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What Are Aftermarket Parts?

Aftermarket parts are vehicle components that are not made by the original component manufacturer. Aftermarket parts are used as replacement parts in vehicles for several reasons. Here’s a quick guide to car replacement parts.

Original Equipment Manufacturer Parts

Vehicle manufacturers want you to use replacement auto parts that are made by the original equipment manufacturer (OEM.) If your car is in a collision, auto body parts should be OEM components to ensure the structural integrity of the vehicle. When you need a new starter or water pump in your vehicle, you may not need an OEM part to get your car running again. OEM parts can be discontinued or hard to find, especially if you drive an older vehicle.

Aftermarket Parts

Aftermarket parts are developed to work the same as OEM parts. However, the manufacturer of aftermarket parts can use different types of materials to create the same component. Wiring, metal and plastic used in aftermarket parts can be inferior or superior to the materials in OEM parts, depending on the goals of the manufacturer. If a part is constructed of shoddy smaller components to lower production costs, the aftermarket part is not a good value. If the manufacturer created an aftermarket part to solve a technical or supply issue with an OEM vehicle part, the aftermarket part can be a good investment. Aftermarket parts can be very suitable replacement parts or car-repair nightmare fuel, but you usually get what you pay for in this case. A really cheap aftermarket part will not be as good as a higher-priced, higher-quality aftermarket part.

Pros and Cons of Aftermarket Parts

The lower price compels people to choose aftermarket parts over OEM parts. Aftermarket parts are available in a wide price range. OEM parts are generally more expensive than aftermarket parts with less of a price range from which to choose.

Some aftermarket parts give better performance than OEM parts, but superior aftermarket parts can be more expensive than average aftermarket components and OEM parts. Aftermarket parts allow you to customize your vehicle with variations of OEM parts. Aftermarket parts are often easier to find and can be delivered to you or your mechanic.

In some cases, you void your vehicle warranty unless you use an OEM part for repairs. Some mechanics will not provide guarantees on aftermarket parts, since the parts can be of questionable quality. Aftermarket components have a higher failure rate, so a repair job will need to be done twice if the part is bad. Cheaper aftermarket parts are generally not warrantied against failure. Most OEM parts come with guarantees in case of component failure.

Legal Considerations

In at least 21 states, auto body repair shops don’t need to inform you if they plan to use aftermarket parts to make collision repairs on your vehicle. However, in states including Ohio, body repair estimates must include information about aftermarket part use. Check the laws in your state to learn more about rules for OEM and aftermarket parts in auto repair.

Your car can lose value when you use cheaper aftermarket parts for repairs. If you lease a vehicle, you could lose your security deposit by using aftermarket car parts in the vehicle.


2 parts of a thesis

What Are the Two Parts of an Effective Thesis?

A thesis statement informs the reader the point of your composition. An effective thesis contains two parts: your argument proposal and support for your claim. The first part declares your argument, and the second part states the point of the paper. Your thesis argument statement lets the reader know you are trying to persuade him to your point of view. The reader is not convinced yet but interested to understand how he might be persuaded. Writing your solid thesis statement idea will force you to think of the thesis in more logical, succinct and clear terms. The final draft form of this thesis statement will take shape as your paper evolves.

The Effective Thesis Offers Your Viewpoint

Place the most significant concept of your expository writing, the thesis statement, at the end of the introductory paragraph to focus your paper ideas. An effective two-part thesis argument statement offers the reader your viewpoint or insight in a mere sentence or two that reflects your main idea. Not only does the thesis allow the reader a good grasp of the paper's intent, but it helps the writer fully comprehend the thesis concept to demonstrate the logical structure and order for support that follows.

Inform the Reader What You Are Arguing About

Identify the two basics of an effective thesis: what the composition's ideas concern--indicating the type of required support--and what the composition's ideas are, which include the order of that support with problems explained. The thesis proposal informs the reader what you are arguing about, and the thesis angle ascertains what your ideas are about this proposal.

The Thesis Expresses the Main Idea of Your Composition

Assure that the thesis expresses the main idea of your paper and answers all questions posed by your essay. A thesis is not a fact, opinion or topic that can be answered with simply yes or no. An effective thesis has an arguable, well-thought-out and definable claim that refrains from overused general terms and abstractions.

Maintain the Thesis' Important Characteristics Throughout Your Essay

Revise the adjustable working thesis as you write the composition while maintaining the thesis' significant characteristics. If you come up with a fundamental, essential or organizing question about your composition, an effective two-part thesis must answer that question. The two parts of an effective thesis provide a definable and arguable claim that simply incorporates discussion relevant to your paper supported with specific evidence.

Research and Writing Guides

Writing a paper? Don't get lost.

How to structure a thesis

2 parts of a thesis

Starting a thesis can be daunting. There are so many questions in the beginning: How do you actually start your thesis? How do you structure it? What information should the individual chapters contain? Each educational program has different demands on your thesis structure, which is why asking directly for the requirements of your program should be a first step. However, there is not much flexibility when it comes to structuring your thesis in general. The generic structure of your thesis looks like this:

The abstract is the overview of your thesis and generally very short. It is recommended to write it last, when everything else is done.

The introduction chapter is there to give an overview of your thesis' basics or main points. It should answer the following questions:

In answering the first question "why", you should know what your personal interest in this topic is and if and why it is relevant in general. Why does it matter in real life? You can also give background information here. By answering these questions, you can ground your whole paper from the onset and the readers will not have to answer these questions themselves. In answering the "how", you should briefly explain how you are going to reach your research goal. Some prefer to answer that question in the methods chapter, but you can give a quick overview here. And finally, you should explain "what" you are studying. You could put your research question in this part. It is recommended to rewrite the introduction one last time when the writing is done to make sure it connects with your conclusion. Learn more about how to write a good thesis introduction in our thesis introduction guide .

Literature review is often part of the introduction, but it can be a separate section. It is an evaluation of previous research on the topic showing that there are gaps that your research will attempt to fill. A few tips for your literature review:

The methodology chapter outlines which methods you choose to gather data, how the data is analyzed and justifies why you chose that methodology. It shows how your choice of design and research methods is suited to answering your research question. Make sure to also explain what the pitfalls of your approach are and how you have tried to mitigate them. Discussing yourself where your study might come short can give you more credibility as it shows the reader that you are aware of the limitations of your study.

The results chapter outlines what you found out in relation to your research questions or hypotheses. It generally contains the facts of your research and does not include a lot of analysis, because that happens mostly in the discussion chapter. Whats helps making your results chapter better is to clearly visualize your results, using tables and graphs, especially when summarizing, and to be consistent in your way of reporting. This means sticking to one format to help the reader evaluate and compare the data.

The discussion chapter includes your own analysis and interpretation of the data you gathered, comments on your results and explains what they mean. This is your opportunity to show that you have understood your findings and their significance. Point out the limitations of your study, provide explanations for unexpected results, and note any questions that remain unanswered.

This is probably your most important chapter. This is where you highlight that your research objectives have been achieved, and how you have contributed to all parties involved with your research. In this chapter you should also point out the limitations of your study, because showing awareness of your limitation gives a better grounding on your thesis. You can talk about your personal learnings here and also make suggestions for future research.

Remember to check if you have really answered all your research questions and hypotheses in this chapter in a short and clear manner. Your thesis should be tied up nicely in the conclusions chapter and show clearly what you did, what results you got and what your learnings were. Learn more about how to write a good conclusion in our thesis conclusion guide .

The basic elements of a thesis are: Abstract, Introduction, Literature Review, Methods, Results, Discussion, and Conclusion.

It's recommended to start a thesis by writing the literature review first. This way you learn more about the sources, before jumping to the discussion or any other element.

It's recommended to write the abstract of a thesis last, once everything else is done. This way you will be able to provide a complete overview of your work.

Usually, the discussion is the longest part of a thesis. In this part you are supposed to point out the limitations of your study, provide explanations for unexpected results, and note any questions that remain unanswered.

The order of the basic elements of a thesis are: 1. Abstract, 2. Introduction, 3. Literature Review, 4. Methods, 5. Results, 6. Discussion, and 7. Conclusion.

2 parts of a thesis

Thesis Sentences

Parts of a thesis sentence.

A thesis sentence has to contain two parts:

Note above that I’ve called the angle a number of different things: idea, insight, claim, argument. Even though you may have slightly different angles when you’re writing for different purposes, all of these variations of the angle have one really important thing in common: they all offer your own viewpoint on your topic. Your own viewpoint, backed up by examples and evidence, is the important thing in a college essay.

Thesis sentence: "Topic" is what the essay is about. "Angle" is you own insight or assertion about the topic.

One mistake that a lot of beginning college writers make is to focus on the topic as opposed to the angle in a thesis sentence. Beginning writers often think it’s enough to describe a management theory or a historical event or a psychological philosophy to show knowledge gained. However, if a writing assignment is to write an essay or “paper,” the likely expectation is that you’ll offer your own argument or angle to show how you’ve evaluated and applied knowledge gained, e.g., Although management theory Y supports the worker’s own initiative much more fully than management theory X, contingency theory is most often applied in the contemporary workplace, because of a number of characteristics of 21st century businesses.

Note that the sample thesis you just read has a third part, what’s often called a “because clause,” or some indication of reasons why you are making the claim you’re making in the angle.  You may decide to use a “because clause” in certain cases and not in others; decide if your thesis would be clearer to both you as a writer and to your reading audience with the inclusion of these additional reasons in your thesis.

As you start to develop a working thesis sentence for an essay, take time to review and analyze that working thesis to make sure that all of the parts are feasible:

The following video is lengthy, but contains some useful information about writing the different parts of a thesis.

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The thesis and its parts

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Writing the Background of Your Study

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Thesis and Dissertation Guide

pdf icon

Copyright Page

Dedication, acknowledgements, preface (optional), table of contents.

List of Abbreviations

List of symbols.

Thesis and Dissertation Guide

I. Order and Components

Please see the sample thesis or dissertation pages throughout and at the end of this document for illustrations. The following order is required for components of your thesis or dissertation:

Many of the components following the title and copyright pages have required headings and formatting guidelines, which are described in the following sections.

Please consult the Sample Pages to compare your document to the requirements. A Checklist is provided to assist you in ensuring your thesis or dissertation meets all formatting guidelines.

The title page of a thesis or dissertation must include the following information:

Title Page with mesaurements described in surrounding text

Notes on this statement:

Include a copyright page with the following information single-spaced and centered 2″ above the bottom of the page:

Copyright Page with mesaurements described in surrounding text

© Year Author's Full Name (as it appears on the title page) ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

This page immediately follows the title page. It should be numbered with the lower case Roman numeral ii centered with a 1/2″ margin from the bottom edge.

Inclusion of this page offers you, as the author, additional protection against copyright infringement as it eliminates any question of authorship and copyright ownership. You do not need to file for copyright in order to include this statement in your thesis or dissertation. However, filing for copyright can offer other protections.

See Section IV for more information on copyrighting your thesis or dissertation.

Include an abstract page following these guidelines:

Abstract page with mesaurements described in surrounding text

Please write and proofread your abstract carefully. When possible, avoid including symbols or foreign words in your abstract, as they cannot be indexed or searched. Avoid mathematical formulas, diagrams, and other illustrative materials in the abstract. Offer a brief description of your thesis or dissertation and a concise summary of its conclusions. Be sure to describe the subject and focus of your work with clear details and avoid including lengthy explanations or opinions.

Your title and abstract will be used by search engines to help potential audiences locate your work, so clarity will help to draw the attention of your targeted readers.

You have an option to include a dedication, acknowledgements, or preface. If you choose to include any or all of these elements, give each its own page(s).

Dedication page with mesaurements described in surrounding text

A dedication is a message from the author prefixed to a work in tribute to a person, group, or cause. Most dedications are short statements of tribute beginning with “To…” such as “To my family”.

Acknowledgements are the author's statement of gratitude to and recognition of the people and institutions that helped the author's research and writing.

A preface is a statement of the author's reasons for undertaking the work and other personal comments that are not directly germane to the materials presented in other sections of the thesis or dissertation. These reasons tend to be of a personal nature.

Any of the pages must be prepared following these guidelines:

Include a table of contents following these guidelines:

Table of Contents page with mesaurements described in surrounding text

Lists of Tables, Figures, and Illustrations

If applicable, include a list of tables, list of figures, and/or list of illustrations following these guidelines:

Lists of Figures page with mesaurements described in surrounding text

If you use abbreviations extensively in your thesis or dissertation, you must include a list of abbreviations and their corresponding definitions following these guidelines:

List of Abbreviations with mesaurements described in surrounding text

If you use symbols in your thesis or dissertation, you may combine them with your abbreviations, titling the section “LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS”, or you may set up a separate list of symbols and their definitions by following the formatting instructions above for abbreviations. The heading you choose must be in all capital letters and centered 1″ below the top of the page.

Previous: Introduction

Next: Format


Project Reporting Instructions

Project Reporting Instructions

4 Parts of the Thesis

Structure of the thesis.

Bachelor’s and master’s theses usually have the following three parts: the first part introduces the topic, the body contains a description of the implementation of the research, and the last part lists the information connected with the work. The following is thus a typical thesis construction.

For development project reports , the body contains

Thesis Statements

What is a thesis statement.

A thesis statement is a sentence (sometimes more than one sentence) in the introduction that tells the reader the following information:

Think of your paper as a human body, and your thesis statement as the spinal cord. Without it, there is no structure.

For you as the WRITER , the thesis statement:

Develops through the interrelationship of thinking, reading, and writing;

Limits your research by providing you with one controlling main idea that intrigues you;

Narrows your writing to one specific claim that you can develop or prove;

Organizes your ideas so you know the important points you want to make in your paper; and

Clarifies your writing by keeping you on target to fulfill your proposed purpose.

For your READERS , the thesis statement:

 Identifies the main point and sub-points of your essay clearly and quickly;

Functions as a road map so your readers can easily follow your ideas; and

Gives satisfaction at the conclusion of the paper when your readers discover you have fulfilled your promise by proving or developing your main point.

Characteristics of Effective Thesis Statements

An effective thesis statement must be factual and narrow . 

An effective thesis statement prepares readers for facts and details, but it cannot itself be a fact. It must always be an inference that demands proof or further development. These proofs come from the literature. 

Too Factual:   The UNT Dallas campus has two buildings.

Not Factual Enough: The UNT Dallas campus is the perfect size.

Just Right:  While some might see small universities as a disadvantage, the small campus of UNT Dallas holds many advantages for students, including a close-knit campus community, smaller class sizes, and better support from professors.

2. Narrow Topic

A good thesis should be narrow, and not too broad or too vague. If the topic is too broad, you won’t be able to cover the entire topic in your paper.  If it’s too narrow, you might not be able to find research, and your paper probably won’t be long enough. 

Too Broad:   College students have a lot of responsibilities.

Too Narrow: Student workers in the Learning Commons at UNT Dallas have many responsibilities in their course work and tutoring. 

Just Right: College students who are financially independent have many responsibilities as they must maintain good grades, pay living expenses, and balance work and school.

Remember, a thesis statement IS NOT:

Examples of Thesis Statements

A thesis statement f or a 5 paragraph essay  conta ins three parts:.

1. A Topic : the main idea of the essay

2. The Controlling Idea : what you want to say about the topic

3. The subtopics : usually 3 examples/reasons you will discuss in your paper

Here is an example  of a thesis statement.

*Note that the TOPIC is in red and the CONTROLLING IDEA is in yellow , and the SUBTOPICS are in purple .

The main topic explores the idea that regularly vsiting the writing center will help you become the best writer on the planet, and the subtopics further expand this opinion with three distinct examples: 1) tutors, 2) technology, and 3) the handouts.

Outline Example

The paper should be organized around the subtopics.  For example, for the thesis written above, the writer would write one body paragraph about the tutors, one about technology, and one about the handouts. 

Here is a sample essay outline based on this thesis:

For further assistance with the structure, see our handouts on Introductions and Conclusions and Topic Sentences.

A thesis statement for a LONG ESSAY contains two parts:

Throughout the paper, your thesis promises your readers that you will prove specific facts or develop certain ideas ; therefore, every paragraph, sentence, and word in your paper must relate to this controlling idea.

Here are some examples of thesis statements.

*Note that the TOPIC is in red and the CONTROLLING IDEA is in green .

Here is a suggested outline for a long essay and how that would look in terms of your thesis statement, topic, and controlling ideas:


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    A basic thesis statement has two main parts: Topic: What you're writing about; Angle: What your main idea is about that topic. Sample Thesis #1.

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    Dedication, Acknowledgements, Preface (optional) · Do not place a heading on the dedication page. · The text of short dedications must be centered and begin 2″

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    Structure of the thesis. Bachelor's and master's theses usually have the following three parts: the first part introduces the topic, the body contains a

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    A thesis statement for a 5 PARAGRAPH ESSAY contains three parts: · 1. A Topic: the main idea of the essay · 2. The Controlling Idea: what you want to say about

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    In the thesis body, you provide the introduction, narrative, and analysis of your work. The body includes these elements: Introduction. State (1) the purpose of