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Anti-War Protest, Essay Example
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Protesting is a major factor in how Americans gain recognition throughout the nation, as well as tries to project their voice in order to change current policies, situations, and controversial issues occurring within the government or around the world. This method has been used for both anti- and pro- causes. Two of the most famous protesting events that have occurred in United States History dealt with the Civil Rights Movement and the Anti-War Movement against the Vietnam War in the 1960s. In the current paper, Figure 1 is described and analyzed. Figure 1 represents a photo of an anti-war protest from the 1960’s Vietnam War. The Vietnam War protest had people from different backgrounds protesting, such as college students, suburban middle-class citizens, labor unions and government institutes. Therefore, the movement brought in other types of interests from groups, such as Civil Rights protests. (Barringer)
In the photo (Figure 1), the image shows hundreds of individuals showing enthusiasm, some holding flags and others just yelling. There are no messages or direct indications that this photo is an Anti-War protest; however, there are several hints that suggest this is an Anti-War protest. For instance, the first thing that jumps out is the black and white illustration. This immediately indicates that this is an older photo from the 60s or 70s. In addition, the style of clothing that the individuals are wearing is from the 60s or 70s. Furthermore, towards the bottom of the photo, there is an individual holding an American flag with a peace symbol in place of the stars. The peace symbol is unique to the Vietnam War. For instance, when the anti-war movement began many musicians and celebrities, such as Jefferson Airplane and Jane Fonda were speaking out against the war in speeches and music, as well as wearing peace symbols on the clothing.
Another indication that this was an Anti-War movement against the Vietnam War is the flag in photo adjacent to the American flag in the top center of the picture. This flag’s symbol is “Tye-Dye”. Tye-Dye was part of the Hippie movement which was prominent in the 1960s. In addition, Hippies were one of the major groups that were protesting the war, as well as wearing Tye Dye and peace symbols in the clothing and on their cars. In fact, most people associate Tye-Dye and peace symbols with Hippies from the 1960s and 1970s. In addition, the photo shows a diverse group of people protesting. There are men, women, white men, white women, black men and black women represented in the photo. This further indicates that the protest had to do with the war because other protests during that decade were anti-Civil rights, in which you would not see peace symbols or Tye-Dye or they were pro-Civil right protests in which the majority of the individuals would have been of African American descent.
Last but not least, one of the major indicators that the photo was anti-protest against the Vietnam War was the flag directly in the center that illustrates the word, “Death”. Initially when the war began, only a small amount of Americans opposed the war; however, as the war progressed, more Americans began to oppose it because the use of chemical warfare, such as Agent Orange. Many American families were losing loved ones to the war and it became a question of whether Americans were dying for a good cause or not. In addition, there were rumors of the United States, itself, torturing the Vietnamese and capturing prisoners. (Spartacus Educational) Therefore, the Vietnam War is associated with many Deaths that individuals were not happy about and were protesting for their loved ones to come home and end the War in which they felt was unjustifiable.
Barringer, M. The Anti-War Movement in the United States. (1999). The Oxford Companion to
Military History. Web. Retrieved on June 2, 2012 from: http://www.english.illinois.edu/maps/vietnam/antiwar.html.
Spartacus Educational. Vietnamese Protest Movement. (2012). Retrieved on June 2, 2012 from http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/VNprotest.htm
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How to Write a War Essay
By: Max Malak
Types of Essay Appropriate For War Topic
Strategy and tactics, causes of war, treatment of prisoners, collaboration with enemy, civil war essay prompts, world war i essay prompts, world war ii essay prompts, vietnam war essay prompts, iraq war essay prompts, anti-war essays.
Writing about the war is one of the most challenging creative works at school, college, and even university. Modern students have almost no personal experience communicating with people who experienced the battle years' hardships on themselves. Typically, a war essay is not delivered in the classroom unexpectedly to students. Usually, a significant amount of time is given to prepare, or in general, it is set a week before delivery of the paper. Of course, no student can write such an essay without help.
The guidelines for writing a war essay are straightforward. The most important thing is to consider the topic. In high school, students already have access to such a form of writing as an essay. Besides, they already have sufficient social experience, so it is best to build an essay on national importance plots. You can start with a brief description of the events of the battle, emphasizing their formality.
The main motive for such an essay should be the search for an answer to why wars arise. In conclusion, it is necessary to substantiate the importance of preserving historical memory, generations' continuity, and emphasize patriotism as a national idea. Now that you know how to create an essay like this, we'd prepare more details.
For military topics, you can use these types of essays:
- An informative essay is a text describing what war is and additional meanings on a chosen topic. An informative essay is the simplest type because you only need to specify dates, word values. But be careful not to turn your paper into a dictionary.
- The cause and effect approach is the most popular essay about the battle among students. In this type, you can indicate the causes of war and the consequences after it. The consequences may include information about how the battle affected the economy, the life of the population, industrial development, science, international relations, etc. You can also read the cause and effect examples and find other consequences of the battle.
- An argumentative essay is a text in which you can lead evidence in favor of your thesis. It is advisable to draw up an argumentative essay outline to know which part of the argument is appropriate. For example, it could be that "The First World War was meaningless for people?" In the text, you must agree or disagree with the assumption and select evidence in favor of your opinion.
- Comparative essay - in this text, you can select two of the most striking events during the battle and compare. Or compare two different wars. You can also compare the leaders of the battle, such as Hitler and Stalin.
- Persuasive essay - in this text, it is also necessary to give a specific assumption and convince the reader that your opinion is correct. This is how you can influence how people think about the war. Or call for action to remember and honor the memory of the military. The main task is to lead arguments.
- DBQ is one of the challenging types of essays, but teachers still ask them. Teachers give some visual passages from a book about a battle or a verse, and you will need to analyze it and add information about what you think from the provided passage.
What You Can Write About in War Essay
Students understand a historical event best if a parallel can be drawn with their personal experience. You can take the theme "My great-grandfather or great-grandmother when they were the same age as I am now." Such an essay will open your relatives from a completely different side, make you think about how cruelly the battle has invaded people's fate, and take a fresh look at your life. The motive of gratitude for peace, respect for the memory of those killed for the sake of victory will be a natural conclusion.
Of course, the volume of an essay on the war cannot be limited by any norms. Among other things, such an essay is excellent preparation for exams. The theme of battle is always present in the thematic blocks of exams. We also advise you to look at other persuasive essay topics about what you can write in a war paper.
The main subject of strategy is the plan of war. Strategy determines the goal of military operations by setting the number of forces required to participate in them. It also seeks to determine the primary grouping of the enemy's forces, the abilities, and weaknesses of the character of the people of his country. The strategy leader considers the influence of the war on other states and, based on all these often conflicting elements, seeks to find the place in the hostile camp on which the main blow should be struck.
Tactics are an essential part of preparation and battle. Tactics cover theoretical and practical training of fighters. About theory, the fighters study the nature and consequences of combat, forms of training, methods of attack. Based on this information, you can write which of the war commanders was the best in creating strategies and tactics.
Military diplomacy is a set of special military-diplomatic bodies and career military diplomats in their composition. The objects of military diplomacy are certain states. Various components of the military, military-political, military-economic, and military-technical life of the host country are included in their sphere of activity to solve the problems that have arisen before them. You can tell how during the war diplomacy goes between countries. Or compare the military diplomacy of the two countries.
News streaming twenty-four hours a day, journalism, the Internet, traveling the globe. Is our big world getting closer and more accessible than it was before? Including conflicts and battles. Regardless of whether the conflict concerns your country, any confrontation, any battle, in a certain way, affects everyone's life. So many conflicts in the world make you wonder: why do they arise?
This question will help readers understand that often conflicts cannot be prevented, but war can be avoided. Readers will learn how small disagreements escalate and turn into large and serious ones, what all conflicts have in common, and the influence of biases in history, diplomacy, geography, and economics on these events. Comparing global conflicts with disputes from your own life, you can reveal why there were conflicts and battles between countries.
If we consider not modern wars, but those 50 or 100 years ago, how the prisoners lived can be horrified. The prisoners were brought to the colonies, where people lived in the most severe conditions. The clergy of all denominations, representatives of the intelligentsia, former nobles, peasants, and people who opposed the new government fell under mass arrests. Prisoners worked in mines and fields, manually erecting dams and digging canals. Agronomical scientists were engaged in the development of agriculture. There is a lot of information on this topic, and you can compare the behavior with the prisoner in ancient and modern times.
Afghanistan's problem is undergoing a shift - the United States has begun negotiations with the Taliban terrorist movement. This was the result of the complete failure of American strategy, which Washington reluctantly acknowledged. But the trouble is that over the years, the Americans have not understood the main problem of Afghanistan, and therefore risk making even more terrible mistakes.
Taliban negotiations have been a central event in recent decades. They can radically change the country's situation and bring a sensation at any moment since they pass every day. As you can see, it is essential to negotiate and cooperate with the enemy. In the essay, you can give examples of how negotiation can end a battle.
Today, there are very few war veterans, but you can still find those who took part in these events. Consider one student's example:
Great-grandfather was born in 1917. Before the war, he worked as a hairdresser. When the Great Patriotic War began, my great-grandfather went to the front. Then he was 23 years old. In 1942 there was a battle. After the battle, there were very few of them. We ran out of cartridges, and there was nothing to defend with.
The Germans surrounded and captured the surviving soldiers. They began to divide the soldiers into two "heaps.".In one, they put privates, and in the other officers. No one knew where they were taking them. It turned out that they had brought them to the Buchenwald camp. On the gate was written: "To each his own."
There were people from 18 countries and different nationalities in this camp, including children and German communists. Great-grandfather, together with his friends, worked at the factory, and, as best they could, they carried parts and assembled weapons in various ways.
They were waiting for the Americans to open a second front and release them. But the prisoners armed themselves earlier. They wanted to escape, but there was a traitor among the prisoners. And I had to arrange an uprising. They held the camp in their hands for a week. Only in 1946 was my great-grandfather sent home. He defended his homeland as best he could.
There are a lot of unique stories about the battle. Take this chance and tell someone a story. You may be able to influence the opinions of many people.
We understand that you can take a topic from different wars. For this reason, many questions may arise. To make the writing process more comfortable, we have prepared tips for different periods of the battle. Use them, and you can write a brilliant essay on the battle.
The Civil War of 1861-1865 was the bloodiest in US history. Losses in the North killed and died from wounds and diseases amounted to 360 thousand people, in the South - 258 thousand people. As a result of the battle, the United States' state unity was restored. The institution of slavery was destroyed, and favorable conditions were created to restructure social relations in the southern states and develop capitalism in the United States, the farming path.
Today, the most popular topic is precisely the Civil War. We have prepared a few tips to help you write your Civil War essay. We suggest the following topics as tips:
- Did the Civil War affect the lives of women?
- What place did trains and railways take in the Civil Battle?
- Why did the cotton trade become so popular during the Civil War?
- Why did nationalism become the main idea at the time of these events?
- What was the idea and mission of the Civil Battle?
The First World War had no equal in the entire previous history of humanity. The armed struggle was fought on fronts with a length of 3-4 thousand km, on the territory of three continents - Europe, Asia, and Africa, not only on land and at sea, but also in the air. About 45 million people were mobilized in the Central Powers' coalition - 25 million in the Entente countries. All the human resources of the largest states were drawn into the battle. You can talk about this topic forever, but if you have difficulties, then here are some tips for you to write about:
- How did the First World War affect the whole world?
- Why is the period 1914-1918 called the First World War?
- Why did the majority of countries perceive the First World War with enthusiasm and not fear?
- For many decades in the world, there were no battles. What caused the outbreak of the First World War?
- For what reason did the United States decide to take part in the events of 1914-1918?
World War II began on September 1, 1939, when German troops attacked Poland. In response to the German aggression on September 3, Great Britain and France declared battle on it.
The main causes of the battle were the political contradictions generated by the imperfect Versailles system and the aggressive policy of capturing Nazi Germany, the Japanese Empire, and Italy. The Versailles System is a peace treaty system signed by the victor states of the First World War - Great Britain, the French Republic, the United States, and the Japanese Empire.
You can contribute a lot to debate on a given topic, but if you don't have ideas, then keep our tips:
- Did Hitler have the opportunity to win the battle?
- Why did the Soviet-German treaty of 1939 affect the events of the Second World War?
- Write an abortion essay and indicate the reasons for such operations during the Second World War.
- Why during 1939-1945 there were mass executions of Jews?
- How did countries manage to stop Hitler's plans?
The Americans did not understand why they were fighting and perishing in the Vietnam War. Morale in many units was extremely low, which sometimes resulted in non-observance of orders. The antiwar movement was growing in the United States. In October 1967, about a hundred thousand young people undertook a "campaign against the Pentagon" gathered in Washington for protests. The Americans were tired of the battle and did not want to die away from their homeland.
The topic seems trite, but there are a lot of really wild things left in it. For example, the word "frag" came from the Vietnamese time and meant the murder of his officer. The soldiers of the "Tiger" detachment cut off the ears of the enemies. The famous photograph's executioner showing a partisan's execution opened a pizzeria and calmly lived out his days in Virginia. If you are interested in this topic, then use these tips:
- Why is the Vietnam War considered the longest in American history?
- What did the United States do to gain support from other countries?
- Why was the Vietnam Battle on TV? How did society react to this?
- Why was the United States defeated and unable to achieve its goals?
- Why were US citizens opposed to how the government behaved during the Vietnam Battle?
It is difficult to say today the real reason for the American invasion and occupation of Iraq. It is difficult to assume that Washington seriously believed that chemical or nuclear weapons were being created in Iraq.
There was no need for the US to seize Iraqi oil, and, most importantly, it did not take place in any form. Either George W. Bush considered it essential to complete what his father did not complete, or the Americans seriously wanted to turn Iraq into a country of exemplary democratic content. Now it will hardly be possible to find out. If you're going to understand this situation, then you may be able to make a great discovery. Also, here are some tips from us:
- Why are there misunderstandings between countries?
- Was the battle in Iraq planned or spontaneous?
- War in Iraq influenced oil production?
- Compare the battle in Iraq and Vietnam. What are the similarities and differences?
- Would you support US political views towards Vietnam?
Now on TV, they show many military conflicts and armed clashes of various scales. They always bring death and destruction to civilians who do not participate in this at all. If you listen to the politicians, they always try to settle differences through peace negotiations to avoid bloodshed. But why, then, are there so many wars around the world? Have people still not learned to negotiate with each other and must kill each other? If you are against battle, you can write about it to prove your perspective on this matter. Perhaps you can show the other side of the battle. Try to prove that battle is unnecessary and meaningless.
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Anti War Essays (Examples)
1000 results for “Anti War” .
Anti-War Sentiments Vonnegut and Sassoon -- Anti-War
Anti-War Sentiments Vonnegut and Sassoon -- Anti-War Sentiments in Writing Kurt Vonnegut and Sigfried Sassoon are both war veterans turned writers who have writings that can be expressed as anti-war. With both men, their experiences in war left them very much opposed to it and with a sense of its futility. They chose to express these feelings in writing, but did so in very different ways. Vonnegut expressed his anti-war sentiments in prose, most notably in his famous novel, "Slaughterhouse Five." Sassoon expressed his in poetry. Also, Vonnegut's anti-war sentiments are more metaphorical and have to be teased out of his writing, whereas Sassoon's are much more literal and are evident in every word that he writes. There is no mistaking how Sassoon feels about war once one reads his poems. This paper examines "Slaughterhouse Five" and three different poems by Sassoon, and how these writings express the anti-war sentiments…
Sassoon, Sigfried. Counter-Attack and Other Poems. New York: E.P. Dutton, 1918.
Sassoon, Sigfried. Memoirs of an Infantry Officer. New York: Simon Publications, 1930.
Sumner, Gregory D. Unstuck in Time: A Journey Through Kurt Vonnegut's Life and Novels. New York: Seven Stories Press, 2011.
Vonnegut, Kurt. Slaughterhouse Five. New York: Delacorte, 1969.
Anti-Capitalist & Anti-War Groups on
Neoliberalism is both an ideology and philosophy which believes that "human welfare is best promoted by economic growth, which in turn is best enabled by reducing the interference of governments in the private sector. Neo-liberals also support measures that enable trade and finance to have unrestricted movement across national borders. These policies attempt to 'roll back' the state and the role of government, and leave decisions about allocation, production and distribution in the economy to the global market thereby excluding or limiting government measures that restrict or redistribute the wealth of individuals" (faxed material3, par. 18). These ideas were materialized through the policies of liberalization, privatization, and deregulation. Liberalization, or trade liberalization to be more exact, is of course at the heart of free trade. This policy acts towards the removal of government restrictions on goods that are imported and exported. It also refers to the liberalization of financial capital.…
Faxed material 1
Faxed material 2
Faxed material 3
George Mason University Website (2009). Marxist Origins of Communism, II. Retrieved from http://www.gmu.edu/departments/economics/bcaplan/museum/marx2.htm on March
Anti-War World War II Bertolt
Only the stuttering rifles' rapid rattle Can patter out their hasty orisons. No mockeries now for them; no prayers nor bells, Nor any voice of mourning save the choirs, The shrill, demented choirs of wailing shells; And bugles calling for them from sad shires. What candles may be held to speed them all? Not in the hands of the boys, but in their eyes Shall shine the holy glimmers of good-byes. The pallor of girls' brows shall be their pall; Their flowers the tenderness of patient minds, And each slow dusk a drawing-down of blinds. Owen's poem appears to inspired by the many deaths of soldiers he saw each day in the trenches of war. He starts the poem off, describing innocent young men being sent to war like cattle are sent to slaughter. He abandons his original views of war as heroic and glorious, and describes it as one…
Brecht, Bertolt. Mother Courage and Her Children. Tr. Eric Bentley in Representative Modern European Dramas. ed. Lee Gun-sam. Seoul: Pan Korea Book Corp., 1978.
Lewis, Day C. (1963 ed). The Collected Poems of Wilfred Owen. By Wilfred Owen. New York: New Directions, 1963.
Roberts, David. (1998). Short Biography of Wilfred Owen. Saxon Books.
Vietnam Antiwar Lit Review Vietnam Anti-War Literature
Vietnam Antiwar Lit Review Vietnam Anti-War Literature Review The Vietnam War marked a lot of "firsts" in relation to the course of American history. It is the first war that the United States lost. It is one of the first major military actions where actual war was not declared. It is also the first war that was brought to a halt by a public uproar and political fallout. The people were a major reason (if not the main reason) that the war ended the way it did and this movement took on many forms. There have also been many scholarly and pundit-based treatises written and scrutinized since then that are worthy of review. This report covers a dozen sources relating to the Vietnam antiwar movement and they range in time of authorship from during the action to since then up through the present day. While the war could have potentially…
Berkowitz, William R. 1974. "THE IMPACT OF PROTEST: WILLINGNESS OF
PASSERSBY TO MAKE ANTIWAR COMMITMENTS AT ANTI-VIETNAM
DEMONSTRATIONS." Journal Of Social Psychology 93, no. 1: 31-42. SocINDEX
with Full Text, EBSCOhost (accessed February 25, 2015).
Anti-Arab Racism the Objective of
This is also possibly the least well-documented phenomenon in the racializing of Arabs and Muslims leading to the widespread acceptance of profiling and related loss of civil liberties." (2002) The work of Nicole J. Henderson (2001) entitled: "Law Enforcement & Arab-American Community Relations After September 11, 2001" reports a study in which Arabs living in the United States were interviewed. Henderson reports that when asked about hate crimes "...community respondents across sites mentioned fear of government policies, at times equating the detention of Arab men and special registration with hate crimes. Another leader felt that "before 9/11, there were always questions of bias from people -- from individuals -- but not ever about the government and the police." A business leader commented in response to whether or not hate crimes were a problem in his community, "Now we're dealing with another prejudice. Right now, this is a very serious problem…
El-Amine, Rami (2006) Anti-Arab Racism, Islamophobia, and the Anti-War Movement. Left Turn Magazine. 1 Oct. 2006.
Akram, Susan M. (2002) the Aftermath of September 11, 2001: The Targeting of Arabs and Muslims in America. Arab Studies Quarterly March 2002.
Ibish, Hussein and Stewart Anne (2003) Report on Hate Crimes and Discrimination Against Arab-Americans. The Post- September 11 Backlash. American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee. Online available at http://www.adc.org/hatecrimes/pdf/2003_report_web.pdf
Gott, Gil (2005) the Devil We Know: Racial Insubordination and National Security Law. Villanova Law Review 2005. Online available at (http://biblioteca.rrp.upr.edu/LatCritCD/Publications/PublishedSymposium/LCIXVillanova&SetonHall%20(2005)/20LCIXGGot.pdf
War in Iraq Facts When
He turns some readers off with his vitriolic attacks. Further, his attacks are is blatant propaganda. hy? Because while Taibbi does mention that the Democrats already crafted legislation more than once - setting timetables for withdrawal and tying those timetables to funding, bills that Bush subsequently vetoed - he uses quotes from unnamed "congressional aides" to solidify his assertion that the Democrats just wanted to "score political points without ever being serious about bringing the troops home." Taibbi does use evidence that there are anti-war leaders outside of ashington who are discouraged and bitter. But he fails to build a case for his most radical assertion, that the Democrats "hijacked the anti-war movement itself" in order to play to the voters, and that the Democrats filled the "ranks of peace groups with loyal party hacks." This is pure propaganda, and the evidence he provides is very thin. He doesn't name…
Biddle, Stephen. "Seeing Baghdad, Thinking Saigon." Foreign Affairs 85.2 (2006): 2-14.
Taibbi, Matt. "The Chicken Doves." Rolling Stone Issue 1046 (2008): 37-39.
War Violence and the Nation
It explains how an Iraq War Vet became a military consultant in Hollywood. It quotes a professor who says that as the war goes on, the stories of war will become the fabric of American culture and identity. For example, many popular television programs began to incorporate the Iraq War into their stories. hese include the episodes from ER, Las Vegas, Extreme Makeover, comedy Arrested Development, and soap opera Days of Our Lives. he article quotes one producer saying: "I think people are just ready to watch . . . something that is contemporary and important and dramatic and exciting." his comment by a producer shows that war generates interest in war stories and thus people's love and glorifying of war stories. Explaining to my viewers that such breeding of interest in war stories may have very negative consequences for our culture and the nation is important to my blog.…
The second material I am using is an article by ABC News Good Morning America "Iraq War Images Seep into Popular Culture." It is available online at http://abcnews.go.com/GMA/IraqCoverage/story?id=759253&page=1 , This material mainly explains how the war in Iraq is becoming part of America at home. It explains how an Iraq War Vet became a military consultant in Hollywood. It quotes a professor who says that as the war goes on, the stories of war will become the fabric of American culture and identity. For example, many popular television programs began to incorporate the Iraq War into their stories. These include the episodes from ER, Las Vegas, Extreme Makeover, comedy Arrested Development, and soap opera Days of Our Lives. The article quotes one producer saying: "I think people are just ready to watch . . . something that is contemporary and important and dramatic and exciting." This comment by a producer shows that war generates interest in war stories and thus people's love and glorifying of war stories. Explaining to my viewers that such breeding of interest in war stories may have very negative consequences for our culture and the nation is important to my blog.
Third media material I am using is the "war and militarism" section of FAIR [Fairness & Accuracy in Reporting]. The website is available at http://www.fair.org/index.php?page=7&issue_area_id=26 . FAIR is dedicated to challenging the mainstream media reporting. It has specific sections that deal with a variety of issues, but most important for my blog is the section on war and militarism. The articles here show how often mainstream media reports present wrong impressions of wars and militarism. The media often lies about the realities of war and militarism and many people accept media representations as truth and fail to see many negative consequences of wars. For instance, Pat Tillman, a former popular soccer player who went to war but became an anti-war soldier and killed in a friendly fire, was at first reported to have been killed in a heroic fight with the Taliban. FAIR helps to expose these kinds of lies of the mainstream media.
All three materials are important for my blog. The documentary extra featuring George Gerbner explains the relationship between violent images in the media and American culture. The video tells how heavy exposure to violent images has affected America's national psyche. Many people are addicted to violence and crave for more and more violent imagery in films and on TV. The ABC News article is important to my blog because it explains how an ongoing war -- in this case, the Iraq War -- enters the American society. It explains how the Iraq War is becoming part of our popular culture. And the third media material is invaluable to my blog because it regularly publishes articles that are relevant to the topic of war, violence, and the nation. I will add these materials to my blog and also add my detailed commentaries because my purpose is not only to present media materials, but also try to explain some of the consequences of our culture's increasing obsession with war and violence.
War in Iraq
Iraq ar As the end of the year slowly approaches, there is an expected transition of power by the United States and its allies to allow the Iraqi people to govern themselves. The media has tried to convince us that we as a nation have liberated the country of Iraq from one of the most brutal dictators in the world's documented history. Saddam equated to a modern day Adolf Hitler. Saddam Hussein would surely have destroyed the American way of life by using his weapons of mass destruction that he had been stock piling for years. And if that was not bad enough, Saddam was also said to have supported the efforts of Al Qaeda's terroristic network. Our nightly news and all of the media hype may actually have us as a nation beginning to believe this, ah, stuff, for the lack of a better term. The war has had…
Al Qaeda. Ed. Frontline. PBS. 12 May 2004 http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/binladen/who/alqaeda.html .
BBC World News. "Oil prices set new record highs." BBC Online UK Edition. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/3713281.stm .
Blood for Oil? Ed. Taylor, Jerry. March 18, 2003. CATO Institute. 12 May 2004 http://www.cato.org/dailys/03-18-03.html .
Bush Administration. "National Strategy to Combat Weapons of Mass Destruction." White House Release (2002) 12 May 2004 http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2002/12/WMDStrategy.pdf .
War in American History The
Katulis and Juul help put into perspective the tentative position of Iraq in saying that Iraq's leadership remains split on a draft version of SOF (Katulis and Juul, online). The Iraqi cabinet must vote a two-thirds majority in favor of their support for a plan (Katulis and Juul). This may be difficult to achieve when the cabinet is divided along religious sect lines. It is, too, perhaps the first time since the election of the cabinet by the Iraqi people that they had to put such concerted emphasis on their decision making, because, once made, there is no turning back from that decision which could result in the U.S. pulling out of Iraq beginning almost immediately. What follows will answer the question of whether or not Iraq is prepared to stand on its own against the forces of Islamic fundamentalist extremism. Leaving Iraq may see it become impossible to regain…
As Hanson points out, the jihadists do not need fighter jets, a navy fleet or even tanks to win their war against the west (Hoover Institution, Hanson, online). Their tools are terrorism, and this, too, seems to be one of the aspects of the present and future nature of warfare that people choose not to acknowledge. The goals of terrorism are no to destroy buildings, although the destruction of buildings as occurred on September 11, 2001, does indeed further their work; it is rather to cause a disruption of the economy, to create political division, world discord, to instill a prevailing atmosphere of fear and panic, and to bring down the society that is the target of the terrorist acts. In this regard, as we examine where America is today, and where the rest of the world is as economies are collapsing around us, it might be fair to say that the jihadists are winning their war of terrorism.
Who would have believed, as Hanson so succinctly argues, that a world amidst the technological progress where the world stands today could be brought to its knees by terrorists who have effectively enslaved the freedoms that it has taken America and its post World War II allies hundreds of years to achieve? Today, cartoon satire depicting Islamic extremists can be banned - instituting the Islamic fundamentalist goal to ban ideas and images; the words "war on terror" have been ostensibly set aside because they have become too psychologically burdensome to the public - instituting the Islamic fundamentalist goal to ban words from the language; and other examples of giving into the weight of terrorism as cited by Hanson (Hanson, online). Echoing Galbraith, the question must be asked, "Is this victory?"
Wordpress.com, 2008. Galbraith, Peter, GBlog. Found online at http://gunnyg.wordpress.com/2008/10/27/is-this-a-victory-by-peter-w-galbraith/,retrieved 18 November 2008.
Anti-Drug Campaign for Teens the Campaign at
Anti-Drug Campaign for Teens The Campaign At present, marijuana is the most used drug and most frequently available in United States of America. The American youth takes serious dosages of marijuana. At least 60% of the adult population in United States of America was prone to marijuana in 2002. The statistics were prepared in the supervision of The White House Office of National Drug Control Policy. The website address is www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov . Social marketing campaigns as well as social awareness programs are imperative to raise and propagate awareness pertaining to excessive drug abuse in United States of America. But in this case, the social campaigners as well as social marketers are armed with effective programs and messages, but remain hesitant to reach the teen audience. It's a tad bit complicated. Wordsen and Slater (2004) concluded that creating targeted ads regarding marijuana and its abuse through PSA's tended to be less…
Eddy, M. (2003). War on Drugs: The National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign. CRS Report for Congress, Order Code RS21490
Teinowitz, I. (2003). "Drug Office to Yank Terror Ads in About-Face," Advertising Age, March 31, 2003, pp. 1, 89.
US Congress (2002). U.S. Congress, Senate Committee on Appropriations, Subcommittee on Treasury and General Government, Effectiveness of the National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign, special hearing, 107th Cong., 2nd sess., June 19, 2002 (Washington: GPO), p. 14.
Worden, J.K. & Slater, M.D. (2004). Theory and practice in the national youth anti-drug media campaign. Social Marketing Quarterly. 10 (2), 13-27.
Anti-Federalist and Bill of Rights
Anti-Federalist & ill of Rights The Anti-federalist vs. Federalist argument is one of the most heated political debates the United States has ever seen. Though the length of the actual debate was relatively short, lasting from October of 1787, when the final version of the constitution was approved by the first congressional convention to June of 1788 when Virginia was the first to ratify the constitution of the United States. The concepts ideas and standards that were set forth by both the anti-federalists and the federalists as well as other more moderate politicians are expressed throughout the foundational documentation of the United States. Most notably the ill of Rights, or the first ten amendments of the United States Constitution are a reflective example of the compromises and victories of both sides but this can be seen elsewhere in the foundational documentation as well. Knowing this and being able to demonstrate…
Bill Of Rights" Thomas Legislative Information on the Internet http://memory.loc.gov/const/bor.html
Cato, New-York Journal, November 22, 1787 "To the Citizens of the State of New York." Constitution Society Homepage http://www.constitution.org/afp/cato_05.htm
Bill Of Rights" Thomas Legislative Information on the Internet
Anti Terrorism Measures Effective Anti-Terrorism Measures Effective
Anti Terrorism Measures Effective Anti-Terrorism Measures Effective Anti-Terrorist Tactics The threat of terrorism involves many variables. The nature and degree of risk posed by a potential attack depends on a number of factors, including the goals of the attackers and their means of inciting terror. There are numerous terrorist organizations with agendas ranging from various political ideologies to animal rights, environmental, and reproductive issues. With so many diverse groups and causes in play, the number and variety of potential targets present an enormous challenge. It is beyond the scope of this thesis to address likely goals and targets of specific terrorist groups. It is important to understand, however, that the risk posed to any company or environment is related to the nature of the particular threat posed by particular terrorist groups (Bauman, 1995). In addition, while local police play a major role in gathering information about likely terrorist attacks, it…
Bauman, Z. (1995) Life in Fragments. Oxford: Blackwell.
Buruma, I. And A. Margalit (2004 Occidentalism: The West in the Eyes of Its Enemies. New York: The Penguin Press.
Cohen, N. (2003) A Kind, Really Nice Boy. The Observer, in Guardian Unlimited (May 4): 1-4.
David, M. (2004) Clash of Civilizations. The New York Times (May 13): A-25.
War in Afghanistan Is Visibly
S. forces were made to operate on ground and targeted operations were planned against the Taliban and Al-Qaeda fighters. There were significant individually planned battles and skirmishes between the U.S. army and Taliban often resulting in heavy losses to both sides. A tactic that Taliban often used in such conditions was the suicide attacks and planting improvised explosive devices (IEDs) that left the soldier carrying vehicles destroyed. The U.S. utilized an Iraqi style counter insurgency operations in the Afghan region that resulted in some strengthening of the conditions. 3.1.3 Power sharing agreements In order to enhance the effectiveness of the U.S. presence in Afghanistan the U.S. forged agreements with many warring tribes and factions of the Northern Alliance to enhance the unity of these groups that were to be pitched against the Taliban. These agreements were aimed at removing the support base of Taliban and Al-Qaeda from the Afghan society…
Coll, S. (2005). Ghost wars: The secret history of the CIA, Afghanistan, and Bin Laden, from the Soviet invasion to September 10, 2001. Penguin.
Dreyfuss, R. (2005). Devil's game: how the United States helped unleash fundamentalist Islam. Metropolitan Books.
Giustozzi, a. (2008). Koran, Kalashnikov, and laptop: the neo-Taliban insurgency in Afghanistan. Columbia University Press.
Jones, a. (2013, Jan). Only Three Choices for Afghan Endgame: Compromise, Conflict, or Collapse: Counting down to 2014. TomDispatch.com. Retrieved from: [ http://www.commondreams.org/view/2013/01/28-3 ]
War Propaganda Some of the most emotionally incendiary propaganda to utilize the medium of film was conceived and directed towards partisans during the fighting of World War II. A pair of films, Went the Day Well and 49th Parallel, delicately play upon the psyche of their intended audiences to get viewers to emotionally, (and perhaps even physically) take a stance during the fighting of the second Great War. By demonstrating various aspects of homeland vulnerability and enemy infiltration, these movies were created to galvanize audiences into an anti-Nazi stance at the time when Hitler's Third Reich was at its peak of power. The events that constitute the plot of Went the Day Well are obviously designed to prey on the fears of British residents during World War II. The film actually was released in 1942 while the war was still contested -- and largely undecided -- and depicts Nazi's posing…
War and Terrorism
War & Human Rights Abuse: Parallelisms between Japanese-Americans in WWII and the U.S.-Iraq War (Gulf War II) Among nations of varying cultures and societies, maintaining satisfactory political relations is a challenge. This is primarily due to differences among leaders and societies that make up this nation; thus, as a result of this diversity, it is inevitable that international relations among countries of the world may experience conflicts and antagonism with each other. Declarations of war are one manifestation of conflicts and disagreements between two or more nations. Examples of these political conflicts are the First and Second World Wars, where devastation of the physical geography of countries and millions of deaths had occurred. Human history has, over time, illustrated how individual differences can potentially lead to bigger conflicts, thereby resulting to devastating, even deadly, results. However, a far more important issue that should be focused on during times of war…
Cheney questions release of more photos." 11 May 2004. The New York Times Online. Available at http://www.nytimes.com .
Executive Order 9066." (1942). Available at National Archives and Records Administration.
War in Afghanistan Following the
Fallout A section of commentators have taken issue with the manner in which the federal government denied suspected terrorist the due process of law as stipulated under the constitution. The government even commissioned the establishment of a torture chamber in Guantanamo Bay. This amounts to gross violation of human rights and civil liberties. There is another clause in the patriot act dubbed "enhanced surveillance procedures," which allows federal authorities to gather foreign intelligence by breaching firewalls of 'terrorist nations.' This controversial foreign policy clause damaged the relationship between America and the Middle East. A section of scholars argues that key players in the oil industry manipulated the United States to wage war against Afghanistan. According to an article published on the BBC World Service in December 2007, the execution of Saddam Hussein was unwarranted. Political scientists reckon that a cartel of multinational oil companies wanted to control the oil in…
Van Bergen, J. (2003) "In the Absence of Democracy: The Designation and Material Support Provisions of the Anti-Terrorism Laws." Cardozo Pub. [?] Law Policy & Ethics Journal 2 (2003): 107.
Luca, B (2004). American foreign policy and global governance, in A. Gobbicchi (ed.), Globalization, armed conflicts and security (Rubbettino/CEMISS, Roma) 112-127
Fawcett, L. (2009) International Relations of the Middle East (2nd ed.) Oxford University Press
Anti Colonialism Inmontaignes Of Cannibals and Kants Perpetual Peace
Anti-Colonialism Montaigne: The Embodiment of Identity as Grounds for Toleration A crucial issue between many identity groups is conflict. Toleration by definition is basically the rejection of a belief or practice, which is followed by restraint of one's self from suppressing that belief. Those seeking to make social and political aspects of toleration among people from different backgrounds need to delve more deeply into the idea of toleration; what it means and what it is based on. In the 16th century, the aim was to establish conditions of harmonious living for people who held different beliefs. Thus, the most crucial issue among politicians and other thinkers was the conflict between identity groups that begun in the 1970s and brought about a quick end to the spread of communism. The idea of tolerance provides a basis for thinking differently about how to react to the said conflict. The rejection of a…
Kant, Immanuel. "Toward perpetual peace." Practical philosophy 8 (1996): 836.
Creppell, Ingrid. "Montaigne: The Embodiment of Identity as Grounds for Toleration." Res Publica 7.3 (2001): 247-271.
Bobbio, Noberto. "In Praise of La Mitezza," in P. Ricoeur, ed., Tolerance between Intolerance and the Intolerable Providence: Berghahn Books (1996). Print
Williams, Howard. "Colonialism in Kant's Political Philosophy." Diametros 39 (2014): 154-181.
War on AIDS
ar on AIDS Affordable retroviral drugs now! Fighting the 'good fight' against AIDS in Africa It's one of the most long-standing theoretical ethical debates: you know someone is dying, and will die if they do not get a certain kind of medicine. However, the medicine is prohibitively expensive. Do you steal this all-important medication? Or do you allow the person to wither and die, because stealing is wrong -- or rather, because the pharmaceutical companies 'deserve' to make a profit? Of course, you ensure that the individual has the medication, ideally by pressuring the store or company to give you the medicine for free. But although this moral impulse may seem like a 'no brainer' on an individual level, on a mass level, people are still dying in record numbers from AIDS in Africa, in a way that would be unacceptable, if it took place in the so-called developing world.…
Colebunders R. et al. (Oct 2005). "Free Antiretrovirals Must Not Be Restricted Only to Treatment-Naive Patients." PLoS Medicine. 2(10). Retrieved 14 Feb 2008 at http://medicine.plosjournals.org/perlserv/?request=get-document&doi=10.1371%2Fjournal.pmed.0020276
Global Access to HIV Therapy Tripled in Past Two Years, But Significant Challenges
Remain." (2007). WHO: World Health Organization Retrieved 14 Feb 2008 at http://www.who.int/hiv/mediacentre/news57/en/index.html
Miller, Charles & Kenneth Goldman. "Merck, AIDS, and Africa." (23 Oct 2003).
War in Iraq to the
The time to go in and dismantle his war machine was now, Bush insisted. But now, nearly four years after the invasion of Iraq, with nearly 3,000 American casualties and over $380 billion having been spent (Sidoti, 2006), less than 40% of Americans support the war. No weapons of mass destruction have been found. No evidence of any nuclear program Hussein was alleged to have launched has been found. And recently the U.S. intelligence agencies reported that the war in Iraq has created more terrorists, and that we are not any safer now than we were in 2001 after 9/11. Moreover, the American people are clearly fed up with what they see on television from Iraq: a) there is now a civil war going on between rival ethnic factions, and dozens of innocent civilians are kidnapped and/or slaughtered every day; the U.S. involvement has exacerbated this bloodletting; b) images of…
Hess, Pamela. "Pentagon late to the information war." United Press International. Retrieved 1 Nov. 2006 at http://www.upi.com .
Reuters. "Factbox - Military and Civilian Deaths in Iraq. Retrieved 2 Nov. 2006 at http://www.alertnet.org .
Sidoti, Liz. "Analysis: Iraq war dominates campaign." Associated Press. Retrieved 1 Nov. 2006 from http://www.mercurynews.com .
Anti-Semitism and Palestinian Terrorism Global
**These sections must be completed by the student / author: **Method TBD **Expected outcomes of the project TBD **Budget and schedule TBD eferences ADL, staff 2010, the United Nations General Assembly: Key Issues for 2010 Israeli-Palestinian Negotiations . 09-20, 2010. http://www.adl.org/main_International_Affairs/UNGA_2010.htm (accessed 12 5, 2010). Best, a, Jussi H, Maioloand, J & Schulze, K 2004, International History of the Twentieth Century, outledge, London. Chesler, P 2003, the New Anti-Semitism: The Current Crisis and What We Must Do About it, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco. Cohen, J 2009, 'The accusation of Anti-semitism as moral blackmail: conservative Jews in France and the Israel-palestinian conflict.' Human Architecture, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 23+. Cravatts, 2010, Blaming the victim for Palestinian anti-Semitism. 09-16, 2010. http://www.canadafreepress.com/index.php/article/27746 (accessed 12-10, 2010). -- . BLAMING the VICTIM: THE TUTH ABOUT PALESTINIAN ANTI-SEMITISM. 09-28, 2010. http://www.jewishpress.com/pageroute.do/45397 (accessed 12 5, 2010). Dershowitz, a 2003, the Case for Israel, Wiley, Hoboken, NJ. Foxman,…
ADL, staff 2010, the United Nations General Assembly: Key Issues for 2010 Israeli-Palestinian Negotiations . 09-20, 2010. http://www.adl.org/main_International_Affairs/UNGA_2010.htm (accessed 12 5, 2010).
Best, a, Jussi H, Maioloand, J & Schulze, K 2004, International History of the Twentieth Century, Routledge, London.
Chesler, P 2003, the New Anti-Semitism: The Current Crisis and What We Must Do About it, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco.
Cohen, J 2009, 'The accusation of Anti-semitism as moral blackmail: conservative Jews in France and the Israel-palestinian conflict.' Human Architecture, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 23+.
WWI the Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
WWI The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife represented a culmination of several concurrent forces, all of which led to the outbreak of World War. The concurrent forces that led to World War One can be loosely grouped under the following categories: nationalism, imperialism, and militarism. Within each of these categories are ample sub-categories that can testify to the extent of forces that shaped the pre-war conditions throughout not just Europe but the entire world. World War One was a total war for many reasons: it involved serious civilian casualties on a horrific scale for all parties. The Great War also brought to light the impact of globalization on the global economy and political enterprise. Nationalism, imperialism, and militarism all played a part in shaping participation in World War One; the effects of which continue to reverberate. As Marshall (2001) points out, "Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy were all…
Allan, T. (2003). The Causes of World War I. Chicago: Reed Elsevier.
Bosco, P., & Bosco, A. (2003). World War I. Infobase.
Heyman, N.M. (1997). World War I. Greenwood.
Marshall, S.L.A. (2001). World War I. New York: First Mariner.
Zionist Influence in World War I
WWI: The Forces of Nationalism, Imperialism and Militarism The forces of nationalism, imperialism and militarism irrevocably led to World War I in several ways. Germany had become an industrialized nation, vying for economic power and rivaling the power of Britain (Gilbert, 1994). Germany had also defeated France in the prior century in the Franco-Prussian War and taken the territories of Alsace and Lorraine. France wanted them back (Bradberry, 2012). ussia also had a grievance with Germany: it wanted the Bosporous Straights that were "controlled by Germany through her alliance with the Ottoman Empire" (Bradberry, 2012, p. 42). The only way for each of these countries to get what they wanted from Germany was to go to war: their alliance gave them the opportunity to attack Germany on all fronts, and Germany's support for the Austria-Hungary attack on Serbia (in retaliation for the Serbian assassination of Archduke Ferdinand) gave the Triple…
Balfour Declaration. (1917). Knesset. Retrieved from https://www.knesset.gov.il/lexicon/eng/BalfourDeclaration_eng.htm
Bradberry, B. (2012). The Myth of German Villainy. IN: Authorhouse.
Gilbert, M. (1994). The First World War. NY: Henry Holt and Company.
Lloyd-George, D. (1939). Memoirs of the Peace Conference. CT: Yale University
Culture Behind Americans at War
American Way of War The history of the American Way of War is a transitional one, as Weigley shows in his landmark work of the same name. The strategy of war went from, under Washington, a small scale, elude and survive set of tactics practiced by what seem today to be relatively "quaint" militias, to -- in the 20th century -- a full-scale operation known as "total war." True, "total war" was not a concept invented by the Americans in the 20th century. The North eventually practiced "total war" against the Confederates when Sherman's campaign left utter destruction of civilian territory in its wake. The ancient Romans practiced it when, under the direction of Cato, they destroyed Carthage because its mere existence, they felt, posed a threat to their prosperity. In the 20th century, however, "total war" received an enormous boost of technical support when the inventors of the atom…
Butler, Smedley. War is a Racket. LA: Feral House, 2003.
Chollet, Derek and James Goldgeier. America Between the Wars. NY: Public Affairs,
Debs, Eugene. "Anti-War Speech," 16 June 1918. Web.
American Response to Vietnamese War Twenty Five
American esponse to Vietnamese War Twenty five years and more have passed since the United States officially withdrew its forces and involvement in Vietnam. Not since the civil war had the country been so divided and separated in the political and social opinions. Almost every family in America was in some way affected, losing husbands, sons, friends and daughters. More than 100,000 American soldiers were killed and those who made it back to the homeland suffered extreme mental and physical trauma and someone them still do. A lot of the war veterans were so traumatized and treated with disrespect in their own country that they ended up taking their own lives, while most of them ended up on streets begging for a loose change. American esponse to the Vietnamese War However the effect of the war on the Vietnamese people was even more drastic, by the time Saigon was lost…
Anderson, David L. (2002). Columbia Guide to the Vietnam War.
Cable, Larry. (1991). Unholy Grail: The U.S. And the Wars in Vietnam.
Duiker, William J. (1996). The Communist Road to Power in Vietnam.
Mitchell K. Hall. (2007). The Vietnam War; short survey. Pages168.
Du Fu's Song of War
" Du Fu, of course, is speaking of the An Lushan Rebellion, which was not put down for nearly a decade in mid-eighth century China. Emperor u's wars have essentially decimated the land. The lands are barren -- in more ways than one. The consequences of war are numerous: the men are gone, so in villages where couples should normally be uniting and having children, no children are had. The image Du Fu uses is of stark fields where "nothing grows but weeds," but the image could easily be construed as being representative of the lack of new life in the "two hundred districts / And in thousands of villages." The next image Du Fu employs is one of heartbreaking sorrow: "and though strong women have bent to the ploughing, / East and west the furrows are all broken down." Du Fu's image is akin to the ballads of Ireland,…
Du Fu. "Song of War Chariots." Web. 24 May 2011.
"Heroes or Bandits! " 2008. Web. 24 May 2011.
American Experience With War
American Experience With War Which historian - David M. Kennedy, or John Shy - best represents the American experience with war? While reading Kennedy's - and Shy's - essay discussions, it's necessary to put their writings in the context of time. Kennedy penned his essay in 1975, and Shy wrote his in 1971. In terms of world events subsequent to both essays - in particular the advent of terrorism on a colossal and destructive scale, (9/11/01) - veritable light years of military and political change has emerged. But notwithstanding the tumultuous global changes since the 1970s, the assigned essays are timeless in their intelligent analysis, very important in terms of their forthright accuracy of U.S. history and war, and hence, provide valuable reading for any and all students of the times. However, the essay by Kennedy, in this writer's opinion, best reflects the big picture view of America, its peoples,…
Coser, Lewis A. Sociological Theory: A Book of Readings. Toronto: The
MacMillan Company, 1969.
Kennedy, David M. "War and the American Character." The Nation (1976),
Shy, John. A People Numerous and Armed: Reflections on the Military Struggle for American Independence. New York: Oxford University Press, 1976.
WWII History Making Decades WWII-Present
Diversity -- with the exception of homophobia -- was beginning to be commonly accepted and praised. Technology -- such as the use of DNA in criminology and the introduction of the PC -- was becoming more prominent in the lives of everyday Americans. In the Cold War, President Gorbachev asked for openness and economic freedom, while President eagan asked him to tear down the Berlin Wall, which he did. However, the discovery of AIDS had a far more profound impact on the American people than any of these events. In 1981, the first case of AIDS was reported in the United Kingdom, and this eventually caused quite a crisis in the U.S., as it was first noticed among gay men, and then in women and children as well. People became scared because they were not sure what was causing the disease. esearch continued throughout the 1980s, but the fear caused…
Dove, R. (1999). Heroes & Icons: Rosa Parks. Retrieved August 12, 2009, from Time:
"Fascinating facts about the invention of the Internet by Vinton Cerf in 1973." (2007,
May 30). Retrieved August 12, 2009, from the Great Idea Finder: http://www.ideafinder.com/history/inventions/internet.htm
Alk War in Art When
The viewer is not directed to mourn the bodies that cover the ground, but rather celebrate alongside the victors, who charge forward carrying guns and swords. Instead, the piled corpses are merely a means to an end, a soft topping to the pile of rubble that is apparently necessary to secure Liberty and allow her to take charge. The contrast in theme is particularly strong because the style of either artist does not immediately feel conducive to their apparent goal, but upon closer examination . While Delacroix is decidedly more "realistic" than Picasso, the realism of his corpses does not direct the viewer to sympathize with them, but merely adds some sense of gravity to central image of a glowing Liberty directing "the people" onward with a rifle and French flag. Thus, while one might imagine Delacroix's "realism" would instill some sort of thematic or ideological realism into the painting,…
Athanassoglou-Kallmyer, Nina. "Cezanne and Delacroix's Posthumous Reputation." The Art
Bulletin 87, no. 1 (2005): 111-129,5.
Delacroix, Eugene. Wikimedia, Liberty Leading the People. Last modified 1830. Accessed
August 25, 2012. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Eugene_Delacroix
world war two propaganda pamphlets
Propaganda is an important tool for shaping public opinion during wartime. The United States initially resisted using propaganda, but later established two official government propaganda agencies: the Writers War Board and the United States Office of War Information (Riddle, 2016). The latter became the primary propaganda engine during World War Two. The Office of War Information used multiple media for propaganda dissemination, including the relatively new media like comic books and movies. Posters were a primary means of influencing public opinion, too. Through these different propaganda techniques, the United States government reduced the potential for anti-war sentiments, minimized dissent, and created a normative cultural environment of patriotism. The “loose lips sink ships” message is an example of how the government established norms of behavior, and also used fear as a driving emotive force behind its propaganda (Little, 2016). Propaganda posters were also designed to create a sense of community-driven war…
Will Congress End the War on Terror
Contemporary Political Issue: The War on Terror Introduction On September 20th, 2001, President George W. Bush proposed the new Office of Homeland Security to help confront a new threat to national security in the first step of what became the War on Terrorism (Select Committee on Homeland Security, 2004). One week earlier, Congress had signed off on the Authorization for Use of Military Force (AUMF), allowing the president broad scope for using military force against countries or organizations who “planned, authorized, committed, or aided” terrorism (Ackerman & Hathaway, 2011). 17 years and more than $2 trillion later, the War on Terrorism continues with no sign of easing up (Amadeo, 2018). Though President Trump ran a campaign on getting American soldiers out of the Middle East and letting other countries handle the ISIS threat, the war on terror rhetoric out of the White House has continued unabated, with sights now set…
Analyzing World War I Dada
World War I: Dada The literary and artistic movement known as Dada originated in the Swiss city of Zurich, at the time of the First World War, as a response to the War as well as the nationalism considered by many to have sparked the war. Inspired by Futurism, Cubism, Expressionism, Constructivism, and other innovative movements, Dadaism's output ranged from poetry, collage, and painting, to performance arts and sculptures (Jones, 2002; Hulsenbeck, 1988). The movement's aesthetic, characterized by contempt for nationalistic and materialistic attitudes, strongly influenced artists in major cities across the globe, such as Berlin, Paris, Cologne, Hanover, and New York, and all ended up creating their own separate groups. Surrealism led to Dadaism's degeneration. Beginnings Sickened by the nationalism that triggered WWI, Dadaists were constantly against the idea of authoritarianism, and all kinds of guiding ideologies or group leadership. Their main concern was revolting against the apparent middleclass…
Buskirk, M., & Nixon, M. (1996). The Duchamp Effect. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
Elder, B. (2013). Dada, Surrealism, and the Cinematic Effect. Waterloo, Ontario, Canada: Wilfrid Laurier University Press.
Hulsenbeck, R. (1988). "En avant Dada: A history of Dadaism." In R. Motherwell (Ed.), The Dada painters and poets (pp. 23-48). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. (Original work published 1920)
Jones, A. (2002). Equivocal Masculinity: New York Dada in the context of World War I. Art History, 25(2), 162.
Gravity's Rainbow and Other Cold War Literature and Film
Cold War dominated American culture, consciousness, politics and policy for most of the 20th century. Even after the fall of the Berlin Wall, which symbolized the fall of the Iron Curtain and therefore finale of the Cold War, Cold War rhetoric and politics continued especially in the War on Terror. Depictions of the Cold War in American literature and film parallel the changes that took place in American ways of thinking about its own domestic policies as well as American perceptions of the alien enemy or "Other." Tracing the evolution of American film and literature from the end of World War Two until the 1980s reveals trends in thought. Early depictions of the Cold War were modernist in their approach, with clear distinctions between good and evil and no moral ambiguity whatsoever. Clear delineations between right/wrong and good/evil prevailed, a form of political propaganda and even brainwashing that prepped the…
Booker, K.M. (2001). Monsters, Mushroom Clouds, and the Cold War. Westport, CT: Greenwood.
Comyn, J. (2014). "V2 to Bomarc: Reading Gravity's Rainbow in Context." Orbit 2(2). Retrieved online: https://www.pynchon.net/owap/article/view/62/174
Hamill, J. (1999). Confronting the Monolith: Authority and the Cold War in Gravity's Rainbow. Journal of American Studies 33(3): 417-436.
Jarvis, C. (n.d.). The Vietnamization of World War II in Slaughterhouse Five and Gravity's Rainbow. Retrieved online: http://www.wlajournal.com/15_1-2/jarvis%2095-117.pdf
Women in World War II the Second
Women in World War II The Second World War was fought on many fronted. The activities that took place both in the battlefield and outside showed a number of suffering and inhumanity. It will go down in human history that more than six million Jews were killed in a single war. In this war, women were not left behind as they also took an active role in the practice. There eight most notable women who came forth to fight for their side of the battle line. The following study focuses on the similarities and differences of Therese Bonney, May Craig, and Janet Flanner and their contributions during the war. Comparison Each of the three women made significant contributions towards the fight during the Second World War. Therese Bonney was a highly educated woman having studied at Harvard among other institutions. She was a career photographer (Wagner, 2011). During the war,…
Wagner, L. (2011). Women war correspondents of World War II. New York: Greenwood Press.
Effects of the Vietnam War on American Policies
Lessons Learned by the Americans Experience of the Vietnam War The Vietnam War is one infamous war in the history of America. It was the first war that America took part in an international stage and lost terribly. War statistics shows that the America lost a total of 58,000 lives and over 350,000 casualties. The war also ran into millions of dollars dispensed to finance the war. The war also injured the international reputation of the country among the peers of great nations such as the Soviet Union (Westheider, 2011). To this effect, many lessons were drawn upon which the American nation have formulated their external war strategies to date. Lessons from diplomatic negotiations The cause of the Vietnam War was something that could easily be solved diplomatically. Immediately after independence, Vietnam was divided into two regions: the north and the south. Each one of them operated independently with the…
Coward, R. (2014). A voice from the Vietnam War. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press.
Salisbury, H. (2010). Vietnam Reconsidered: Lessons from a war. New York: Harper & Row
Westheider, J. (2011). The Vietnam War. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press.
Washington Rules America's Path to Permanent War
ashington Rules: America's Path To Permanent ar ritten by a former Army Colonel, ashington rules: America's path to permanent war (Bacevich, 2010) is a striking analysis of America's pro-military psyche and determination to "to lead, save, liberate, and ultimately transform the world" (Bacevich, 2010, p. 12) through worldwide militarism. Commencing post-orld ar II, the global military presence that has become a fact of American life has been supported by Democrats and Republicans alike, though it has significantly drained our resources. hile some critics and this reader take issue with some aspects of Bacevich's book, in many respects it provides a voice of sanity in the face of the U.S.'s now-unbearable global pro-war stance. Critique Contents Bacevich's book is anything but the compliment, "ashington Rules!" ashington rules: America's path to permanent war (Bacevich, 2010) relates his own educational journey from a pro-military conservative soldier to a questioner who attacks the American…
Bacevich, A.J. (2010). Washington rules: America's path to permanent war. New York, NY: Metropolitan Books.
Bass, G.J. (2010, September 3). Book review - Washington rules - America's path to permanent war. Retrieved on May 31, 2012 from www.nytimes.com Web site: http://www.nytimes.com /2010/09/05/books/review/Bass-t.html
Boston University. (2012). Andrew J. Bacevich | International Relations | Boston University. Retrieved on May 31, 2012 from www.bu.edu Web site: http://www.bu.edu/ir/faculty/alphabetical/bacevich/
Burns, K. (Director). (2007). The War [Motion Picture].
packet primary source documents drawn historical periods covered chapters 18-21 Give Me The historical situation that produced this primary source written by John Reed in April of 1917, "Whose War" was America's imminent participation in World War I. It is noteworthy that the author alludes to the two factors that most readily led to America's involvement in this martial affair -- the Zimmerman Telegram (which he refers to twice as the "note") and the sinking of United States ships enacted by German submarines. There certainly appears to be a bias in evaluating the context of this source -- Reed was considered a "radical" and is definitely anti-war at a time in which patriotism and support for war was exceedingly high. Thus, this source reads like a piece of journalism that was written to attempt to alert people to the incongruence and atrocities associated with America's impending actions. The author's major…
World War I And Related
All European nations suffered devastating postwar economic consequences, which further increased the reluctance to use military force to subdue Hitler. The United States enjoyed a postwar boom, given that none of the battles had been waged upon its own territories. But the Republican-dominated Senate refused to allow the U.S. To become a member of the League of Nations, and the absence of strong American leadership made the League ineffective as a peacekeeping force. Germany was also stripped of all of its colonies: the fact that many new nations were created in the redrawing of the map of Europe meant that many of the recently evolved national identities and infrastructures of new countries were quite fragile. Although they were 'older' nations, Germany and Russia were particularly politically unstable, as a result of the conditions spawned by orld ar I. Despite its early exit from the ar, Russia's economy was undergoing an…
"German Revolution." Spartacus Schoolnet. April 14, 2010.
"Wars and Battles, World War I." U.S. History. April 14, 2010.
Literary Resopnse to World War One
Social Activism and Literature Two of the major themes in 20th century American literature are war and social protest. The United States has been engaged in a steady series of wars since the beginning of the 20th century. With the carnage of the First World War, the horrors of the Second, the futility of Vietnam, many writers and artists contributed to the literature of protest with respect to war, and America's involvement in it. Amy Lowell's September, 1918 is a good example of how writers reacted to the First World War. Its presentation of a wistful era where there is no war, juxtaposed against the current "broken world," illustrates the yearning that many had for a world without war. The First World War had essentially eliminated any romance that there was of war in society, and its brutality would spark this sort of response across the world. For the first…
Parini, J. & Cutter, M. (2009). Themes in Contemporary American Literature. Cengage.
American Imperialism and the Spanish American War
What were the primary motivations and factors that led to the U.S. shift from isolationism and continental expansion to imperialism by the late 19th and early 20th centuries? Introduction America’s so-called “shift” from isolationism and continental expansion to imperialism by the late 19th and early 20th centuries was really nothing more than a natural evolution of America’s “Manifest Destiny.” Before the US could enter its imperial phase beginning with the Spanish-American War at the turn of the century, it had first to square accounts on the continent by pushing its borders as far as they could be pushed. Once the West had been thoroughly settled and the Union held together (the major conflict of the 19th century), the US could turn its attention to foreign lands and global plans to facilitate the spread of the American Empire. It would have been impossible for the US to achieve imperial objectives any…
War Studs Terkel's The Good War in
ar "Studs Terkel's: The Good ar In The Good ar Terkel presents the compelling, the bad, and the ugly memories of orld ar II from a view of forty years of after the events. No matter how horrendous the recollections are, comparatively only a few of the interviewees said that if the adventure never happened that they would be better off. It was a lively and determinative involvement in their lives. Even though 400,000 Americans died, the United States itself was not assaulted again after Pearl Harbor, the economy did begin to develop and there was a fresh contemporary feeling of humanity power that revitalized the nation. A lot of women and Black Americans faced new liberties in the post war nation, but happy life following orld ar II was stained by the danger of the could be nuclear. Studs Terkel interviewed over 120 people by inquiring them to tell…
Terkel, S. (1997). The Good War: An Oral History of World War II. Boston: New Press.
"Executive order 9066" Franklin Delano Roosevelt. February 19, 1942. accessed from http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=true&doc=74#
Report of the Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians, Personal Justice
Denied. (Washington, D.C.: The Civil Liberties Public Education Fund, 1997),
Sociology: Anti-Immigration Policies -California Proposition 227 and Proposition 187- The purpose of this paper is to research Anti-immigration policies in the United States and to further discuss California's Propositions 227 and 187 and in the critique of the literature to compare and contrast these policies while at the same time to interject originally and critical thinking from the perspective of underlying assumptions, potential weaknesses in the argument of methodological approach and further to analyze their potential value in really grasping an understanding in the immigration issue as to "second generation." Early roots in anti-immigration sentiment were expressed in the two-dollar a head tax of immigrants in 1903 and in 1997 moving upward to four-dollars a head. "Anti-immigrant sentiment is a result of ignorance of the value of immigrants throughout the history of the United States," pointed our Michael Lin, National President of the Organization of Chinese-Americans (OCA) During the year…
Griswold, Daniel T. (2002) Trade Policy Analysis no. 19, 2002 Oct 15 Key Points: "Willing Workers: Fixing the Problem of Illegal Mexican Migration to the United States" http://www.freetrade.org/pubs/pas/tpa-019es.html
Reyhner, Jon (1993) American Indian Language Policy and School Success
The Journal of Educational Issues of Language Minority Students, Volume 12, Special Issue III, Summer 1993, pp. 35-59.
War and Empire The American
Korea became the first identifiable danger. Of course, the Korean conflict was only the first of hot-spot conflicts in the Cold ar. "To police the world, to risk nuclear war, to eradicate the creed of communism, all in the name of national defense, the new national security priesthood would wage bloody war in Korea and Vietnam, overthrow the democratically elected governments of Iran, Guatemala, and Chile, and assassinate the elected president of Congo, nearly come to nuclear war over Cuba, foster civil wars throughout Africa, topple the regime in Indonesia and enable reigns of terror by right-wing death squads throughout Central America" (Atwood, p.177). Atwood cites numerous examples, beginning with the treatment of combatants (tattooing them with anti-Communist slogans that would prevent them from reassimilating into their societies after the war) and non-combatants (bombing civilian targets) of ways that the United States violated the human rights principles it said it…
Atwood, Paul. "Cold War / Hot War: Savage Wars of Peace." War and Empire: The American
Way of Life. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010, 174-214.
Anti Establishment Voters and the Election
Standard Outline of Presentation The purpose of this presentation is to inform the audience about why voters are angry in today's political climate so that they might better understand their choices at the polls this November. The central idea of this presentation is that voters are angry because they perceive the Establishment to be against them, the system to be "rigged," and the wars in the Middle East to be unending and dangerous to global security. The ideal audience for this presentation would be anyone attempting to understand why this election is seeing two unpopular candidates in a presidential contest -- on the one hand, a political insider and polished member of the Washington Establishment, and on the other hand an unpolished outsider who seeks to represent Middle America. The audience could be broad and include all genders, races, and ages. This topic is important for the audience because an…
Altheide, D. (2007). The mass media and terrorism. Discourse and Communication,
Bakker, B., Rooduijn, M., Schumacher, G. (2016). The psychological roots of populist
voting. European Journal of Political Research, 55(2): 302-320
Anti-Legalization of Marijuana
Legalizing Marijuana Recent ballot initiatives in states like California and Oregon asking for the decriminalization of marijuana use reveals a growing public acceptance of marijuana. The perception that marijuana is not dangerous has made drug enforcement even more difficult. Indeed, the debate over marijuana goes beyond health concerns, and touches issues such as crime and privacy as well. This paper examines the debate to legalize marijuana. The first part of the paper examines the arguments of the pro-marijuana side, focusing on those who argue that the drug can have medicinal purposes. The next part then examines the potential dangers of legalized marijuana use, both to the individual and to public health in general. In the conclusion, the paper argues that marijuana use is not a "victimless" crime. The potential dangers that marijuana present to individual and public health are best upheld by keeping marijuana illegal. Pro-legalization arguments Prohibitions against the…
Glasser, Ira. "Spotlight: Why Marijuana Law Should Matter to You." Marijuana. Louise I. Gerdes, ed. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2002.
Gottfried, Ted Should Drug Use Be Legalized? Connecticut: Twenty-First Century Books, 2000.
"Marijuana as Medicine: A Subtle Syllogism." The Economist. August 16, 1997. ProQuest Database.
Marshall, Donnie. "Drug Prohibition is Effective." Drug Legalization. Scott Barbour, ed. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2000.
Effects of the Post World War II Occupation on Japan's Government and Politics
ar and Occupation: The Effects of the U.S. Occupation on Japan's Government and Politics The recent change in the American foreign policy direction which has seen the replacement of its traditional anti-colonialist tilt by the neo-conservative belief of guided nation building evokes a lot of interest in the history of United State's occupation of post world war II Japan. Although each such occupation is different -- the political, social and cultural environment as well as the historical context of every war and country being different-- it is interesting to study how the Americans handled the re-building of Japan in the post-orld ar II period. There is no doubt that the United State government's influence in shaping the future of Japan was overwhelming. In fact it would not be wrong to state that Japan's current political and economic status as a first world power is a direct result of the guiding…
Bell, P.M.H. "The World Since 1945: An International History.": New York: Oxford University Press, 2001
Dower, John W. "Embracing Defeat: Japan in the Wake of World War II." New York: Norton/Free Press:, 1999
Dower, John W. "Why Iraq is not Japan." Mercury News. Apr. 27, 2003. July 2, 2003. http://www.bayarea.com/mld/mercurynews/news/editorial/5728557.htm?template=contentModules/printstory.jsp
Gordon, Bill. "The Allied Occupation of Japan." May 2000. July 2, 2003 http://wgordon.web.wesleyan.edu/papers/alliedoc.htm
Anglo Chinese War the Historical
More recently two schools of military history have developed that attempt to consider its object from a more eclectic, objective perspective, dubbed the "New Military History" and "War and Society" history. New Military History "refers to a partial turning away from the great captains, and from weapons, tactics, and operations as the main concerns of the historical study of war," and instead focusing on "the interaction of war with society, economics, politics, and culture." New Military History is a relatively broad category, and its perspective can be evinced both on the level of a particular methodology and ideology. Along with the "War and Society" school of thought, New Military History seeks to uncover the multifarious factors driving and influencing military conflict, with a particular view towards the interaction between these factors and the actual practice of war. That is to say, these schools of thought do no entirely abandon any…
Alexander, Joseph G. "The Truth about the Opium War." The North American Review (1821-
1940) 163, (1896): 381-383.
Bello, David. "The Venomous Course of Southwestern Opuim: Qing Prohibtion in Yunnan,
Sichuan, and Guizhou in the Early Nineteenth Century." The Journal of Asian Studies.
How Media Contributed to Perception of War
Media and Vietnam ar In The Uncensored ar (1989), David S. Halin divides the Vietnam ar and the media coverage of it into three phases, 1961-65, 1965-68 and 1968-73. In the pre-1965 phase, before large numbers of American troops were in the country, the war received almost no TV or radio coverage, and a small number of journalists from the print media dominated coverage. Vietnam only became a television war or living room war with the big escalation in 1965-68, and the search-and-destroy strategy put in place by Gen. illiam estmoreland. At the same time, antiwar and anti-draft protests also escalated in the U.S., although during these three years most of the media reported the government line on the war and were highly negative toward the antiwar movement. Only after the Tet Offensive in January 1968, which was followed by Lyndon Johnson's abrupt decision to refuse to run for president…
Gitlin, Todd. The Whole World is Watching: Mass Media in the Making and Unmaking of the New Left. Berkeley, 1980.
Hammond, William M. Reporting Vietnam: Media and the Military at War. University Press of Kansas, 1998.
Halin, Daniel C. The Uncensored War: The Media and Vietnam. Berkeley, 1980.
WWI and WWII Sonar in Naval Warfare
Sonar esearch and Naval Warfare: 1914-1954 During both World War I and World War II, there were a number of informational tactics used by the Navy in order to gain ground on enemy troops. One of those was sonar research, because it provided them with knowledge they would not have otherwise had (Hackmann, 1984). Sonar is not perfect, but a great deal of work has gone into it since its creation, and that has helped it to become a more valuable tool for Naval operations. Sonar is used for navigation, but also for communication and the detection of objects, primarily underwater (Urick, 1983). There are two types of sonar: passive and active. In active sonar, pings are sent out to search for other objects (Hackmann, 1984). Passive sonar does not send out a signal, but only listens for the pings and signals of others (Hackmann, 1984). Both have their place,…
Abbatiello, J. (2005). Anti-submarine warfare in World War I: British Naval aviation and the defeat of the U-boats. NY: Routledge.
Adamthwaite, A.P. (1992). The making of the Second World War. New York: Routledge.
Barber, J., & Harrison, M. (2006). Patriotic war, 1941 -- 1945. In Ronald Grigor Suny, ed. The Cambridge History of Russia, Volume III: The Twentieth Century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hackmann, W. (1984). Seek & Strike: Sonar, anti-submarine warfare and the Royal Navy 1914-54. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office.
Media and War The
In the novel, Howad is foced to seve as an U.S. secet Agent by the Blue Faiy, a caee that eventually led to his own death. Mothe Night epesents the fictional memois of Howad W. Campbell J., an Ameican who seved as a secet agent fo the Ameican Amy duing the Second Wold Wa. Giving that the actual autho of the novel seved himself as a soldie duing the same wa, the question of whethe o not the autho esembles the potagonist in the novel is undestandable. Pehaps one of the visions they shae is the eality of facts, Mothe Night being Vonnegut's only novel that does not featue fantastic elements. Vonnegut wote "We ae what we petend to be, so we must be caeful about what we petend to be," as the final moal fo his novel and one thing Campbell and Vonnegut shae afte all is thei vocation…
references to such stories like "Jack the Giant Killer" and uses the image of some demons and serpents to create the background. The tone of the play is quite humourous and ironic, thus explained by the existence of the Fool. However, the King himself is quite intelligent, even though Shakespeare uses his insanity to address nonhuman objects. Like in many of his other writings, Shakespeare's style of writing is poetic, using iambic rhythms and free verse.
Therefore, it is quite interesting to observe that such aspects of human nature depicted in King Lear resemble other works like that of Vonnegut's and his Mother Night. The technique used by the later is ultimately different from that of Shakespeare's, less dramatic, but tragic nonetheless, written in a first-person journal style. This confessional style is bound to credit the protagonist-narrator because we only get his version of the events. Interesting enough though, it seems as though Campbell discovers more things about himself as the story unfolds than does the reader.
Race and World War II
All because of a racially fueled hatred that exaggerated the nature of the merciless war. This image of the cruelty and heartless Japanese is what eventually allowed the American people and government to justify the nuclear bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The racist attitudes clearly clouded the United State's commitment to defending Democracy, both abroad and within its own borders. One of the worst examples of this merciless prejudice was the removal of the Japanese from cities along the West Coast in Executive Order. The internment of hundreds of thousands of Japanese-Americans clearly threatened the mage of democracy here at home, in the U.S. borders. The research suggests that "after the American entry into the war against Japan, the U.S. military imposed curfews and other restrictions on persons of Japanese descent living on the West Coast, including both naturalized native American citizens, and eventually 'excluded' mot Japanese-Americans from certain Western…
Daniels, Roger. "Executive Order No. 9066." Modern American Poetry. University of Illinois. Web. http://www.english.illinois.edu/maps/poets/g_l/haiku/9066.htm
Dower, John. War without Mercy: Pacific War. Random House Digital. 2012.
Lie, John. Multiethnic Japan. Harvard University Press. 2004.
Primus, Richard A. The American Language of Rights. Cambridge University Press. 1999.
WWII the United States Entered
Gradually, though, the war effort eroded the practical and theoretical underpinnings of racism in the United States. The war stimulated the domestic economy, particularly in the industrial and manufacturing sectors. Jobs were opening up rapidly, and because so many white men were fighting the war, many black men were available to work. "For black workers orld ar II opened up opportunities that had never before existed," (O'Neil 1). The same was true for women, as the war left gaping holes in the labor market that needed to be filled in untraditional ways. At the same time as the war exposed American prejudice, "orld ar II gave many minority Americans -- and women of all races -- an economic and psychological boost." (Harris 1). The Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) was founded, and overall, the war "jump-started the civil rights movement" in the United States (Harris 1; "Identify the impact of…
Harris, Michael. "How WWII Affected America's Minorities." Los Angeles Times. 13 June, 2000. Retrieved online: http://articles.latimes.com/2000/jun/13/news/cl-40272
"Identify the impact of World War II on minority groups in America." (U.S. History)." Retrieved online: http://share.ehs.uen.org/node/6217
O'Neil, William L. "Minorities and Women During World War II." Retrieved online: http://www.stg.brown.edu/projects/WWII_Women/RA/NCraig/Minorities.html
Takaki, Ronald. Double Victory. New York: Time Warner/Little Brown.
Cold War International System
China and the Cold War The term "cold war" is used for explaining the shifting efforts of the Western powers and the Communist bloc from the ending of World War II until 1989 in order to attain supremacy influence and esteem on a global level. If seen from a worldwide magnitude, the conflict can be understood as an ideological clash between communism and capitalist democracy ("cold war," 2012). China occupied an exceptional place in the Cold War for the reason that it was the point of both the affection and aggression of the two main world powers i.e. The United States of America and Soviet Union (Bernstein, 2003, p. 91). Cold War -- China's ole The West and the Soviet Union had a long history of joint mistrust and this resistance was every now and then apparent in the Grand Alliance during World War II. After the end of the…
Bernstein, L. (March/April 2003). Mao's China and the Cold War. Military Review, 83(2), Retrieved August 2, 2012 from http://www.questia.com/read/1P3-348080571/mao-s-china-and-the-cold-war
"Cold War." In (2012). Columbia University Press. Retrieved August 2, 2012 from http://www.questia.com/read/1E1-coldwar/cold-war
Ross, R.S. (1993). China, the United States, and the Soviet Union: Tripolarity and Policy Making in the Cold War. New York M.E. Sharpe. Retrieved August 3, 2012 from http://www.questia.com/read/77421052/china-the-united-states-and-the-soviet-union-tripolarity
What Happened to Iraq After the War Effects of War
War on Iraq Long road for U.S. Iraq Proposal." CNN International Online. Available at http://edition.cnn.com/2003/WORLD/meast/09/08/sprj.irq.russia/. This article was published on the eve of the U.S.-Iraq proposal in conducting an offensive attack against Iraq. The U.S. administration's plan to conduct an offensive attack against Iraq (and particularly, Saddam Hussein) was spurred by reports on incidents about civil unrest in Iraq, as well as Iraqi attacks against the U.S. These arguments are supported by reports that Iraq has been responsible for the attacks in the UN headquarters in Baghdad. During this time, UN support on the proposed war against Iraq is perceived to be the best support that the U.S. can receive as a solid backing in pursuing an attack against Iraq and Saddam Hussein's regime. In addition to an offensive attack against Iraq, U.S. also asks for additional financial support through the Congress to back up the costs of attacking Iraq…
Johnson's article presents a clear illustration of the after-effects of the offensive attack against Iraq. Through this article, readers become informed about the two sides of Iraqis inside Iraq: one group who wants independence with U.S. assistance, and the other group who wants independence without U.S. assistance. Although Iraqis do not approve of Hussein as their leader, neither do they want their nation be commandeered by Americans, since they know the cultural and religious differences that Americans and Iraqis have. This Newsweek article presents the "human side" of civil society-led insurgencies, a more dangerous and serious problem than the issue concerning Saddam, since Iraqis themselves are now expressing their disapproval of U.S. intervention in rebuilding Iraq through violent means/methods.
Beyer, L. "Inside the Kingdom." September 15, 2003. TIME Magazine. pp. 16-27.
Lisa Beyer's cover article for TIME Magazine delves into the political and social system of Saudi Arabia, a Muslim nation that is a declared ally of the U.S. In its war against terrorism. Beyer's focus, however, is about the danger that Saudi Arabia poses against the U.S., primarily because its actions does not parallel with its statements on anti-terrorism. The reporter provides an in-depth analysis of Saudi Arabia as a nation and its leaders, all of whom Beyer alleges to be supporters and financiers of terrorist groups, which Beyer qualifies as "Taliban extremists" and "Pakistani radicals." In addition to this information, Beyer also reports on Wahhabism, a religious movement (Muslim) that is dominant in Saudi Arabia. Wahhabism is relevant in Beyer's report because this is the primary ideology that Saudi Arabia uses in motivating and training members of radical and extremist groups that they finance. The article ends with a skeptical look on the future of U.S.-Saudi Arabia relations. While U.S. And Saudi Arabia are presently allies (not necessarily against terrorism), it is still questionable whether Saudi Arabia will maintain its pro-U.S. stance in the future. Beyer's report is also another analysis of the present and future effects of the U.S.-Iraq war on the U.S.'s relationships with Muslim nations. The article's critical look on Saudi Arabia gives the readers an idea of the stance of the reporter, which is clearly anti-Saudi Arabia, if its loyalty and honesty with the U.S. will be gauged. Moreover, this TIME article also mirrors the truth that aside from problems, criticisms, and possible attacks against Americans in Iraq, there is more at stake when other countries, specifically Muslim nations, are put into the picture of the current U.S. "rehabilitation program" in the Middle East.
Effects of War Against Iraq
War against Iraq War has had a tremendous effect on me and my family as a result of the war which occurred with Iraq. The taxes imposed by the government by way of increased taxation were creating difficulties for my family. My father being the only full-time employed member of the family, the increased taxation was creating financial difficulties for us to bear the costs of running the family. There were Muslim friends of mine who were looked upon with suspicion by the administration and the Police authorities. They had expressed their inability to overcome the problem of the suspicious eyes on their day-to-day activities. As a result war does not give me good memories, being attacked by difficulties in running the family and of having to witness the sufferings of my friends who have to bear the cost. So I felt that I should take up this project of…
What Led to World War 2
Lloyd George from England, Woodrow Wilson from the U.S., Orlando from Italy, and Clemenceau from France held a meeting in 1919 to discuss the manner through which Germany was to be made to pay for the harm that had been brought about by World War 1. According to Woodrow Wilson, an agreement founded on his 14-point plan was the most appropriate way of bringing peace to Europe. However, Georges Clemenceau wanted payback. He wanted an assurance that Germany would never attempt to begin another war. Lloyd George welcomed Wilson's idea, however, realized that the British public welcomed Clemenceau's idea. He attempted to find some compromise amidst Clemenceau and Wilson (World War Two -- Causes). Germany was anticipating an agreement founded on Wilson's 14 points, and was not pleased with the terms of the Treaty of Versailles. Nonetheless, they had no option but to sign the treaty. The League of Nations…
"Causes of World War 2 - What REALLY caused WW2?" World War Two History Guide -- WW2 Battle Guide. Web. 9 Oct 2015. .
"World War Two - Causes -- HistoryOnTheNet." From Ancient Times to the 20th Century -- HistoryOnTheNet. 14 Aug 2014. Web. 9 Oct 2015. .
"World War II: Causes and Outbreak." Infoplease: Encyclopedia, Almanac, Atlas, Biographies, Dictionary, Thesaurus. Free online reference, research & homework help.. Web. 9 Oct 2015.
Effect of WWI on Jews and Germans
Germans and Jews After I Germans and Jews After orld ar I In orld ar I, more than 12,000 Jews lost their lives fighting for Germany (Flannery, 43). They were a large part of the culture there, and had intermingled as much as they were able to. However, despite the way they were involved in so much of what was taking place in the country, they were also never really accepted. After I, Germany's official position on Jews changed. Much of that took place because the German leaders did not want to take any blame for the problems that had caused them to lose out in the war. Because they wanted to make sure the people saw them in a good light, and they did not want to admit past mistakes, they looked for scapegoats. One of the main groups for that scapegoating was the Jewish people. Even though many…
Anti-Semitism in History: World War 1. United States Holocaust Museum. United States Holocaust Memorial Council, 2014. Print. http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10007166
While Anti-Semitism is nothing new in society, this article spells out clearly what was taking place in Germany after WWI and how that shaped the beliefs of the Germany people when it came to their feelings about Jews in their country.
Elon, Amos. The Pity of It All: A History of Jews in Germany, 1743 -- 1933. New York, 2002. Print.
The Jewish people in Germany never really had much of a chance to be a part of the country, at least not on a proper level. They were marginalized from the very beginning, and that only got worse after WWI, finally culminating in the atrocities of WWII.
Gulf War Syndrome
Gulf War Syndrome (GWS), is a representation of several medical and psychological complaints, which are affecting several men and women who had participated in the Gulf War which took place in 1991. These ailments are muscular pain, skin rash; sleep disturbances peripheral numbness, memory loss, fatigue, respiratory illness, headaches, fever, spasms, low blood pressure and dizziness. The Depleted uranium could be considered partly as a factor responsible for the Gulf War Syndrome. The depleted uranium produced long-term health problems in people who had contacts with its usage. It was in the Gulf war that the Depleted uranium weapons were used for the first time. There have been studies conducted by scientists regarding whether depleted uranium affects the physical health of individuals. As a result they are of the opinion that many veterans of the Gulf War are affected in terms of health problems by the depleted uranium. Even though several…
Myers, Steven Lee. Test drug may be cause of Gulf War Syndrome, Scientific Survey Finds, New York Times, Oct. 18, 1999
Bruce, Ian. Troops in Gulf to use depleted uranium shells, Fourth Sunday of Advent, December 19, 1999 (Frisk, Robert. The Truth About Depleted Uranium, Independent, UK, January 8, 2001)
The Herald (Scotland) January 22, 2003 http://www.mint.gov.my/policy/nuc_disarm/issue_duweapons.htm
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Promotion strategy, Buakanda, 2009, http://buakanda.blogspot.com/2009/08/promotion-strategy.html last accessed on April 11, 2011
Rolnicki, K., Managing channels of distribution, AMACOM Div American Mgmt Assn, 1998
Wong, E., Pantene goes natural, Adweek, 2009, http://www.adweek.com/aw/content_display/creative/news/e3ie7ae6a91eebf611fa8fd91a7b3666e1f last accessed on April 11, 2011
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The early 1960s was an era of change in the United States. African-Americans led a campaign, known as the civil rights movement, to gain the freedoms and rights they had been unjustly denied. One of the leaders of the movement was Martin Luther King Jr., a Georgian minister and president of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. He traveled the nation to help lead nonviolent protests and fight discrimination. King's toughest challenge came in Birmingham, Alabama, where the movement was forcefully put down by the local government. In April 1963, King was arrested in Birmingham for leading the protests. While serving his sentence, he responded to a local letter published by Alabama clergymen in the newspaper. In his "Letter from Birmingham Jail," King explains what the civil rights movement stands for, what injustices African-Americans face, and why their actions are justified. To achieve his purpose, King eloquently organizes his letter, employs numerous rhetorical devices, and uses logos, pathos, and ethos. King's "Letter from Birmingham Jail" is an incredible literary and historical work,…
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Anti-War Essay Sample
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Topic: United States , Poem , Vietnam , Military , Democracy , Poetry , War , Literature
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Opinions supporting the use of power by the United States in the Vietnam War
In the poem, Denise Levertov pays minimal attention to why the United State’s Military used force in Vietnam. It is important to note that if the United States was not involved, communism would have spread to almost every part of the world. Through this war, United States attained the goal of minimizing the communism spread rate. The use of power by the U.S weakened the influence of China in the region and in the end allowed the region to give more freedom to religion a thing that did not exist before the U.S involvement. Therefore, regardless of the fact that the U.S involvement in the Vietnam War affected the lives of the Vietnamese people, the Vietnam citizens should be appreciative of the fact that the North became cautious in matters relating to acquiring a lot of power that would have killed freedom and democracy in the region. At the moment, due to the war, the citizens can thus raise their concerns on repression as well as efforts to censor and propaganda regarding domestic and foreign policies. Note that with communism in place, their letters especially oversea letters were being examined.
Justification of the poem based on critical/theoretical approaches to power
The poem depicts that the Vietnamese people were peaceful, gentle and led a simple lifestyle that was close to nature. In addition, there is a sense of delighted and joyful growth and creation. The poem demonstrates how the bombing destroyed all this. The U.S used its power in this region just like it has done in other regions of the world such as Afghanistan. Despite the fact that the U.S would be blamed for the end of the peaceful life, it is essential to identify that the North and the South had been war for long time. It means therefore that, if the U.S did not use the power it had, the North Vietnam would have established a very strong leadership that would minimize democracy and freedom for the citizens. Their peaceful life would have been demolished by the leadership that would be put up. Due to communism, the North would have the power to grab any land and kill the citizens whenever they deemed right. However, the U.S military intervened and their attempts and wars against the North put Vietnam on the global spotlight resulting to an improved conduct of how the North behaved towards its citizens. The U.S had to use power to control this; there was no possibility that the North would have regulated their behavior if at all no superior country intervened in their endeavors. The involvement of the U.S may have resulted to more bloodshed but in the end, it moved further to indicate that the U.S was committed to stabilizing countries through use of power and opposing any acts that would lead to suffering of citizens of any given region in the world. In the end, from the experience of the Vietnam War, the United States citizens influenced the conduct of the military because when they made an outcry that the U.S involvement should be stopped; the military were finally removed from the region.
Art, Robert J., and Kenneth Neal Waltz. The use of force: military power and international politics. 6th ed. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield, 2004. Print. Barr, Roger. The Vietnam War. San Diego, CA: Lucent Books, 1991. Print. Hixson, Walter L. Military aspects of the Vietnam conflict. New York: Garland Pub., 2000. Print. Kimball, Jeffrey P., and David W. Levy. "To Reason Why: The Debate About The Causes Of U.S. Involvement In The Vietnam War." History: Reviews of New Books 19.3 (1991): 104-104. Print.
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Essay On The Anti War Movement
The anti-war movement is war a social movement during the Vietnam War to show to allow people to express their opinions on the war. The number of people who participated in anti-war movements started out low, but as the involvement of the United States persisted the numbers began to rise. The people involved in the movement ranged from college students to political figures. People were angry at the government for forcing the American people to sit back and watch as large amounts of money were being spent and as the causality number grew. During the 1960s the Anti-war Movement became a something larger than most people expected. As the Anti-war Movement grew throughout the United States, it could be seen that the movement had different effects not just on the home front but on the war front as well. Many American felt as though this war was a waste, and they wanted it to stop. The media played a large role in helping people decide whether or not to support the Vietnam War . In 1965, America …show more content…
In this essay, the author
- Describes the anti-war movement as a social movement during the vietnam war to allow people to express their opinions on the war.
- Explains that the vietnam war was pointless because there was no set objective that american could see as why they were fighting the war.
- Explains that many americans didn't take in the consideration of the big deal vietnam would soon turn out to be. the growing coverage of vietnam caught the attention of many american citizens.
- Opines that the morals of the american people during the war were tested. the kent state incident in 1970 showed the deep political and social divisions that so sharply divided the country.
- Opines that the draft would send unwilling men to a war that terrified them. many young men knew they had to do something to get out of the war.
- Explains that the vietnam war took a toll on not only the military and the people of vietnam, but it also caused violence on the home front.
- Explains that the tet offensive was a startling attack by viet cong against south vietnam and america.
- Analyzes how the vietnam war was complicated by factors that had never before occurred in america's conduct of a war. television showed the terrible human suffering and sacrifice of war, raising the question whether america would ever again fight an enemy abroad with unity and strength of purpose at home.
- Opines that the media helped change the opinion of america during the war by showing the gruesome videos that were captured.
- Opines that the anti-war movement against the vietnam was one of the most successful antiwar movements in history. the movement played a major role in restricting and ending the war.
- Explains that the anti-war movement had many effects not just on the war itself but on home front as well. the media didn't help the situation, showing the gruesome truth of events.
Though at times this movement seemed like a big old mess it was still had much impact on the war. The movement played major role in restricting and ending the war. The movement was very influential among the American people. The anti-war movement did effect the war greatly, and did have factor into how and why the war ended. The anti-war movement was very significant, but it was one the major factors in why the war ended. America lost the Vietnam War because there was no clear objective. No one new why we were fight this war, and the war lost the support of the people. The media had no regulations and seeing people being killed of the news really turned the people off to the war. Too many young men were dying for a war that was pointless in people’s minds. The effect much of the government, Johnson did not run for reelection because of the anti-war
- Explains that the american counterculture revolution, which lasted between 1956 to 1974, completely transformed both politics and culture. the antiwar movement consisted of strong protest and outrage towards the vietnam war and america's military actions abroad.
- Explains that the antiwar movement in america arose due to the disapproval that millions of americans possessed towards united states intervention in the vietnam war.
- Opines that the antiwar movement would have never achieved the success it did without many of its key activists.
- Analyzes how the antiwar movement affected the public perception of government, policy, decision makers, and foreign policy. the movement impacted presidents nixon and johnson towards adopting pacifist policies.
- Explains that the antiwar movement made a significant impact on politics and the role of government in wars. the movement has been adopted in every foreign policy and has influenced decision makers.
- Explains that the antiwar movement provided a foundation for peace seeking organizations and studies across the world and in america.
- Analyzes how the antiwar movement of the 1960s shifted the public perception on the american government and war at the time.
- Explains how the antiwar movement changed the public's perception of the government and war.
- Explains that the vietnam war was one of the most prolonged wars in us history. the tet offensive changed the us's attitude towards the war by leading to further anti-war protests.
- Analyzes how the tet offensive led to more protests demanding the withdrawal of us troops from vietnam. even johnson's opposing party saw it as his lack of leadership with the army.
- Analyzes how president johnson used a technique called the "success offensive" to trick people into believing that the war was being won.
- Explains that president johnson was disappointed in himself and the army and decided to call for a negotiated peace after the tet offensive.
- Concludes that the tet offensive changed the us's attitude towards the vietnam war by leading to further anti-war protests, a credibility gap in america, and president johnson to negotiate peace.
- Explains that the vietnam war dominated the twenty-year period, and that many reasons contributed to america's entry into the conflict.
- Explains that in order to rally support for a war, sometimes something has to happen to get the american people behind the government.
- Explains that the incident was a form of propaganda, but it served its purpose as the public's reason for supporting the war.
- Explains the reason for american entry into the vietnam war was the commitment that had formerly been made by the french and the american's to a cause in vietnam.
- Analyzes how eisenhower's domino theory helped support the fight against communism in the cold war.
- Explains that the gulf of tonkin incident was used to rally support for the war.
- Explains that the replacement of the french in south vietnam was to prevent the election of a communist leader, and to train an army to fight communism.
- Cites chambers, ed whiteclay, 'the causes of the vietnam war.' modern american poetry.
- Narrates how charles haug returned home from da nang, vietnam in 1967. he was a mechanic who worked on heavy equipment.
- Explains that the united states became involved in the vietnam war because they wanted to prevent north vietnam, which was communist, taking over south vietnam.
- Analyzes how charles haug had sympathy for south vietnam's citizens, who were respectable and friendly, and disguised themselves as average citizens. soldiers tried to not accidentally kill truthful south vietnamese citizens while trying to find imposters.
- Explains that charles haug was in high school when the vietnam war commenced. he knew that he could be drafted to serve the united states in the war.
- Explains how charles haug had to adjust to life in the united states after leaving the military in 1969. he felt fortunate that the vietnam war did not cause a major change in his life.
- Analyzes how the vietnam war brought a different set of "american views" to the topic of war.
- Analyzes how television, movies, and the media have given us a new understanding of how things happen.
- Explains that even though our perception of war has become negative, the world we live in is hostile. the threat of terrorism, chemical, biological, and weapons of mass destruction becomes larger each year.
- Explains that war affects everyone in society, whether they are fighting in a foreign country or waiting at home. american society's view on war has changed as well.
- Explains that many americans were against the war because they didn't know why they entered it. they were caught in the middle of a communist takeover that was wildly gaining popularity throughout europe.
- Explains that the draft lottery was a televised event that determined who would be volunteered to fight in the vietnam war. this angered americans because it was against their will.
- Explains that american adults were against the war because of the weapons and strategic tactics used in it.
- Explains the counterculture and the antiwar movement. north hagerstown high school a.p. u.s. history.
- Explains that the anti-war movement made a monumental impact in the ending of the vietnam war.
- Explains that lyndon b. johnson authorized the first batch of u.s. troops to go and fight in vietnam. he was encouraged by his advisors to take a more forceful approach.
- Cites the annotated list of works cited by the independence hall association. the ten thousand day war.
- Explains that sss.gov. selective service system. "the vietnam lottery."
- Describes the anti-war movement in the united states during the late 60s and early 70s. the peace movement was directed to stop all forms of war.
- Explains that pacifists were against the war on moral and religious grounds as they believed all war is wrong because it is against christian teaching.
- Explains that michael bilton's book is a secondary source as it was published in 1992, but it is reliable because had done extensive research and also has accounts from soldiers who took part in the war.
- Analyzes how bilton suggests that war would result in the unnecessary loss of lives. source b is a photograph of napalm victims.
- Analyzes how the source portrays a negative image for the war in vietnam as it shows young children running from their homes which have just been bombed.
- Analyzes how richard hamer, an american journalist, wrote about the widespread opposition to the american presence in vietnam. source c explores the difficulties of fighting guerrillas.
- Analyzes how the source is negative towards u.s involvement in vietnam and suggests reasons for the anti-war movement.
- Opines that the source is reliable, however it may have been biased if the journalist richard hamer supported the anti-war movement and wanted to persuade the american public not wanting america to continue its involvement with vietnam.
- Analyzes how the planks of wood being pulled of the train suggest that the war in vietnam was destroying this policy.
- Explains that the source is reliable, since it was published at the time of the war. source e is a statement by bbc commentator robin day.
- Explains that american public were becoming against the american involvement due to the fact that media were making the deaths and casualties look a lot more gruesome.
- Opines that sources a to e give sufficient evidence to explain why there was an anti-war movement in the u.s during the late 1960's and early 70’s.
- Opines that people get a full and proper look at what is going on in the war.
- Describes what is happening and the horrors of war and it is too.
- Describes whether they think the war is just and support it or not.
- Opines that the film was made for the world, to affect the way it had been filmed.
- Opines that because it was made after the war, it could be biased by, showing things that may not be true.
- Opines that wars have been fought on the pretense of rage, hatred, greed and bitterness, but heroes are established and countries are founded.
- Explains that war is brought upon the necessity of order, and the people's rights for that country will also need to be addressed.
- Explains that civil rights of a country are established in war, before and during the war.
- Opines that a war is not worth fighting for if it isn't just.
- Opines that war should be established in a country that does not uphold moral and political order, treat others with unity, and is not just.
- Describes the events of the 50s, 60s 70s 80s and 90s that shaped america into the nation that it is today.
- Explains that the united states and the soviet union emerged as the two new superpowers and as archrivals after world war ii.
- Explains that the end of world war ii was also the beginning of prosperity for the middle and upper class citizens in the united states.
- Explains that the vietnam war was a war at home since many people in the united states believed that we should not be evolved in this war.
- Explains that the watergate scandal of the 70's was a big blow to the united states and their faith in the government.
- Explains how the senate hearings of 1973 took the scandal higher into the white house and eventually directly to the president of the united states.
- Explains that reaganomics was the most serious attempt to change the course of us economic policy since the new deal.
- Explains that the cold war began after world war ii and lasted until the soviet unions collapse in the 90's.
- Opines that the united states is in terrible need of change since it is fighting a war against terror that has no home to invade and hides from the brunt force of the nations.
- Explains that davidson, gienapp, heyrman, lytle & stoff. (2005). nation of nations. cold war america chapter 27.
- Explains that davidson, gienapp, heyrman, lytle & stoff, (2005). nation of nations. the vietnam era chapter 30.
- Explains that davidson, gienapp, heyrman, lytle & stoff. the age limits chapter 31.
- Explains that davidson, gienapp, heyrman, lytle & stoff. (2005). nation of nations. the conservative challenge chapter 32.
- Cites nebraska studies' the end of the cold war.
- Cites niskanen, w.a., "reaganomics". the concise encyclopedia of economics. retrieved october 26, 2008.
- Cites schultz, stanley k., mccarthy, joseph. american history 102 - civil war to present.
- Cites the sixties and the anti-war movement in the united states, from http://www.english.uiuc.edu
- Cites wells, t., the anti-war movement in the united states.
- Vietnam War
- South Vietnam
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Anti War Protests In Society History Essay
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Daniel ellsberg, who leaked pentagon papers, has months to live due to ‘inoperable’ cancer, social links for josh christenson.
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Longtime anti-war and anti-nuclear activist Daniel Ellsberg, who famously revealed the top-secret Pentagon Papers detailing America’s long involvement in the Vietnam War, announced Thursday that he has been given mere months to live.
“On February 17, without much warning, I was diagnosed with inoperable pancreatic cancer on the basis of a CT scan and MRI,” Ellsberg, 91, said in a letter shared on Twitter . “I’m sorry to report to you that my doctors have given me three to six months to live.”
Ellsberg added that he will not undergo chemotherapy and will enter hospice care at the appropriate time.
While a Pentagon consultant employed by the RAND Corporation in the late-1960s, Ellsberg obtained a secret report commissioned by then-Defense Secretary Robert McNamara that detailed US actions in southeast Asia since 1945.
The report revealed how US involvement in the war was built up steadily by political and military leaders who were overconfident about the prospects of victory and deceptive about their accomplishments against the Communist North Vietnamese.
“When I copied the Pentagon Papers in 1969, I had every reason to think I would be spending the rest of my life behind bars,” Ellsberg wrote of his decision to pass the report to New York Times reporter Neil Sheehan . “It was a fate I would gladly have accepted if it meant hastening the end of the Vietnam War, unlikely as that seemed (and was).”
In June 1971, the Times published the first in a series of stories on the report. Then-President Richard Nixon’s Justice Department tried to quash the publication of the papers on national security grounds, but the Supreme Court ruled 6-3 that Nixon’s attempts at prior restraint violated the First Amendment.
Ellsberg, by this time working as a senior research associate at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology’s Center for International Studies, was also charged with theft, conspiracy and violations of the Espionage Act in connection with the leak — but the case was thrown out in 1973 after revelations emerged that Ellsberg’s conversations had been wiretapped and his psychiatrist’s office had been burglarized by members of Nixon’s notorious “Plumbers” unit .
Ellsberg said his unexpected reprieve allowed him “to spend the last fifty years with [wife] Patricia and my family, and with you, my friends.”
“What’s more, I was able to devote those years to doing everything I could think of to alert the world to the perils of nuclear war and wrongful interventions: lobbying, lecturing, writing and joining with others in acts of protest and non-violent resistance,” he said while noting that he hoped he could “report greater success for our efforts.”
Ellsberg suggested in his 2017 book “The Doomsday Machine: Confessions of a Nuclear War Planner” that the world has never been closer to nuclear Armageddon.
His Twitter post similarly said the “current risk of nuclear war, over Ukraine, is as great as the world has ever seen” due to threats from Russia.
“Leadership in the US, Russia, other nuclear weapons states, NATO, and other US allies, have yet to recognize that such threats of initiating nuclear war—let alone the plans, deployments, and exercises meant to make them credible and more ready to be carried out—are and always have been immoral and insane: under any circumstances, for any ‘reasons,’ by anyone or anywhere,” he added.
The former military analyst also said the Pentagon’s “willful denial” on the matter is akin to America’s denial of “catastrophic climate change.”
Ellsberg told followers he was “happy to know” others had the “moral courage to carry on with these causes.”
With Post wires
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The flowing essay will describe the anti-war protests during the Vietnam War. It will discuss whether the protests worked to prolong the war, rather than resulted in shortening it as many have concluded. The anti-war protestors may have failed to influence public opinion of many Americans who were convinced that the war would stop Communism from spreading in South East Asia. Not all of those factors were under the control of the anti-war protestors. Other factors employed by the anti-war movement directly affected how the protests were perceived. The anti-war protests may have prolonged the war effort.
The Vietnam War
If every generation gets handed the problems of the previous one, then the children of the 1950s were handed the conflict in Vietnam. The United States had ended the war in Korea, only to become involved in the conflict in Vietnam. The fight was to stop the spread of Communism. The post-World War II boom produced more college students than blue collar workers. “They could afford the leisure of protests, and the generational difference intensified: What the generation of the fifties saw as leisure in work, the generation of the sixties saw as liberation from work” (Harrison, 1993, p. 106). The children of upper-middle class parents had the influence of left of center politics, and poverty is a choice attitude. The youth of the 1960s wanted to create a new world.
The post-war boom was not just secluded in the West, and the post-war period affected more than just prosperity. There were new social problems such as racism, poverty, the bomb, feminism, colonialism, totalitarianism, war, overpopulation, super technology, global warming, and a list that continues to grow exponentially. Some of the anti-war movement was connected to other social concerns.
The beat generation of the 1950s turned into the hippie generation of the 1960s. “The beat generation was led by Allen Ginsberg, who became one of the main gurus of the 1960s protest activists with his emphasis on spontaneous, intuitive, unstructured, individualistic, experimental, nonconformist, and antiWASPish values” (Harrison, 1993, p. 107). The ideology was putting down straight America and alienating the status quo of middle-class values. They fought the repressed culture of the Freudian society in favor of comedians like Lenny Bruce. The free love culture espoused Zen Buddhism, poverty by choice, and drugs (Harrison, 1993).
The Anti-War Movement
There are many who would believe that the war ended in Vietnam because the anti-war movement was successful. According to the Students for a Democratic Society (SDS), “The peace movement was often militant, and many on the campuses came to reject non-violence and fought heroically against the police. But in the end, the bosses destroyed that movement because it was not politically and militarily strong enough” (para. 9). The anti-war movement did not help to bring an end to the war but indeed may have worked to prolong it.
One of the main reasons the anti-war movement did not succeed was there was no clear leader of the protest. In the 1950s, “the National Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy (SANE) was formed, the forerunner of the anti-Vietnam movement” and the protest movement borrowed heavily from lessons learned (Harrison, 1993, p. 103). Civil disobedience was copied from the labor movement, and mass protests were acquired from the civil rights movement. According to Gustainis and Hahn (1988), six particular protest tactics identified with the anti-war movement set it apart from other movements were: counter-culture, immoderate protest tactics, the use of violence, attacks on capitalism, the use of obscenity, and desecration of the American flag (p. 205). These were also the reasons why the protests were not successful and probably prolonged the war rather than ended it sooner. According to Gustainis and Hahn (1988), the only thing the anti-war movement accomplished was getting Nixon elected twice.
It was the very tactics of the anti-war protests that alienated the movement from the general American public. It should be noted that not all anti-war protestors utilized all six tactics. “It should be noted that not all protesters made all of these choices or even any of them. But some protesters did—and, in the public mind, all were tarred with the same brush” (Gustainis & Hahn, 1988, p. 205).
Immoderate Protest Tactics can be described as simple activities such as writing a letter to a Congressperson or a newspaper. It could also be giving a speech at an anti-war rally or circulating a petition to stop the war. At the far end of the Immoderate Protest Tactics, it would be more extreme behavior like bombing a laboratory. Most anti-war activists were not radical. (Gustainis and Hahn, 1988, p. 206).
Violence as a Protest Tactic was what made the nightly news broadcasts. Splinter groups of the Students for a Democratic Society (SDS), the main campus-based anti-war organization, like the Weather Underground, saw violence as the only alternative to protest the war movement. They were responsible for bombings, arson, and other crimes of violence. Their types of violence were shunned by the most militant anti-war protestors, but the extreme radicals did commit violent acts in the name of the anti-war movement. It was these types of actions that frightened the average American and turned off the more moderate citizen to anti-war efforts. The violent acts did more damage and convinced more people that all anti-war protestors were revolutionaries.
Attacks on Capitalism were joined with the American involvement with the war effort in Vietnam and used to criticize their entire economic system. Protestors believed the war was a natural extension of the socio-economic oppression that was poisoning the whole culture. It was thought that only a few monopolies controlled the system and the SDS championed few capitalistic systems could survive under those monopolies. This did little to endear Americans who had survived two world wars to the anti-war movement. The democracy of the United States was built on capitalism and to challenge that belief was bordering on treason.
Use of Obscenity was stock in trade for many in the anti-war movement. Words and gestures which are regarded as obscene, were used in anti-war protests. They were aimed at authority figures, especially police officers and politicians. The use of obscenity separated the protestors from the establishment and created us v. them adversarial confrontation. It also functioned as liberation from the constraints of social behavior and shock value. Unfortunately, the use of obscenity detracted away from the main point and became the focus of attention. It did not help the cause of the anti-war movement. The Use of Obscenity served to help defeat the cause rather than help the anti-war movement (Gustainis and Hahn, 1988). The use of obscenities may have seemed mindless to many, but it was a purposeful action on behalf of protesters. Just as obscene to many is Desecration of the Flag. A few protesters chose to burn the American flag in protest, which also did little to endear the average American to the anti-war movement.
Failure of the anti-war movement can be blamed on a lack of leadership among the opponents of the war. The tactics used by the anti-war protesters did little to endear themselves to the average American who supported stopping Communism in South East Asia. There was no organization in which the anti-war movement was held accountable. The tactics employed by many of the anti-war protesters did little to help their campaign.
The anti-war movement of the Vietnam War was interesting to me because of the current conflicts in the Middle East. The war in Vietnam is talked about sometimes, but there is not much referenced, except it was a failure. The Memorial Wall in Washington D.C. has so many names listed on it, and when I visited the nation’s capital, I saw it. It piqued my curiosity.
It was my understanding that the anti-war effort is what caused the war to end. I did not know the war effort was prolonged because of the anti-war movement. It was especially interesting to learn how not to organize a protest using the tactics used in the anti-war movement. The use of obscenity was of interest because of the reaction it caused and how counterproductive it was in the final outcome. What was the ultimate benefit was the failure was caused by a lack of organization and leadership. This is why most businesses fail, as well.
While doing research, I did come across a few articles that stated the anti-war movement needed to be studied more, and one that said no research had been done at all. This underscores why in college papers, it is important to have three legitimate sources of information as resources. To study the topic more, I would read everything I could that was written in journal articles at the time the conflict was happening. Then I would try to gather firsthand accounts from people who were involved in the anti-war protests. Finally, I would research studies that have been conducted since the 1960s to see what those studies have determined.
Gustainis, J. J., & Hahn, D. F. (1988). While the whole world watched: Rhetorical failures of anti‐war protest. Communication Quarterly , 36 (3), 203-216.
Harrison, B. T. (1993). Roots of the anti-Vietnam war movement. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism , 16 (2), 99. https://doi.org/10.1080/10576109308435923
Students for a Democratic Society. (1991). The Rise and fall of the anti-Vietnam war movement in the U.S. Retrieved from https://msuweb.montclair.edu/~furrg/Vietnam/riseandfall.html
Anti-War Movement During the Vietnam War Essay
Martin luther king jr and his opposition to the vietnam war essay.
- 6 Works Cited
The American public knew about Martin Luther King long before they had ever heard about the war in Vietnam. King was associated with the war in Vietnam only after accomplishing his finest civil rights works, and after US involvement in Vietnam was already nine years old. They met in 1965, and battled each other until King's death in 1968. By 1965 King saw a federal voter rights bill passed for minorities, had national financial support, and even gained the backing of President Johnson himself. We all know Martin Luther King Jr. as the man who helped desegregate America, as a great civil rights leader. But seldom do we know King as the outspoken anti-war advocate that he was
Vietnam War Opinion Essay
In 1954, Northern and Southern Vietnam entered a war that led to the death of nearly 3 million people including civilians, Vietnamese troops, and ally soldiers. Though the number of lives lost during the war is atrocious, so are some of the other lasting effects of the “poor man’s fight”. Throughout this essay, I will explain my opinion regarding what I believe were the costs and the benefits of U.S interaction in the war in Vietnam.
The Vietnam War: The Anti-War Movement
The Anti-war movement started during the 1960s and shaped America’s public opinion on conflicts for years to come. As in all American conflicts, the will of the people controls the actions of the military. Without Homefront support, the American war machine dies. American pop culture during the 60s and 70s, sought to change public opinion against the Vietnam War. Through blatant Anti-war lyrics to their actions, the popular artists and musicians of the era changed the mindset of a generation to oppose the military actions in Vietnam.
The Vietnam Era Essay
Gonyea, D. (2014). LBJ Legacy: Vietnam War Often Overshadows Civil Rights Feat. Retrieved from: http://www.npr.org/2014/04/09/300836769/civil-rights-act-anniversary-may-polish-lbj-s-image
Causes Of Anti Vietnam War Dbq Essay
Many people felt that this was a war of money that the U.S. didn’t need to interfere in and was being fought by North and South Vietnam, therefore we had no business getting in the middle of it. The United States should've thought of themselves and done what was best for them as a country. When Dwight D. Eisenhower left office, a new President came in with the name John F. Kennedy. JFK warns the American public about “Military Industrial Complex”. This affected Americans because we didn’t want all of Vietnam to become communist. From the beginning, the United States was not aware of what they were getting themselves into. Furthermore, they didn’t understand the nature of the war on who and why they were fighting.
The War Of The Vietnam War Essay
“The war in vietnam is but a symptom of a far deeper malady within the American spirit.” Martin Luther King, Jr. once said. The Vietnam War was considered one of America’s greatest defeats of all time. Not only did the US failed to stop the spread of communism, but they also embarrassed this country as a whole with the outcome of this war. The overall outcome from this war will be remembered for years to come. In this essay, I will be talking about how the United States would have won the Vietnam war if the home front was for the war, if the the US was more familiar with the land, and the U.S.’s goal was not successful.
Vietnam War Essay
It has been known that the Vietnam War affected many American soldiers who were involved in the war physically and psychologically. The Vietnam War was one of the most memorable wars in history. Many Americans’ lives lost for no objective at all. Chapter 10 informed us about how the Vietnam War started and what really happened during that time. It also gave us background information about Vietnam Veterans and nurses who were involved in the war and what they went through during the war. I had the opportunity to interview a Vietnam Veteran also.
The Impact Of The Movement On The Course Of The Vietnam War Essay
In this essay I am going to discuss the impact of the antiwar movement on the course of the Vietnam War and ultimately the role the movement had in ending the war. My argument is that the antiwar movement did influence some Vietnam policies; however it did not directly end the war. First I will discuss the impact of the antiwar movement during Lyndon Johnson’s time as President, I will then examine the impact of the movement throughout Richard Nixon’s presidency, and then I will discuss the overall impact on both presidents’ policies; I will then consider the general opinion Americans had towards the movement and finally I will evaluate the role that the movement had in ending the war.
Essay On Vietnam Protest And Protest
Anarchic, civil, radical, militant, and rebellions people is what police officers have to face on a regular basis. Both Vietnam protest and protest today are rebelling against the government. During the Vietnam War, citizens were protesting against the U.S government to stop the war and send American soldiers back home. Today people still manage to go out into the streets to protest for the government to stop discriminating certain groups like Muslims and immigrants. Is protesting a productive, patriotic act or is protesting a counter-productive, productive subversive act? Even though people think that protesting is a counterproductive, subversive act, protesting is a productive, patriotic act and people should be able to do it.
The Vietnam War and the Protest Against It Essay
Secretary of State John Kerry once said “I saw courage both in the Vietnam War and in the struggle to stop it. I learned that patriotism includes protest, not just military service.” The Vietnam War was a conflict that lasted from 1956-1975 which the United States participated in along with the South Vietnamese who fought against the Communist North Vietnamese. Many Americans strongly disapproved of the war which caused many protests and riots. The war lasted 25 years killing many people and eventually the North Vietnamese won. The Vietnam War was important to Americans back home because it tested the citizen’s right to free speech, effected future foreign policy, and created many issues for returning veterans.
Opposing the Vietnam War Essay
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The goal was to stop North Vietnam from taking over south Vietnam and converting it to
Vietnam Veterans Against The War Essay
The first American troops arrived in Danang, South Vietnam on 8th March, 1965. The troops’ mission was to defend the American airfield from the Viet Cong insurgents. However, their mission gradually extended to defensive patrolling and later on taking the offensive. As such, the number of US troops swelled to 184,300 by the end of the year and by1969, the number of American soldiers had swelled to 543,000. Correspondingly, opposition against the mission, which was previously minimal, rose magnanimously. In April 1967, a crowd of over 100,00 people marched from Central Park to the United Nations Buildings to ask for the withdrawal of American troops from Vietnam. By this time, over 8,000 American troops had been lost in the war. Following the protests, six Vietnam Veterans, among those who had returned home formed the organization Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW). They wanted the government to “bring their brothers back home.”
The Vietnam War Essay
In the 1950's, the United States had begun to send troops to Vietnam and during the following 25-year period, the ensuing war would create some of the strongest tensions in US history. Almost 3 million US men and women were sent thousands of miles to fight for what was a questionable cause. In total, it is estimated that over 2 million people on both sides were killed.
In the middle 1960s, every male in America had to register for Selective Service Draft at age 18. He would then be eligible for the draft and could be inducted into the Army for a period of two years. If you were a college student, you could receive a deferment and would be able to finish college without the fear of being drafted. However, once finished with college, a students name would be put to the very top of the draft list and could be deployed at anytime. The anti-war movement was about young men being drafted and then sent into war that most Americans did not believe threatened the security of the US. The Vietnam War was America’s rebellious war, a war without popular support
The Vietnam War And The War Essay
This paper will be explaining the similarities, and differences, between the Vietnam War and the War in Afghanistan. There are many topics that bring these two wars together. However, I am only going to be talking about public support, policy objectives, military strategy, weapons, fighting spirit, links to home, and death totals. These topics have a lot of information about them, but there is too much to write about every little detail, so I will cover the broad overview of them. Each paragraph will be about one of the topics. There will also be a discussion about insurgencies and counter insurgency operations. These are two big topics in Vietnam and Afghanistan since almost all of the enemy in both wars were, and are, comprised of insurgents and different types of militia groups.
- Lyndon B. Johnson
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- My Lai Massacre
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Essay On Anti War Movement
Show More The anti-war movement was a big conflict over the Vietnam War. A anti-war movement is a social movement, almost a nation's decision to carry or start an armed conflict. It could also mean pacifism which means you're against violence military force during a time of conflict or problems. One of the most times the anti-war movement was in full affect was during the 1960’s. Most of the supporters of the anti-war movement were college students, middle-class suburbs, labor unions, and government institutions. It gained a lot of supports and grabbed people's attention in 1965 and remained and fully peaked in 1968. It remained pretty powerful during the war and involved racial, cultural, and political spheres. It really changed American Society. In 1970 A tragic accident happened at kent state. 4 protesters were killed in a shooting these protesters were part of the anti war movement in 1970. These protesters were being peaceful when the military came up and shot them. …show more content… It started as a small peace activist groups on college campuses but gained national prominence in 1965. This all started after the United States bombed North Vietnam. Anybody that supported the anti-war movement thought war was wrong and peace was needed in the war not violence. One of the most biggest protests against the Vietnam War took place at the Lincoln Memorial. Around 100,000 protesters gathered at the Lincoln Memorial and later 30,000 marched to the pentagon. It was a brutal conflict between officials and U.S. Marshals that were protecting the buildings. Hundreds and hundreds of protesters were arrested and one of them even wrote a book called armies of the night. The anti-war movement got huge support from Martin Luther King Jr when he went public about his opinion on war. He was a supporter of the anti-war movement because of the funds of the war and how many african americans were being killed in the war as
The vietnam war: the anti-war movement.
Every major American news source at the time scurried to gain footage of fighting in Vietnam. Upon seeing the death and destruction of the war through the recordings, it prompted many who did not already side with the anti-war movement to be in favor of it. At home in America, the anti-war movement began protesting on college campuses and government grounds. In an effort to stop protesters, the government would send the National Guard to deter them. In 1970 however, at Kent State University in Ohio, the National Guard was sent to stop a protest there and accidentally killed four students and injured nine.…
The Baby Boomer Movement
The antiwar movement had become so big and influential that Nixon wanted to do whatever he could to get information regarding antiwar movement leaders. Nixon devised the Huston Plan, which would have used illegal procedures to gather information on the leaders of the anti-war movement. The greatest fear of the Nixon White House was that the nationwide student protests would intersect with the mass struggles of the American labor movement, and would make the protest even larger than they already were. But the mass protests marked a significant turning point in the war in Vietnam. The Nixon White House was compelled to withdraw troops from Cambodia in a month of the invasion, and announced that the withdrawals of troops from Vietnam itself would be increased.…
The Antiwar Movement
National news stations were bringing the violent fighting of war into the living rooms of United States citizens, and the coverage was not showing what the government was saying. Secondly the draft (Selective Service System) got millions of young americans to join the antiwar movement. They were the ones seeing their friends and family members being shipped off to Vietnam, and these young citizens were not afraid to show their outrage. Also, the Vietnam veterans that were returning even joined the movement and some people actually started to believe in the movement because of the veterans. Finally, Martin Luther King Jr. was able to unite the civil rights and antiwar movements to create a demonstration that had never been seen in American history and the movement could not be…
The Tet Offensive As A Turning Point Of The Vietnam War
The Tet Offensive did not work out as planned as the North Vietnamese forces were spread too thin but it did mark a turning point in the War. The coverage of the Tet Offensive in America sparked more and intense protests. In the year of 1968, 15 000 American soldiers were killed and 100 cities were targeted in South Vietnam in the Tet Offensive. The biggest fight was in the city of Hue. One of the places targeted in these attacks was the American Embassy in South Vietnam.…
Vietnam War Movement Essay
During the war, the U.S. president John Kennedy thought that the south of Vietnam couldn't reach their goal. During the Vietnamese war a group of students created a Democratic Society which was founded in the 1960s. In 1965, a group of people and students were protesting the government and the attacks on the northern part of Vietnam. When these events happened, this where the anti-war movement started. These protests made more civil right leaders, to be part of the anti-war movement.…
Kent State Shooting Research Paper
The antiwar rally at Kent State University has become a symbol of the Vietnam war, demonstrating a nation divided both politically and socially. Antiwar movements, rallies, and protests were erupting across the nation; yet, the National Guard was summoned to manage the students at Kent State University, why? In 1969 Richard Nixon was elected president, and many hoped for him to bring an end to the Vietnam war. While the Vietnam war was coming to end during President Nixon 's first year in presidency the war sprung back into action with America 's invasion of Cambodia during late April 1970. President Nixon 's announcement of the invasion instilled outrage across the nation launching antiwar protests.…
Vietnam War Opposition
Demonstrators marched on Washington, participated in peace rallies, created traffic jams, and did everything within their power to protest the war. On one occasion, some 14,000 protested were arrested as a result—the largest number in US history. Singers, poets, authors, publishers and artists employed their talents in decrying the war. Many appealed to the Supreme Court’s fealty to the Constitution, citing the fact that the Constitution stipulated that war should not be initiated without a Congress issuing a declaration of war, which had not been the case with the Vietnam war. Rather, the US government had found a way to make it happen.…
The My Lai Massacre
Two days after the publication of the first My Lai dispatch, an antiwar march in Washington drew over 500,000 people. Many Americans were furious at the U.S. government, and their attempts to cover up the massacre. For four long months the Peers Panel, a group of investigators, interviewed 398 people who witnessed the massacre, ranging from high-ranking generals like Samuel Koster, to GI’s of Charlie Company. The Peers Report headed by Lt. Gen. William R. Peer, consisted of over 20,000 pages, criticizing the actions of officers and enlisted men. It recommended dozens of men be tried for rape, murder, or participating in the cover up of the massacre.…
Media Influence On Vietnam War
Throughout the course of american history, U.S. involvement in foreign affairs has been heavily debated by Americans across the country. But by mid 1900’s, the arise of the Vietnam war and the decision by the US government to aid South Vietnam and stop communist North Vietnam created a controversy in our country like we have never seen before. One difference between this conflict and any other was the crucial role the the media played in turning the public’s opinion against the war. This was also the first war where media had complete freedom of the press which allowed them to publish all uncensored material. The devastating photographs, stories, and footage from across the globe tore at America 's heart strings and triggered an abundance of anti-war marches, protests, and songs and left a huge impact on our country.…
Vietnam War Student Protests Essay
From the early 1960s and 1970s, there was over 450 colleges protesting Vietnam around the United States. (history.com) There was a plethora of topics that the students protested. Overall, the student protesters made people believe that the Vietnam war was a terrible war and its all the United States fault. Student Protesters protested The Vietnam War because they believe that the war was a civil war between North and South Vietnam. (history.com) The students protested by rallying, teachings, and sometimes mobs to protect their point of view.…
- United States
- Vietnam War
- Police brutality
- Police officer
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Longtime anti-war and anti-nuclear activist Daniel Ellsberg, who leaked Pentagon Papers, says he has terminal cancer
March 3, 2023 / 8:19 AM / AP
Daniel Ellsberg, who copied and leaked documents that revealed secret details of U.S. strategy in the Vietnam War that became known as the Pentagon Papers, says he has terminal cancer and only months to live.
Ellsberg, 91, tweeted and said on his Facebook page Thursday that doctors diagnosed him with inoperable pancreatic cancer on Feb. 17 following medical scans and have given him between three and six months to live.
Ellsberg said he has opted not to undergo chemotherapy and plans to accept hospice care when needed.
I wrote this letter recently to my friends in the antiwar and anti-nuclear movements. I see it’s being circulated, so I’ve decided to share it here. For all of you working on these issues, thank you, and please keep going! pic.twitter.com/8BIerLHD2U — Daniel Ellsberg (@DanielEllsberg) March 2, 2023
The documents in the Pentagon Papers looked in excruciating detail at the decisions and strategies of the Vietnam War. They told how U.S. involvement was built up steadily by political leaders and top military brass who were overconfident about U.S. prospects and deceptive about the accomplishments against the North Vietnamese.
Ellsberg, a former consultant to the Defense Department, provided the Pentagon Papers to Neil Sheehan, a reporter who broke the story for The New York Times in June 1971. Sheehan died in 2021.
Sheehan smuggled the documents out of the Massachusetts apartment where Ellsberg had stashed them, and illicitly copied thousands of pages and took them to the Times.
The administration of President Richard Nixon got a court injunction arguing national security was at stake and publication was stopped. The action started a heated debate about the First Amendment that quickly moved up to the Supreme Court. On June 30, 1971, the court ruled 6-3 in favor of allowing publication, and the Times and The Washington Post resumed publishing stories. The coverage won the Times the Pulitzer Prize for public service.
The Nixon administration tried to discredit Ellsberg after the documents' release. Some of Nixon's aides orchestrated a break-in at the Beverly Hills office of Ellsberg's psychiatrist to find information to discredit him.
Ellsberg was charged with theft, conspiracy and violations of the Espionage Act, but his case ended in a mistrial when evidence surfaced about government-ordered wiretappings and break-ins.
Ellsberg said in his Facebook post that he feels "lucky and grateful" for his life.
"When I copied the Pentagon Papers in 1969, I had every reason to think I would be spending the rest of my life behind bars. It was a fate I would gladly have accepted if it meant hastening the end of the Vietnam War, unlikely as that seemed (and was)," he wrote.
"Yet in the end that action — in ways I could not have foreseen, due to Nixon's illegal responses — did have an impact on shortening the war," he wrote.
- Richard Nixon
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Essay Service Examples Entertainment Song
Analysis of the Song '21 Guns' and Anti-War Protests
- Topics: Protest Song Song Analysis
- This essay sample was donated by a student to help the academic community. Papers provided by EduBirdie writers usually outdo students' samples.
The thing with today’s society is that when people listen to a song, they don’t think twice about what the song really means. For decades there have been different social issues going on in the United States, one example of a social issue is from ‘21 Guns’. Unfortunately, the USA has not been thinking outside the box of using peace during a war instead of just sending an army. The song ’21 Guns’ by Green Day was released on May 25, 2009, through Reprise Records. It was number 22 on Billboard Hot 100 and it sold over 2,151,000 copies.
The song ‘21 Guns’ is about people protesting for having to apply the anti-war efforts to stop all the violence around the world After all the fighting that has happened in the past. I believe that the song ‘21 Guns’ relates to the past fighting and mostly the shooting in battles or even fights in society since the song is called ‘21 Guns’. The song ‘21 Guns’ relates to the war protests that happened years after the Vietnam War ended. The song symbolizes the call for peace between the United States of America and North and South Vietnam. One example is from the lyrics, “Do you know what’s worth fighting for, when it’s not worth dying for?”, which means doubting whether the military cause to fight in war is worth the struggle or the action to fight. The song came out in 2009, and that is when the United States of America was at war with Iraq. The war between the United States and Iraq is related to this song. Since the USA has been engaged with a war against Iraq the artists Green Day made a song about world peace and nonviolent actions and protests. The song ‘21 Guns’ mainly relates to anti-war protests, but specifically what the soldiers had to go through in the war. An example from the song: “One, twenty-one guns lay down your arms give up the fight”, which symbolizes the 21-gun salute, which the soldiers shot 21 times into the air as a specific honorable salute to an important person who is either a fellow cadet, fallen general, or an important soldier who died with noble. It is an important salute still used to this day. Another example is: “Give up the fight, one 21 guns”, which means laying down guns and surrendering, which has an effect on the individual soldiers in the military and an effect of war on the terrors that happens between conflicts.
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The social issue of preventing war has been happening to this day after years of preventing conflicts between nations. Such as citizens in the USA are trying not to be in war with South Korea. After all the protests there are still no laws that have been passed by the government to prevent such actions. As The Washington Post reported, “There is a rising tide of activism; a burgeoning national anti-war movement that is gaining momentum by the day… They talk of protesting by people who have never protested before”, which means that there have been so many people in the United States who want there to be laws, but the situation is that the government doesn’t want to start any peace because the heads of the government all have the militaristic mindset. Another way that the protests of anti-war efforts are significant is because of all the unnecessary deaths that occur during war that affects the society. “In the use of free fire zones, harassment interdiction fire, search and destroy missions, the bombings, the torture of prisoners, all accepted policy by many units in South Vietnam. That is what we are trying to say. It is part and parcel of everything”. This proves that war was very disturbing with so much violence, explosions. and killing without any laws to prevent it. Another example from the song is: “When you burned down the house and home? Did you stand too close to the fire?”, which means that during war and chaos the United States of America has not been giving peace a chance in the middle of any conflicts they have been engaged in.
In summary, the song ‘21 Guns’ is about people protesting to make an anti-war effort to stop all the violence around the world after all the fighting that happened in the past. I believe the song refers to past combat and mostly shooting in combat or even fighting in society. I do not think music is an effective choice to protest for preventing wars around the world with the United States. Songs do not bring a lot of awareness during any conflict since there is so much going on with other situations around the world.
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Biography of Noam Chomsky, Writer and Father of Modern Linguistics
- English Grammar
- M.L.S, Library Science, Indiana University
Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, and political activist. His theories made the modern scientific study of linguistics possible. He is a leader in peace activism and opposition to U.S. foreign policy.
Fast Facts: Noam Chomsky
- Full Name: Avram Noam Chomsky
- Occupation : Linguistics theorist and political writer
- Born : December 7, 1928 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
- Spouse: Carol Doris Schatz (died 2008), Valeria Wasserman (married 2014)
- Children: Aviva, Diane, Harry
- Education: University of Pennsylvania and Harvard University
- Selected Works : "Syntactic Structures" (1957), "Fateful Triangle" (1983), "Manufacturing Consent" (1988), "Understanding Power" (2002)
Noam Chomsky's parents, William and Elsie, were Ashkenazi Jewish immigrants. William fled Russia in 1913 to avoid conscription into the army. He worked in Baltimore sweatshops upon arriving in the U.S. After university education, William joined the Gratz College faculty in Philadelphia. Elsie was born in Belarus and became a teacher.
Growing up deeply enmeshed in Jewish culture, Noam Chomsky learned Hebrew as a child. He took part in family discussions of the politics of Zionism, the international movement supporting the development of a Jewish nation.
Chomsky described his parents as typical Roosevelt Democrats, but other relatives introduced him to socialism and the politics of the far left. Noam Chomsky wrote his first article at age ten about the dangers of the spread of fascism during the Spanish Civil War . Two or three years later, he began identifying himself as an anarchist.
Education and Early Career
Noam Chomsky enrolled in the University of Pennsylvania at age 16. He paid for his education by teaching Hebrew. For some time, frustrated with the university education, he considered dropping out and moving to a kibbutz in Palestine. However, meeting Russian-born linguist, Zeilig Harris changed his education and career. Influenced by the new mentor, Chomsky decided to major in theoretical linguistics.
Setting himself up in opposition to the prevailing behaviorist theories of linguistics, Chomsky attended Harvard University as a Ph.D. student from 1951 to 1955. His first academic article, "Systems of Syntactic Analysis," appeared in The Journal of Symbolic Logic.
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) hired Noam Chomsky as an assistant professor in 1955. There, he published his first book, "Syntactic Structures." In the work, he discusses a formal theory of linguistics that distinguishes between syntax , the structure of language, and semantics , the meaning. Most academic linguists either dismissed the book or were openly hostile to it. Later, it was recognized as a volume that revolutionized the scientific study of linguistics.
In the early 1960s, Chomsky argued against language as learned behavior, a theory promoted by the famed psychologist B.F. Skinner. He believed that theory failed to account for creativity in human linguistics. According to Chomsky, humans aren't born as a blank slate when it comes to language. He believed the necessary range of rules and structures for creating grammar are innate in the human mind. Without the presence of those basics, Chomsky thought creativity was impossible.
Beginning in 1962, Noam Chomsky joined protests against the U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War . He began speaking publicly at small gatherings and published the anti-war essay "The Responsibility of Intellectuals" in "The New York Review of Books" in 1967. He collected his political writing in the 1969 book "American Power and the New Mandarins." Chomsky followed it with four more political books in the 1970s.
Chomsky helped form the anti-war intellectual collective RESIST in 1967. Among the other founding members were clergyman William Sloane Coffin and poet Denise Levertov. He collaborated with Louis Kampf to teach undergraduate courses on politics at MIT. In 1970, Chomsky visited North Vietnam to lecture at the Hanoi University of Science and Technology and then toured refugee camps in Laos. The anti-war activism earned him a place on President Richard Nixon's list of political opponents.
Modern Linguistics Pioneer
Noam Chomsky continued to expand and update his theories of language and grammar in the 1970s and 1980s. He introduced a framework of what he called "principles and parameters."
The principles were basic structural features universally present in all of the natural languages. They were the material that was natively present in a child's mind. The presence of these principles helped explain the rapid acquisition of language facility in young children.
Parameters were the optional materials that can provide variance in linguistic structure. Parameters could impact word order in sentences, the sounds of language, and many other elements that make languages different from each other.
Chomsky's shift in the paradigm of language study revolutionized the field. It impacted other areas of study like ripples produced by a stone dropped in a pond. Chomsky's theories were very important in the development of both computer programming and the study of cognitive development.
Later Political Work
In addition to his academic work in linguistics, Noam Chomsky remained committed to his standing as a prominent political dissident. He opposed the U.S. support of the Contras in their fight against the Nicaraguan Sandinista government in the 1980s. He visited with workers' organizations and refugees in Managua and lectured on the intersection between linguistics and politics.
Chomsky's 1983 book "The Fateful Triangle" argued that the U.S. government used the Israeli-Palestinian conflict for its own ends. He visited Palestinian territories in 1988 to witness the impact of the Israeli occupation.
Among the other political causes that drew Chomsky's attention were the fight for East Timor independence in the 1990s, the Occupy movement in the U.S., and efforts to abolish nuclear weapons. He also applies his theories of linguistics to help explain the impact of the media and propaganda in political movements.
Retirement and Recognition
Noam Chomsky officially retired from MIT in 2002. However, he continued to conduct research and hold seminars as an emeritus faculty member. He continues to deliver lectures around the world. In 2017, Chomsky taught a politics course at the University of Arizona in Tucson. He became a part-time professor there in the linguistics department.
Chomsky received honorary doctorate degrees from institutions around the world including the University of London, University of Chicago, and Delhi University. He's often named as one of the most influential intellectuals of the latter half of the 20th century. He earned the 2017 Sean MacBride Peace Prize from the International Peace Bureau.
Noam Chomsky is recognized as the "father of modern linguistics." He is also one of the founders of cognitive science. He has published more than 100 books ranging across the disciplines of linguistics, philosophy, and politics. Chomsky is one of the most prominent critics of U.S. foreign policy and one of the most frequently cited scholars in academia.
- Chomsky, Noam. Who Rules the World? Metropolitan Books, 2016.
- Chomsky, Noam, Peter Mitchell, and John Schoeffel. Understanding Power: The Indispensable Chomsky. The New Press, 2002.
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Last Updated 27 May 2020
Anti War Movement And Impacts On Vietnam War History Essay
Of all the major wars in which the United States was involved, none have been more controversial than the war in Vietnam. The Vietnam War, a diplomatic attempt by the United States, split the state in half. It was a war surrounded by contention and guess with engagement non merely from authorities functionaries but from amusement personalities every bit good as legion mass presentations on college campuses across the state. With the aid of these mass presentations, the backdown of American military personnels would go on even before the war in Vietnam was over and a presidential dirt would finally come up assisting a rapid remotion of military personnels from Vietnam. From the Gulf of Tonkin incident to the slaughter at My Lai and the shots at Kent State University, it would go a war which could non easy be forgotten.
History shows that Vietnam was non a fledgling to war and in fact had been engaged in some kind of struggle dating as far back as 200 B.C. when it was invaded by the Hans from China. Ruled for 100s of old ages, the Vietnamese eventually achieved what they thought would be their independency. However, this did non stop the feuds and struggles in the state and Vietnam would see itself once more contending encroachers from China every bit good as Mongolia. In the early nineteenth century, Vietnam was eventually able to throw out all encroachers and get down a new dynasty. The new dynasty, known as the Nguyen Dynasty, would see itself overtaken by Gallic encroachers who would finally colonise Vietnam and command the full state. However in 1930, after being colonized by the Gallic for about 50 old ages, the Vietnamese Communist Party was founded. The Vietnamese so began to arise against the Gallic every bit good the Japanese, who besides occupied Vietnam during WWII, under the leading of Nguyen Ai Quoc ( subsequently known as Ho Chi Minh ) . Finally in 1954, after about two and a half decennaries of contending against the Gallic, the Vietnamese were able to throw out the Gallic in the well known conflict at Dien Bien Phu. As a consequence of their triumph at Dien Bien Phu and the Geneva Agreement on Vietnam, the state was split into two parts at the 17th analogue. This splitting of the state was supposed to be impermanent and elections were to be held in 1956 to reunite Vietnam ( Vietnamese Embassy in USA, n.d. ) .
The elections set for 1956 ne'er happened. Supported by the United States, South Vietnamese president Ngo Dinh Diem, in an effort to derive independency and go its ain state, refused to let the elections to be carried through as he knew that Ho Chi Minh would win the presidential term, something that Ngo and the United States decidedly did n't desire to go on. Because of Ngo 's refusal to travel through with the elections, which did n't run into the footings of the Geneva Agreement, the North Vietnamese lost trust in any signifier of diplomatic solution to the division of the state. As a consequence, President Eisenhower began directing `` military advisors '' to South Vietnam under the justification of the `` Domino consequence '' or the `` loss of an ally in Southeast Asia taking to the loss of others '' ( Into the morass, 2007, para 5 ) . President Eisenhower 's end was to assist South Vietnam retain its independency which would go another ground for American engagement in Vietnam. One twelvemonth after the Vietnamese elections were supposed to go on, Ngo 's authorities came under onslaught from South Vietnamese `` Rebels '' known as the Viet Cong. Then, in 1959, Hanoi granted permission for an armed opposition against Ngo 's authorities in Saigon ( Mitz, 2007 ) .
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Initially, the United States paid small attending to Ngo 's misdirection of the war. However, they did notice confrontations between Ngo, who was Catholic, and Buddhist leaders in Vietnam. This led to a military putsch encouraged by the United States which ousted Ngo from power in 1963. The putsch led to internal combat and treachery among South Vietnamese military functionaries. In 1964 General Nguyen Khanh, taking Ngo 's place, became the leader of South Vietnam. During that same twelvemonth, it was realized that the Viet Cong were winning the war as they were going more and more capable of managing ARVN ( Army of the Republic of Viet Nam ) forces. It was at this clip that the United States contemplated taking serious military enterprise against the North ( Moise, 1996 ) .
During 1964, several preparation plans were installed in South Vietnam which was chiefly amphibian war tactic preparation. Actually get downing in 1961, the preparation became more aimed toward aquatic preparation which the United States thought would be good in the war against the Communist North. A base was setup at My Khe in 1962 where `` busting parties '' were given preparation by Navy SEALs. The different types of developing given to the raiding parties included `` gum elastic boat, aqualung, cross-beach operations, and explosive destruction techniques '' all of which were carried out at My Khe Beach on the eastern seashore of the Tien Sha Peninsula. During these preparation operations, several onslaughts on high precedence marks in the North were unsuccessful with several ARVN work forces being captured ( Moise, 1996 ) .
During the early portion of 1964, it was decided that RVN Navy officers were unable to transport out any kind of intelligent program and U.S. advisers had to be installed in all grades of military where intelligence was needed. There were legion foraies on North Vietnam from February to July by the American trained RVN `` frog work forces '' . However, these foraies amounted to nil more than monolithic losingss for South Vietnamese forces. ( Moise, 1996 ) . Later that twelvemonth on August 2, studies were made of onslaughts on U.S. Navy vass off the seashore of northern Vietnam by usage of North Vietnamese gunman boats. These boats were said to hold attacked the USS Maddox but were merely able to hit it with one slug. The Maddox opened fire and there were onslaughts on these gunmans boats by aircraft from the aircraft bearer Ticonderoga. One of the boats was said to hold sunk and the other to hold been earnestly `` damaged '' . Shortly subsequently, the Maddox continued its patrol along the North Vietnam coastline accompanied by another destroyer, the USS C. Turner Joy. Once once more, on August 4, as the destroyers were on patrol, gunman boats made attempted another onslaught. These torpedo boats followed behind the destroyers and so moved in at full velocity assailing both vass. The destroyers fought back and when the combat had stopped, sometime after midnight, the three gunman boats were believed to hold been done for or damaged. The destroyers, nevertheless, came out unhurt ( Schlight, 1996 ) .
These onslaughts were carried out within merely a few yearss of air foraies on North Vietnamese marks non far from where the destroyers were positioned. However, the onslaughts on these destroyers were considered `` motiveless '' and hence led the president at that clip, Lyndon B. Johnson, to show the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution to Congress. It passed through the Senate and the House of Representatives with merely two members of the Senate disagreeing. This declaration gave Johnson the power to officially get down `` combat operations '' throughout Southeast Asia whenever he felt necessary. It was believed that this declaration would be used in defence of aggression against the United States. Congress hence had no ground to believe that President Johnson would of all time utilize the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution to intensify the war in Vietnam ( Moise, 1996 ) .
However, there were conflicting studies from the naval vass as to what truly happened with most of the information being extremely exaggerated. Dayss after the onslaughts, initiated by the conflicting studies, Johnson began holding uncertainties which he expressed to George Ball, the Undersecretary of State. Although he had uncertainties after the onslaughts, no grounds can be found of these uncertainties on August 4th when President Johnson gave orders for revenge against North Vietnamese forces. False onslaughts or non, Johnson would decidedly hold force per unit area on him to move as he had been runing for the approaching elections. The events of August 4th and 6th every bit good as a separate onslaught in September in the Gulf of Tonkin together with President Johnson 's initial reaction and his inquiring of the credibleness of the onslaughts made the incident one of the precursors of contention that enveloped the United States ' engagement in Vietnam ( Moise, 1996 ) .
Adding to the contention of the Gulf of Tonkin incident, new information was released with grounds that the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution was `` drafted '' at least six months before the existent onslaughts on United States military `` vass '' . Other information was released which brought to illume the United States ' aid of South Vietnamese military foraies on the North. This was said to hold `` provoked '' the onslaughts by the North on United States `` vass '' . There was besides grounds of Johnson 's hyperbole of the existent harm to the ships, which really were non harmed ( Moise, 1996 ) .
Another turning point in the Vietnam War merely a few old ages subsequently was the Tet Offensive of 1968. Initiated on January 21, the Tet Offensive began with Communist military personnels enfolding Khe San, a United States Marine base, for a sum of 77 yearss. On January 31st, as a portion of the Tet Offensive, North Vietnamese and Viet Cong military personnels attacked metropoliss and towns throughout South Vietnam assailing a sum of 36 `` provincial capitals '' , five `` major metropoliss '' , 64 `` territory capitals '' , and near to fifty `` crossroadss '' . The force with which the offense was carried out aghast President Johnson every bit good as American citizens go forthing Americans with small religion that any promotion had been made in Vietnam under President Johnson 's war policy ( Willbanks, 2007 ) .
Get downing in 1965, the United States began directing more and more military personnels to Vietnam. These military personnels were actively involved in operations carried out on the Viet Cong with hopes that the enemy would merely give up. The first of these major operations happened in November 1965. The concluding behind these operations was to seek to interrupt down the ground forcess by wounding or killing a huge figure of Viet Cong and North Vietnamese military personnels. However, Hanoi took the enterprise to direct more military personnels down with which the United States answered by a bomb onslaught along the Ho Chi Minh Trail and other known Viet Cong constitutions. As 1968 was pulling nearer, it was obvious the bombardment along the Ho Chi Minh Trail had about no consequence on the Viet Cong and the North Vietnamese Army and war in the South was acquiring worse twenty-four hours by twenty-four hours. By late 1967 readyings for the Tet Offensive had already begun which would take up to the huge combat that would last until fall of the undermentioned twelvemonth ( Willbanks, 2007 ) .
Early 1968 saw North Vietnamese forces begin violative onslaughts on countries environing Khe San and the North Vietnamese Army began to increase its Numberss in that part. For American war functionaries, this would be the type of combat that would certainly alter the result of the war in favour of the United States. With North Vietnamese forces being forced to contend in a combat type offensive instead than the usual guerrilla war tactics, General Westmoreland saw this as the chance needed to weaken and destruct North Vietnamese forces. In fact, it was believed that the war had already begun to take a bend in favour of the United States. The Viet Cong had been dealt serious blows which accounted for a big sum of casualties. Because of these casualties there was incredulity that America would non win the war, particularly with the type of advanced engineering being used. There was besides disbelief that North Vietnamese forces were still capable of holding a strong military due to the figure of casualties the North had incurred in the old two old ages. This left Westmoreland unprepared for the onslaughts that would shortly get down on American bases and metropoliss in South Vietnam ( Willbanks, 2007 ) .
Westmoreland was certain the conflict would be at Khe San and would be after Tet as he did n't believe North Vietnamese forces would assail on such a major vacation. Even holding information that an offense was on the rise and propaganda about an onslaught during the Tet vacation, Westmoreland was still unconvinced. To Westmoreland 's surprises, every bit good as that of American and South Vietnamese military personnels, North Vietnamese forces began their onslaughts. The Tet Offensive, which began January 31st, would last for 77 yearss with heavy contending throughout South Vietnam. With more and more intelligence being broadcast at place in respects to the combat and the figure of casualties incurred by American forces, Americans were losing religion in the authorities. However, at the terminal of the Tet Offensive, Westmoreland had credited it as a triumph for American forces. Americans back place could n't understand the construct of a triumph with so many casualties incurred by American and Allied forces particularly when it seemed that North Vietnam had a ne'er stoping supply of man-power. This led to American 's belief that the authorities had been lying the full clip about the advancement in Vietnam ( Willbanks, 2007 ) .
The Tet Offensive led to half of American citizenss being wholly against any escalations in Vietnam whatsoever. This resistance led to many protests which became known as the Anti-War Movement. Resistance to the war in Vietnam was merely intensified after the Tet Offensive and intelligence of the sum of casualties America had suffered. Many of these protests became violent taking to a few really important events in the Anti-War Movement. In March 1968, New York University pupils protested the presence of recruiters from napalm maker Dow Chemical Company, which supplied the United States military with napalm which was used in Vietnam, every bit good as military recruiters on campus. A month subsequently, the beginning of the escalation of the Anti-War Movement had begun when pupils at Columbia University took over an disposal edifice doing Columbia University to be closed. The business of the disposal edifice escalated into a surety state of affairs with a few school functionaries being held for at least 24 hours. The pupils were removed from the edifice by utilizing constabularies force which would non be the last clip constabularies used force to command anti-war protestors. That same twelvemonth during the Democratic Convention in Chicago protestors and constabulary forces would once more run into with constabulary forces utilizing beastly force to command the protests. To do the state of affairs even worse, the constabulary did non let telecasting Stationss to be in the locality of the Democratic Convention for fear the newsmans would impede the exiting of the Democratic campaigners ( Barringer, 1999 ) should the demand arise.
Though protests began in 1963, the two old mentioned protests would be the accelerators that really set the Anti-War Movement on the way that would finally see the motion holding casualties. Just a twosome of old ages after the protests in New York and Chicago, the lives of several pupils would be taken in 1970 after information became public refering a monolithic American military cover-up in which American forces in several little crossroadss in South Vietnam massacred 100s of unarmed Vietnamese civilians in a hunt for Viet Cong military personnels ; largely adult females, kids, and older work forces. This would go known as the My Lai Massacre and it sparked monolithic protests across the state. ( Barringer, 1999 ) .
Richard M. Nixon would subsequently be elected as president of the United States with promises of an terminal to the war in Vietnam, something which the American populace had been hankering to hear. Surprisingly, in April 1970, President Nixon made the determination to occupy Cambodia in order to assail Viet Cong campsites which had been used as a hideaway. With anti-war sentiments already being strong across the state as a consequence of America 's continued engagement in Vietnam, non to advert the slaughter at My Lai, the invasion of Cambodia would merely add more fuel to these sentiments making more animus from anti-war protestors towards the American engagement in Vietnam. In May 1970, amid studies of President Nixon 's determination to occupy Cambodia, pupils held big protests and sit-ins on college campuses throughout the United States. Death finally would go a portion of the Vietnam War non merely in Vietnam but in the United States every bit good. On May 4th, after a declaration of a province of exigency in Kent, Ohio by the city manager a few yearss before, the Ohio National Guard fired upon protestors at Kent University with a few people being killed, including two non-protestors, and several others being wounded. ( Lewis & A ; Hensley, 1998 ) .
All these major events, from the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution to the Kent State shots, would do the Anti-War Movement against American engagement in Vietnam one of the most exultant anti-war motions in the history of all United States anti-war motions. The protests and the figure of casualties in Vietnam would play a important function in the backdown of American military personnels from Vietnam. During Johnson 's presidential term, the anti-war motion had a momentous function in haltering the war and had a big impact `` in the disposal 's policy reversal in 1968 '' . Subsequently, at the clip of Nixon 's presidential term, the anti-war protests accelerated the detachment of U.S. military personnels, continued to halter the war, harbored the decline of U.S. troop `` morale and subject '' , which helped to rush up troop backdown, and led to statute law which would cut off support of the war from the United States. The Anti-War Movement besides harbored indicants of the Watergate dirt, which played a major function in seting an terminal to the war by enfeebling Nixon 's power in Congress hence enfeebling his `` ability to go on the war '' . The United States would see the backdown of the last active combat military personnels from Vietnam in 1973 ( Wells, 1999 ) .
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Anti-war Movement and American Views on the Vietnam War Research Paper
Pre-Vietnam war time in the United States has already showed signs that some people were in major opposition judging the actions of the government. The time of the war confirmed that many Americans were against it and this could be evident from the great number of protests that took place. Some people were willing to go great distances in the movement against violent action. Overall, usually strong American social unity was divided into two, those who supported the war and those who were against, but with the passage of time and acquisition of true understanding, the number of supporters drastically decreased. During the 1960’s and more particularly during the Vietnam War, United States has experienced a social movement that was a large scale separation between those who thought that military action against Vietnam was justified and those who made strong points that America had no place in Vietnam. In the year 1965, more than half of American citizens believed that United States must take active part in the Vietnam Conflict. These Americans supported their government and this was enough for the authorities to rely on. But it is very concerning that the other half either were against or had no opinion. Next year the number of supporters started to decline steadily but this was not enough and not a reason for the American troops to get withdrawn from Vietnam. A closer look at people’s reasoning in the opposition to the war shows a differentiation between classes within society, occupations and age groups. Those who were in support were mostly younger population. One of the possible explanations is that younger people are not as rational as the older population and do not have as much life experience. But, at the same time, there was a very significant amount of younger population that was against the war. One of the reasons is the opposition to the drafting process. Even in the state of peace there are many people who oppose war and any violent conflict, even if there are good reasons for it. For example, pacifists believe that humanity, civilized people, should never resort to violence when resolving a conflict. Many of the younger population were pacifists, as they were opposed to any violence. Those who did not want to get drafted realized that they would face harsh conditions and very possibly death. In comparison to those who supported the war, it is clear that the obvious majority were those who did not get drafted or were volunteers to participate in the military violent action. This created a great separation within the society in the younger population (Gilbert 23). One of the strong points that came out of the drafting process was the separation between classes. It was those in the lower and middle socio economic class that would get drafted, with anyone in the higher class having a greater ability to avoid any unwanted participation in the matter. The fact that people started to take part in demonstrations and openly protest any drafting and involvement of the United States in the war, created even more attention towards the Vietnam Conflict. People started to question the reasons and their views began to change. As they found out more of the details, the opposition grew and by April of 1968, the amount of supporters of the war was 40 per cent. In October of 1969, only 32 per cent of American citizens supported the war (Robbins 28). The steady decline shows that people became educated about the reasons and the toll that was taking away lives of both Untied States soldiers and Vietnamese fighters for freedom, as well as a great number of civilians. Students were another great part of the protest to the Vietnam War. Very many colleges and universities, as well as teachers and professors, took part in active demonstrations, demanding the American government to withdraw the troops. The gradual separation between the citizens and the American government began to emerge. People started finding out that justifications were false and fabricated. The explanation that the communist Vietnam would spread its influence around, causing other countries to join with the communists was exaggerated. These fears came mostly from example of the Soviet Union and the fall of communism there (Hall 118). American citizens started to protest and the government did notice. Even those who were supportive of the war, started to change their views, as is evident from the polls that were taken. People started to realize that the war was causing more casualties and that Americans had no place in Vietnam. It was the conflict that Vietnamese people had to resolve for themselves, in the building of a better and more liberal future. The older population was also being drafted but their opposing views were mostly due to humanity and understanding that an armed conflict, so far away from home and in another country with traditions and ways of life so different, would not end in success. Another great contributor to how the war was perceived and viewed by many Americans was the media. An increase in the development of technology, more particularly television and videotaping, has played a key role in the transference of information. The events that took place so far away, were not really understood and “felt” by many people but televised coverage brought the war to people’s homes. The casualties, horror of aimless bombing and lack of reasoning were viewed by many and so, the outrage increased drastically (Hallin 110). The graphic nature and content of the televised footage was experienced by many people and they were able to realize what their government and soldiers were doing to a culture that has been fighting for its own freedom. Then, the news emerged that the borders with other countries, who were not participating in the conflict, were also affected. The bombing of close-by sites and villages was pointless and illegal but nonetheless, happened. The proof of this lies in many letters and reports of people from the villages in the region (Robbins 17). People have started to realize how far the actions of Americans and United States’ government have gone and that this needs to be stopped. Martin Luther King Jr. spoke very precisely of the war and the views that people had about it: “If we continue, there will be no doubt in my mind and in the mind of the world that we have no honorable intentions in Vietnam. It will become clear that our minimal expectation is to occupy it as an American colony…The world now demands a maturity of America that we may not be able to achieve. It demands that we admit we have been wrong from the beginning of our adventure in Vietnam, that we have been detrimental to life of her people” (“Landmark Speeches on the Vietnam War” 105). These words very truly state what United States has accomplished and how people felt about the Vietnam War. The atmosphere within the American society became extremely heated and it was clear that some changes will have to be made. At the time, the president of the United States was Lyndon Johnson and he was an avid supporter of the war, starting such a movement of the American citizens against the government. The book “Against the Vietnam War: Writings by Activists”, demonstrates people’s outrage by the following: “His popularity was at an all-time low; he could not appear publicly without a demonstration against him and the war. The chant ‘LBJ, LBJ, how many kids did you kill today?’ was heard in demonstrations throughout the country” (Robbins 19). It is clearly evident that people started to get outraged by the United States’ involvement in the war and wanted it to stop. In the end, this has had a significant effect on the withdrawal of troops. The proof of this is that Lyndon Johnson declared that he is not going to run for presidency and people gave their votes to Richard Nixon who promised to remove the troops from Vietnam. The movement against Vietnam War was so great and historically significant that it lead to women’s rights movement and an increase in the demand for their acknowledgement of equality and freedoms. Even though they have been fighting for their own rights and freedoms throughout decades, their movement was very significant and primary, at that time. There were numerous committees that were formed, one of which was Women Strike for Peace. Their slogans were in support of men who were against the war (Hall 43). Numerous groups of students, educators, racial minorities and classes have been forming committees and this has become a clear representation of the way people viewed the war. United States have become divided; one side was the minority that has kept their uneducated and blind hopes in the outcome of the war and the need for military presence and action. It is as if the only reason they were supporting violence was the momentum they have gained in the beginning years of the war. The other side, the majority, has now understood that a great mistake was made and that it was very much an echo of the brutality and horrors that the world has already experienced during the two World Wars. It would seem that people would try to never repeat such dehumanizing and pointless acts but examples of the breakage of the promise continue to the day. The anti-war movement has finally dominated the minds and hearts of Americans and Richard Nixon supported the nation and citizens. His policy, called “Vietnamization” was the beginning of an end for the US involvement in Vietnam (Wyatt 197). The anti-war movement that Americans have demonstrated in relation to the Vietnam War illustrates an optimistic hope that it is people, their majority that believes in peace and goodness. Even though there are wars and armed conflicts, people will always voice their opinions against it, while governments, sometimes, follow a wrong path.
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Gilbert, Marc. The Vietnam War on Campus: other voices, more distant drums . Westport, United States: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2001. Print. Hall, Di Mitchell. The Vietnam War: Second Edition . Harlow, United Kingdom: Pearson Education, 2007. Print. Hallin, Daniel. The Uncensored War: The Media and Vietnam . Los Angeles, United States: University of California Press, 1989. Print Landmark Speeches on the Vietnam War . Texas, United States: Texas A&M University Press, 2010. Print. Robbins, Mary. Against the Vietnam War: Writings by Activists . Maryland, United States: Rowman & Littlefield, 2007. Print. Wyatt, Clarence . Paper Soldiers: The American Press and the Vietnam War . Chicago, Untied States: University of Chicago Press, 1995. Print.
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IvyPanda. (2019, November 22). Anti-war Movement and American Views on the Vietnam War. https://ivypanda.com/essays/anti-war-movement-and-american-views-on-the-vietnam-war/
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1. IvyPanda . "Anti-war Movement and American Views on the Vietnam War." November 22, 2019. https://ivypanda.com/essays/anti-war-movement-and-american-views-on-the-vietnam-war/.
IvyPanda . "Anti-war Movement and American Views on the Vietnam War." November 22, 2019. https://ivypanda.com/essays/anti-war-movement-and-american-views-on-the-vietnam-war/.
IvyPanda . 2019. "Anti-war Movement and American Views on the Vietnam War." November 22, 2019. https://ivypanda.com/essays/anti-war-movement-and-american-views-on-the-vietnam-war/.
IvyPanda . (2019) 'Anti-war Movement and American Views on the Vietnam War'. 22 November.
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Origin of antiwar
Words nearby antiwar, how to use antiwar in a sentence.
Viewed from 20 years out, these antiwar arguments foretold much of the mess in Afghanistan.
In his first presidential race, he traded on his antiwar credentials to shore up celebrity endorsements and a loyal grass-roots base of support.
Franks, who had helped launch a chapter of Students for a Democratic Society while at Vassar College, often returned to stories about the antiwar movement and the legacy of 1960s radicalism.
Repealing the AUMF is not necessarily a pro or antiwar position.
It caused a big split in our family because I was very antiwar .
Rep. Walter Jones, an antiwar Republican, was one of the few to give voice to the problem.
Soldiers in uniform have been holding antiwar signs in front of their faces and posting the pictures to Reddit.
Todd Kincannon, a former executive director of the South Carolina GOP, says he wishes the Iraqis had killed an antiwar veteran.
This criticism of the President from an antiwar position elicited cheers from the Republican delegates.
To stop antiwar demonstrators from nearing the RNC, police set up barricades of buses.
The movement was headed by the left-wing Socialists, who attempted to correlate the antiwar movement with socialist propaganda.
The antiwar factions were not necessarily, however, users of violence.
(p. 135) Kerensky, undoubtedly, knew of the growing antiwar sentiment in the rank and file of the army.
These dire conditions gave a strong impetus to the growing antiwar movement in the country.
British Dictionary definitions for antiwar
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Part of speech:, words related to anti-war, anti-war sentence examples.
How many of the 10,000 anti-war marchers read Correlli Barnett yesterday?
His policy was to preserve constitutional government in the South and strengthen the anti-war party in the North by convincing it that the Lincoln administration had abandoned such government; to the same end he urged, in 1864, the unconditional discharge of Federal prisoners in the South.
He remained a pacifist throughout the war, and used his influence in this direction in the labour and socialist movement, but he seldom spoke in Parliament, though he associated himself with the occasional anti-war demonstrations of Mr. Snowden and Mr. Arthur Ponsonby, and claimed the right of public meeting and free speech for pacifists.
Thus the spirit of the labouring classes became more and more inflamed, and at the beginning of 1918 the Government had the greatest difficulty in suppressing an anti-war agitation among the working classes, which assumed a threatening form.
These pamphlets contain an extreme statement of the anti-war party and defend impressment as a right of long standing.
Words that mention anti-war in the Dictionary
Words near anti-war in the thesaurus.
- anti-virus emergency response team
- anti-virus software
The history of anti-war protests in the United States is as old as the country itself. Every war in American history—even the one that spawned the country—generated internal dissent from...
In the current paper, Figure 1 is described and analyzed. Figure 1 represents a photo of an anti-war protest from the 1960's Vietnam War. The Vietnam War protest had people from different backgrounds protesting, such as college students, suburban middle-class citizens, labor unions and government institutes.
Civil War Essay Prompts The Civil War of 1861-1865 was the bloodiest in US history. Losses in the North killed and died from wounds and diseases amounted to 360 thousand people, in the South - 258 thousand people. As a result of the battle, the United States' state unity was restored.
Anti War Movement Essay Anti-War Movement During the year of 1965 the Vietnam War made an impact of negativity on the United States. Anti war protests began to roar and break out in December of 1969 when the government held a draft lottery where they would pull drafting cards to send men over to Vietnam to fight.
It is the first war that the United States lost. It is one of the first major military actions where actual war was not declared. It is also the first war that was brought to a halt by a public uproar and political fallout.
Better Essays The Civil Rights Movement In The 1960's The 1960s saw unrest, antiwar dissents, and a social revolution. African American youth challenged taking after triumphs in the courts in regards to social liberties with road dissents driven by Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. and additionally the NAACP. Dr.
While the antiwar movement had no single iconic leader to act as a face of the movement, many people from all walks of life participated. Martin Luther King declared his opposition to the war in 1967 in a speech where he outlined seven major reasons he was against the war.
Anti-War Essay Sample Type of paper: Essay Topic: United States, Poem, Vietnam, Military, Democracy, Poetry, War, Literature Pages: 3 Words: 650 Published: 02/10/2020 ORDER PAPER LIKE THIS Opinions supporting the use of power by the United States in the Vietnam War
The Anti-Vietnam War Movement in United States was a collection of unrelated groups all opposed to US involvement in the Vietnam War. It began in 1964 with nonviolent demonstrations and protests by college students, but later gained support from hippies, mothers, women's rights, Black civil rights, the Chicano movement, and even military veterans.
The anti-war movement is war a social movement during the Vietnam War to show to allow people to express their opinions on the war. The number of people who participated in anti-war movements started out low, but as the involvement of the United States persisted the numbers began to rise.
One of the last strongholds in the antiwar movement was the Vietnam Veterans Against the War. American citizens were willing to listen to sentiments against the war from people who were actually in it, and support for the Vietnam Veterans increased. But still, as Nixon withdrew troop steadily from Vietnam, the need to protest dwindled.
March 3, 2023 3:28pm Updated picture alliance via Getty Images Longtime anti-war and anti-nuclear activist Daniel Ellsberg, who famously revealed the top-secret Pentagon Papers detailing...
The Vietnam War, which lasted from 1954-1975, is one of the most intriguing examples of foreign policy in American history and is notable for being one of the few wars where the U.S. was not the victor, as well having one of the strongest Anti-War movements the nation has seen (). After 1954, Vietnam, which had previously been a French Colony ...
Essay Sample: Vietnam War and the Anti-War Movement Publication Date: 17 Jan 2020 The flowing essay will describe the anti-war protests during the Vietnam War. It will discuss whether the protests worked to prolong the war, rather than resulted in shortening it as many have concluded.
1029 Words. 5 Pages. Open Document. Anti-War Movement During the Vietnam War. As the Vietnam war heavily covered by the media, the devastating images were broadcasted across the globe. People were able to watch the war from their armchair and many American people were disgraced by the images of children dying and innocent people being shot dead ...
Essay Sample. The anti-war movement was a big conflict over the Vietnam War. A anti-war movement is a social movement, almost a nation's decision to carry or start an armed conflict. It could also mean pacifism which means you're against violence military force during a time of conflict or problems. One of the most times the anti-war movement ...
The documents in the Pentagon Papers looked in excruciating detail at the decisions and strategies of the Vietnam War. They told how U.S. involvement was built up steadily by political leaders...
Another way that the protests of anti-war efforts are significant is because of all the unnecessary deaths that occur during war that affects the society. "In the use of free fire zones, harassment interdiction fire, search and destroy missions, the bombings, the torture of prisoners, all accepted policy by many units in South Vietnam.
Anti-War Activist . Beginning in 1962, Noam Chomsky joined protests against the U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War.He began speaking publicly at small gatherings and published the anti-war essay "The Responsibility of Intellectuals" in "The New York Review of Books" in 1967.
Anti War Movement And Impacts On Vietnam War History Essay. , , , , Download. Views 201. Of all the major wars in which the United States was involved, none have been more controversial than the war in Vietnam. The Vietnam War, a diplomatic attempt by the United States, split the state in half. It was a war surrounded by contention and guess ...
Some people were willing to go great distances in the movement against violent action. We will write a custom Research Paper on Anti-war Movement and American Views on the Vietnam War specifically for you. for only $16.05 $11/page. 808 certified writers online.
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Antiwar definition, against war or a particular war: the antiwar movement of the 1960s. See more.
Words Related to Anti-war. Find another word for anti-war. In this page you can discover 16 synonyms, antonyms, idiomatic expressions, and related words for anti-war, like: pro-palestinian, anti-apartheid, anti-globalization, , antiglobalization, anti-nuclear, anti-eu, anti-imperialist, antiwar, anti-globalisation and null.