaUowHUNsg&t=19s . License : Other . License Terms : Standard YouTube License
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- 1. THE THESIS
- 2. WHAT IS A THESIS? noun, plural the·ses 1.a proposition stated or put forward for consideration, especially one to be discussed and proved or to be maintained against objections: He vigorously defended his thesis on the causes of war. 2.a subject for a composition or essay. 3.a dissertation on a particular subject in which one has done original research, as one presented by a candidate for a diploma or degree.
- 3. PARTS OF A THESIS
- 4. INITIAL PAGES • Title Page • Approval Sheet • Abstract • Acknowledgment • Dedication • Table of Contents • List of Tables • List of Figures
- 5. TITLE PAGE The following information needs to be on the title page: • The title (and possibly the subtitle) of your thesis • First name and surname of the author(s) • Whether it is a ‘Bachelor’s thesis’ or a ‘Master’s thesis’ • Faculty and department • Place and date of completion
- 6. APPROVAL SHEET • This is to prove that the authors have passed the requirements needed for the thesis. • This is signed by the thesis/FS adviser, panel and the Dean. • This also states the grade obtained by the author/s.
- 7. ABSTRACT • An abstract presents a brief summary of your thesis. • The aim of the abstract is to briefly provide the reader with the most important information from the entire text. • An abstract never contains new information. • This summary is no longer than 2 pages of A4.
- 8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT • This is a page focused on expressing gratitude to organizations, agencies or individuals who, in one way or another, have aided the researchers in finishing the thesis.
- 9. DEDICATION • This is the page for dedicating the thesis to certain people or groups who have inspired the researchers while doing the thesis.
- 10. TABLE OF CONTENTS • The table of contents is essentially a topic outline of the thesis. • It is compiled by listing the headings in the thesis down to whichever level you choose.
- 11. LIST OF TABLES / LIST OF FIGURES • Include a list of figures (illustrations) and a list of tables if you have one or more items in these categories. • Use a separate page for each list. • List the number, caption, and page number of every figure and table in the body of the thesis.
- 12. TITLE OF CHAPTERS 1. Problem and Its Background 2. Review of Related Literature and Studies 3. Methodology of the Study 4. Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data 5. Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations
- 13. CHAPTER I Introduction and Background of the Study
- 14. INTRODUCTION • The first chapter of your thesis is your introduction. • This is where you provide an introduction to the topic of your thesis: you give the context in terms of content of the research project.
- 15. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY • The significance of the study will mainly focus on the question “Who will benefit from the study?”. • This section will state the contribution of your study and the usefulness of your study in the society.
- 16. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM • The problem must be reflected to your title or the readers must know your problem by just simply reading your topic. • The problem must not be answerable by yes or no and must be arranged in the flow of your documentation or study.
- 17. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK • A conceptual framework elaborates the research problem in relation to relevant literature. This section may summarize the major (dependent and independent) variables in your research. The framework may be summarized in a schematic diagram that presents the major variables and their hypothesized relationships. It should also cover the following: • •Existing research and its relevance for your topic • •Key ideas or constructs in your approach • •Identify and discuss the variables related to the problem. • •Conceptualized relationships between variables • Independent variables (presumed cause) • Dependent variables (presumed effect) • Intervening variables (other variables that influence the effect of the independent variable)
- 18. Instructional Materials and Equipment commonly used in Effects of the use of teaching Science instructional Materials and 1Traditional Materials equipment 2Technological Equipment Profile of the respondents 1Age 2Gender 3Civil Status 4Educational Attainment 5Years of Service
- 19. SCOPE AND DELIMITATION • The scope is mainly the coverage of your study and the Delimitation is the limitation of your study or topic.
- 20. DEFINITION OF TERMS • The definition of terms must be arranged in alphabetically. It must be also stated if you used your definition of terms in technically or operationally.
- 21. CHAPTER II Review of Related Literature and Studies
- 22. RELATED LITERATURE • In this part you must get your data and information from any books, magazines, and news papers. You must label your published material with local or foreign. • 1. Must be also organized to cover specific problems. • 2. Must take all the evidences about the problem with the author’s experiences. • 3. As much as possible, get the latest published materials. Avoid old published materials. • 4. It must be related to your topic. If not, do not get it. • 5. On the last part of this part you must have a statement how this old published material helps the researcher in their current study and relate it to your study.
- 23. RELATED STUDIES • In this part you must get your data and information from unpublished material such as previous or old study, research or thesis. In some format, you must label your unpublished material with local or foreign. • 1. This should be organized to cover the specific problems. • 2. You must take note all of the evidences that the previous researcher came up. • 3. The unpublished material should not be older than 5 years if possible. • 4. It must be related to your topic. If not, do not get it. • 5. On the last part of this part you must have a statement how this old unpublished material helps the researcher in their current study and relate it to your study.
- 24. CHAPTER III Methodology of the Study
- 25. RESEARCH DESIGN • The appropriate research design should be specified and described.
- 26. POPULATION AND SAMPLES • Describe the population of interest and the sampling of subjects used in the study.
- 27. RESEARCH INSTRUMENT • Describe the instrument and what it will measure. • State qualifications of informants if used in the study.
- 28. VALIDATION PROCEDURE • Discuss how the validity and the reliability will be established. Specify the level of reliability (probability).
- 29. DATA GATHERING PROCEDURE • Describe how instrument will be administered.
- 30. DATA PROCESSING PROCEDURE AND STATISTICAL TREATMENT OF DATA • Describe the processing and treatment of data
- 31. CHAPTER IV Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data
- 32. PRESENTATION OF DATA • Present the findings of the study in the order of the specific problem as stated in the statement of the Problem. • Present the data in these forms: – Tabular – Textual – Graphical (optional)
- 33. ANALYSIS OF DATA • Data may be analyzed quantitatively or qualitatively depending on the level of measurement and the number of dimensions and variables of the study. • Analyze in depth to give meaning to the data presented in the data presented in the table. Avoid table reading. • State statistical descriptions in declarative sentences, e.g. in the studies involving:
- 34. INTERPRETATION OF DATA • Establish interconnection between and among data • Check for indicators whether hypothesis/es is/are supported or not by findings. • Link the present findings with the previous literature. • Use parallel observations with contemporary events to give credence presented in the introduction.
- 35. CHAPTER V Summary of Findings, Conclusions and Recommendations
- 36. SUMMARY OF FINDINGS • This describes the problem, research design, and the findings (answer to the questions raised). The recommended format is the paragraph form instead of the enumeration form. • For each of the problems, present: – The salient findings, – The results of the hypothesis tested
- 37. CONCLUSIONS • These are brief, generalized statements in answer to the general and each of the specific sub-problems. • These contain generalized in relation to the population. These are general inferences applicable to a wider and similar population. • Flexibility is considered in making of conclusions. It is not a must to state conclusions on a one-to-one correspondence with the problems and the findings as all variables can be subsume in one paragraph. • Conclusions may be used as generalizations from a micro to a macro-level or vice versa (ZOOM LENS approach).
- 38. RECOMMENDATIONS • They should be based on the findings and conclusion of the study. • Recommendations may be specific or general or both. They may include suggestions for further studies. • They should be in non-technical language. • They should be feasible, workable, flexible, doable, adaptable.
- 39. REFERENCES: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/thesis http://www.jpsimbulan.net/thesis-writing- guide/how-to-write-a-thesis/
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Thesis and Dissertation Guide
- « Thesis & Dissertation Resources
- The Graduate School Home
Dedication, acknowledgements, preface (optional), table of contents.
- List of Tables, Figures, and Illustrations
List of Abbreviations
List of symbols.
- Non-Traditional Formats
- Font Type and Size
- Spacing and Indentation
- Tables, Figures, and Illustrations
- Formatting Previously Published Work
- Internet Distribution
- Open Access
- Registering Copyright
- Using Copyrighted Materials
- Use of Your Own Previously Published Materials
- Submission Steps
- Submission Checklist
- Sample Pages
I. Order and Components
Please see the sample thesis or dissertation pages throughout and at the end of this document for illustrations. The following order is required for components of your thesis or dissertation:
- Dedication, Acknowledgements, and Preface (each optional)
- Table of Contents, with page numbers
- List of Tables, List of Figures, or List of Illustrations, with titles and page numbers (if applicable)
- List of Abbreviations (if applicable)
- List of Symbols (if applicable)
- Introduction, if any
- Main body, with consistent subheadings as appropriate
- Appendices (if applicable)
- Endnotes (if applicable)
- References (see section on References for options)
Many of the components following the title and copyright pages have required headings and formatting guidelines, which are described in the following sections.
Please consult the Sample Pages to compare your document to the requirements. A Checklist is provided to assist you in ensuring your thesis or dissertation meets all formatting guidelines.
The title page of a thesis or dissertation must include the following information:
- The title of the thesis or dissertation in all capital letters and centered 2″ below the top of the page.
- Your name, centered 1″ below the title. Do not include titles, degrees, or identifiers. The name you use here does not need to exactly match the name on your university records, but we recommend considering how you will want your name to appear in professional publications in the future.
Notes on this statement:
- When indicating your degree in the second bracketed space, use the full degree name (i.e., Doctor of Philosophy, not Ph.D. or PHD; Master of Public Health, not M.P.H. or MPH; Master of Social Work, not M.S.W. or MSW).
- List your department, school, or curriculum rather than your subject area or specialty discipline in the third bracketed space. You may include your subject area or specialty discipline in parentheses (i.e., Department of Romance Languages (French); School of Pharmacy (Molecular Pharmaceutics); School of Education (School Psychology); or similar official area).
- If you wish to include both your department and school names, list the school at the end of the statement (i.e., Department of Pharmacology in the School of Medicine).
- A dissertation submitted to the faculty at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the Department of Public Policy.
- A thesis submitted to the faculty at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in the School of Dentistry (Endodontics).
- A thesis submitted to the faculty at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in the Department of Nutrition in the Gillings School of Global Public Health.
- A dissertation submitted to the faculty at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the School of Education (Cultural Studies and Literacies).
- The words “Chapel Hill” must be centered 1″ below the statement.
- One single-spaced line below that, center the year in which your committee approves the completed thesis or dissertation. This need not be the year you graduate.
- Approximately 2/3 of the way across the page on the right-hand side of the page, 1″ below the year, include the phrase “Approved by:” (with colon) followed by each faculty member's name on subsequent double-spaced lines. Do not include titles such as Professor, Doctor, Dr., PhD, or any identifiers such as “chair” or “advisor” before or after any names. Line up the first letter of each name on the left under the “A” in the “Approved by:” line. If a name is too long to fit on one line, move this entire section of text slightly to the left so that formatting can be maintained.
- No signatures, signature lines, or page numbers should be included on the title page.
Include a copyright page with the following information single-spaced and centered 2″ above the bottom of the page:
© Year Author's Full Name (as it appears on the title page) ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
This page immediately follows the title page. It should be numbered with the lower case Roman numeral ii centered with a 1/2″ margin from the bottom edge.
Inclusion of this page offers you, as the author, additional protection against copyright infringement as it eliminates any question of authorship and copyright ownership. You do not need to file for copyright in order to include this statement in your thesis or dissertation. However, filing for copyright can offer other protections.
See Section IV for more information on copyrighting your thesis or dissertation.
Include an abstract page following these guidelines:
- Include the heading “ABSTRACT” in all capital letters, and center it 2″ below the top of the page.
- One double-spaced line below “ABSTRACT”, center your name, followed by a colon and the title of the thesis or dissertation. Use as many lines as necessary. Be sure that your name and the title exactly match the name and title used on the Title page.
- One single-spaced line below the title, center the phrase “(Under the direction of [advisor's name])”. Include the phrase in parentheses. Include the first and last name(s) of your advisor or formal co-advisors. Do not include the name of other committee members. Use the advisor's name only; do not include any professional titles such as PhD, Professor, or Dr. or any identifiers such as “chair” or “advisor”.
- Skip one double-spaced line and begin the abstract. The text of your abstract must be double-spaced and aligned with the document's left margin with the exception of indenting new paragraphs. Do not center or right-justify the abstract.
- Abstracts cannot exceed 150 words for a thesis or 350 words for a dissertation.
- Number the abstract page with the lower case Roman numeral iii (and iv, if more than one page) centered with a 1/2″ margin from the bottom edge.
Please write and proofread your abstract carefully. When possible, avoid including symbols or foreign words in your abstract, as they cannot be indexed or searched. Avoid mathematical formulas, diagrams, and other illustrative materials in the abstract. Offer a brief description of your thesis or dissertation and a concise summary of its conclusions. Be sure to describe the subject and focus of your work with clear details and avoid including lengthy explanations or opinions.
Your title and abstract will be used by search engines to help potential audiences locate your work, so clarity will help to draw the attention of your targeted readers.
You have an option to include a dedication, acknowledgements, or preface. If you choose to include any or all of these elements, give each its own page(s).
A dedication is a message from the author prefixed to a work in tribute to a person, group, or cause. Most dedications are short statements of tribute beginning with “To…” such as “To my family”.
Acknowledgements are the author's statement of gratitude to and recognition of the people and institutions that helped the author's research and writing.
A preface is a statement of the author's reasons for undertaking the work and other personal comments that are not directly germane to the materials presented in other sections of the thesis or dissertation. These reasons tend to be of a personal nature.
Any of the pages must be prepared following these guidelines:
- Do not place a heading on the dedication page.
- The text of short dedications must be centered and begin 2″ from the top of the page.
- Headings are required for the “ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS” and “PREFACE” pages. Headings must be in all capital letters and centered 2″ below the top of the page.
- The text of the acknowledgements and preface pages must begin one double-spaced line below the heading, be double-spaced, and be aligned with the document's left margin with the exception of indenting new paragraphs.
- Subsequent pages of text return to the 1″ top margin.
- The page(s) must be numbered with consecutive lower case Roman numerals (starting with the page number after the abstract) centered with a 1/2″ margin from the bottom edge.
Include a table of contents following these guidelines:
- Include the heading “TABLE OF CONTENTS” in all capital letters, and center it 2″ below the top of the page.
- Include one double-spaced line between the heading and the first entry.
- The table of contents should not contain listings for the pages that precede it, but it must list all parts of the thesis or dissertation that follow it.
- If relevant, be sure to list all appendices and a references section in your table of contents. Include page numbers for these items but do not assign separate chapter numbers.
- Entries must align with the document's left margin or be indented to the right of the left page margin using consistent tabs.
- Major subheadings within chapters must be included in the table of contents. The subheading(s) should be indented to the right of the left page margin using consistent tabs.
- If an entry takes up more than one line, break up the entry about three-fourths of the way across the page and place the rest of the text on a second line, single-spacing the two lines.
- Include one double-spaced line between each entry.
- Page numbers listed in the table of contents must be located just inside the right page margin with leaders (lines of periods) filling out the space between the end of the entry and the page number. The last digit of each number must line up on the right margin.
- Information included in the table of contents must match the headings, major subheadings, and numbering used in the body of the thesis or dissertation.
- The Table of Contents page(s) must be numbered with consecutive lower case Roman numerals centered with a 1/2″ margin from the bottom edge.
Lists of Tables, Figures, and Illustrations
If applicable, include a list of tables, list of figures, and/or list of illustrations following these guidelines:
- Include the heading(s) in all capital letters, centered 1″ below the top of the page.
- Each entry must include a number, title, and page number.
- Assign each table, figure, or illustration in your thesis or dissertation an Arabic numeral. You may number consecutively throughout the entire work (e.g., Figure 1, Figure 2, etc.), or you may assign a two-part Arabic numeral with the first number designating the chapter in which it appears, separated by a period, followed by a second number to indicate its consecutive placement in the chapter (e.g., Table 3.2 is the second table in Chapter Three).
- Numerals and titles must align with the document's left margin or be indented to the right of the left page margin using consistent tabs.
- Page numbers must be located just inside the right page margin with leaders (lines of periods) filling out the space between the end of the entry and the page number. The last digit of each number must line up on the right margin.
- Numbers, titles, and page numbers must each match the corresponding numbers, titles, and page numbers appearing in the thesis or dissertation.
- All Lists of Tables, Figures, and Illustrations page(s) must be numbered with consecutive lower case Roman numerals centered with a 1/2″ margin from the bottom edge.
If you use abbreviations extensively in your thesis or dissertation, you must include a list of abbreviations and their corresponding definitions following these guidelines:
- Include the heading “LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS” in all capital letters, and center it 1″ below the top of the page.
- Arrange your abbreviations alphabetically.
- Abbreviations must align with the document's left margin or be indented to the right of the left page margin using consistent tabs.
- If an entry takes up more than one line, single-space between the two lines.
- The List of Abbreviations page(s) must be numbered with consecutive lower case Roman numerals centered with a 1/2″ margin from the bottom edge.
If you use symbols in your thesis or dissertation, you may combine them with your abbreviations, titling the section “LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS”, or you may set up a separate list of symbols and their definitions by following the formatting instructions above for abbreviations. The heading you choose must be in all capital letters and centered 1″ below the top of the page.
Project Reporting Instructions
4 Parts of the Thesis
Structure of the thesis.
Bachelor’s and master’s theses usually have the following three parts: the first part introduces the topic, the body contains a description of the implementation of the research, and the last part lists the information connected with the work. The following is thus a typical thesis construction.
- the cover page,
- the description page,
- the description page in the requested foreign language, if applicable (see Description Page ),
- the table of contents,
- the list of figures, and
- the list of tables.
- the introduction of the topic,
- the theoretical basis,
- the implementation of the project,
- the research results, and
- the discussion.
For development project reports , the body contains
- the introduction and objectives,
- the background of the project,
- the practical implementation of the project, and
- the list of references, and
- the appendices.
- Search Website
- Office Directory
- Employee Directory
- Learning Commons
- Topic Sentences
What is a thesis statement.
A thesis statement is a sentence (sometimes more than one sentence) in the introduction that tells the reader the following information:
- What the topic of the paper is
- How the writer intends to discuss that topic
- It gives a blueprint for how the essay will be structured
- How the writer intends to prove or demonstrate his or her main points.
Think of your paper as a human body, and your thesis statement as the spinal cord. Without it, there is no structure.
For you as the WRITER , the thesis statement:
Develops through the interrelationship of thinking, reading, and writing;
Limits your research by providing you with one controlling main idea that intrigues you;
Narrows your writing to one specific claim that you can develop or prove;
Organizes your ideas so you know the important points you want to make in your paper; and
Clarifies your writing by keeping you on target to fulfill your proposed purpose.
For your READERS , the thesis statement:
Identifies the main point and sub-points of your essay clearly and quickly;
Functions as a road map so your readers can easily follow your ideas; and
Gives satisfaction at the conclusion of the paper when your readers discover you have fulfilled your promise by proving or developing your main point.
Characteristics of Effective Thesis Statements
An effective thesis statement must be factual and narrow .
An effective thesis statement prepares readers for facts and details, but it cannot itself be a fact. It must always be an inference that demands proof or further development. These proofs come from the literature.
Too Factual: The UNT Dallas campus has two buildings.
Not Factual Enough: The UNT Dallas campus is the perfect size.
Just Right: While some might see small universities as a disadvantage, the small campus of UNT Dallas holds many advantages for students, including a close-knit campus community, smaller class sizes, and better support from professors.
2. Narrow Topic
A good thesis should be narrow, and not too broad or too vague. If the topic is too broad, you won’t be able to cover the entire topic in your paper. If it’s too narrow, you might not be able to find research, and your paper probably won’t be long enough.
Too Broad: College students have a lot of responsibilities.
Too Narrow: Student workers in the Learning Commons at UNT Dallas have many responsibilities in their course work and tutoring.
Just Right: College students who are financially independent have many responsibilities as they must maintain good grades, pay living expenses, and balance work and school.
Remember, a thesis statement IS NOT:
- Instead , you should argue, based on facts and literature, why or why not NASA should receive more funding.
- Ask yourself--can I find anything in literature to prove this point, or is this MY opinion?
- Instead, you should argue why or why not people like chocolate OR why or why not chocolate is healthy for you based on facts and literature findings.
- Similar to the subjective opinion, ask yourself is this statement is based on facts and literature findings or if this is YOUR opinion. Although it is ok to have your own opinion, professors usually do not like to read articles about beliefs (students have been writing about these for years and years).
- Instead, you could discuss theories about politics or religions and use literature to prove or disprove those theories.
- This is too factual (the Himalayas WERE formed from a collision of tectonic plates), and there is nothing to discuss because this IS a fact in itself.
- Instead, you could compare and contrast the tectonic plate formation of different mountains.
Examples of Thesis Statements
A thesis statement f or a 5 paragraph essay conta ins three parts:.
1. A Topic : the main idea of the essay
2. The Controlling Idea : what you want to say about the topic
3. The subtopics : usually 3 examples/reasons you will discuss in your paper
Here is an example of a thesis statement.
*Note that the TOPIC is in red and the CONTROLLING IDEA is in yellow , and the SUBTOPICS are in purple .
- Ex: Regularly visiting the Writing Center at UNT Dallas will help you become the best writer on the planet because it offers superhero tutors , current technology , and fantastic handouts .
The main topic explores the idea that regularly vsiting the writing center will help you become the best writer on the planet, and the subtopics further expand this opinion with three distinct examples: 1) tutors, 2) technology, and 3) the handouts.
The paper should be organized around the subtopics. For example, for the thesis written above, the writer would write one body paragraph about the tutors, one about technology, and one about the handouts.
Here is a sample essay outline based on this thesis:
- Introduce the topic of tutoring
- Thesis (last sentence of intro): Regularly visiting the Writing Center at UNT Dallas will help you become the best writer on the planet because it offers superhero tutors, current technology, and fantastic handouts.
- topic sentence
- Restate thesis
- Concluding remarks
For further assistance with the structure, see our handouts on Introductions and Conclusions and Topic Sentences.
A thesis statement for a LONG ESSAY contains two parts:
- A Topic : the main idea of the essay
- The Controlling Idea : what you want to say about the topic
Throughout the paper, your thesis promises your readers that you will prove specific facts or develop certain ideas ; therefore, every paragraph, sentence, and word in your paper must relate to this controlling idea.
Here are some examples of thesis statements.
*Note that the TOPIC is in red and the CONTROLLING IDEA is in green .
- Baseball , once a national pastime and even an addiction, has lost its popularity because of the new interest in more violent sports.
- Since the space program has yet to provide the American people with any substantial, practical returns, it is a waste of money and should be dissolved .
- To stop the alarming rise in the number of violent crimes committed every year, our courts must hand out tougher sentences .
- Detective stories appeal to the basic human desire for thrills .
- Hemingway's war stories helped to create a new prose style .
- Bronte utilizes light and fire to s ymbolize the emotional expressions of the characters .
Here is a suggested outline for a long essay and how that would look in terms of your thesis statement, topic, and controlling ideas:
- Introduce the novel Jane Eyre and the topic of symbolism
- Thesis (last sentence of intro): Bronte utilizes light and fire to symbolize the emotional expressions of the characters .
- textual examples and elaboration
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The two parts of a solution are the solvent and the solute. When the two parts combine to make a solution, the properties of the solution differ from the properties of the two individual parts.
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1. Abstract · 2. Introduction · 3. Literature review · 4. Methods · 5. Results · 6. Discussion · 7. Conclusion.
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