How to Write a Conclusion for an Essay

Kelly Konya

You’ve done it. You’ve refined your introduction and your thesis. You’ve spent time researching and proving all of your supporting arguments. You’re slowly approaching the finish line of your essay and suddenly freeze up because—that’s right—it’s time to write the conclusion.

For many, the conclusion is the most dreaded part of essay writing . Condensing all the points you’ve analyzed in a tidy little package is certainly easier said than done. How can you make a good final impression while emphasizing the significance of your findings? 

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Learning how to write a conclusion for an essay doesn’t need to feel like climbing Everest. It is wholly possible to tie everything together while considering the broader issues and implications of your argument. You just need the right strategy.

What do you want to leave your readers with? Perhaps you want to end with a quotation that adds texture to your discussion. Or, perhaps you want to set your argument into a different, perhaps larger context. 

An effective conclusion paragraph should ultimately suggest to your reader that you’ve accomplished what you set out to prove.

How to write a good conclusion

As you set out to write your conclusion and end your essay on an insightful note, you’ll want to start by restating your thesis. Since the thesis is the central idea of your entire essay, it’s wise to remind the reader of the purpose of your paper. 

Once you’ve restated your thesis (in a way that’s paraphrased, of course, and offers a fresh understanding), the next step is to reiterate your supporting points. Extract all of the “main points” from each of your supporting paragraphs or individual arguments in the essay . Then, find a way to wrap up these points in a way that demonstrates the importance of the ideas. 

Depending on the length of your essay, knowing how to write a good conclusion is somewhat intuitive—you don’t want to simply summarize what you wrote. Rather, the conclusion should convey a sense of closure alongside the larger meaning and lingering possibilities of the topic. 

What your conclusion should include

Now that you know what a good conclusion encompasses, you can get into the finer details. Beyond restating your thesis and summarizing your points, what else should the conclusion include?

Here are some strategies for ending your essay in a savvy and thought-provoking way: 

Ask yourself: “So what?” 

At some point in your life, a teacher has probably told you that the end of an essay should answer the question “So what?” or “Why does it matter?” This advice holds true. It’s helpful to ask yourself this question at the start of drafting your thesis and come back to it throughout, as it can keep you in tune with the essay’s purpose. Then, at your conclusion, you won’t be left searching for something to say.

Add perspective 

If you’ve come across a fantastic quote in your research that didn’t quite make it into the essay, the conclusion is a great spot for it. Including a quote from one of your primary or secondary sources can frame your thesis or final thoughts in a different light. This can add specificity and texture to your overall argument. 

For example, if you’ve written an essay about J.D. Salinger’s Catcher in the Rye, you can think about using a quote from the book itself or from a critic or scholar who complicates your main point. If your thesis is about Salinger’s desire to preserve childhood innocence, ending with a biographer’s statement about Salinger’s attitude toward his own youth might be illuminating for readers. If you decide to amplify your conclusion paragraph in this way, make sure the secondary material adds (and not detracts) from the points you already made. After all, you want to have the last word!

Consider the clincher

At the very end of the essay comes your closing sentence or clincher. As you think about how to write a good conclusion, the clincher must be top of mind. What can you say to propel the reader to a new view on the subject? This final sentence needs to help readers feel a sense of closure. It should also end on a positive note, so your audience feels glad they read your paper and that they learned something worthwhile. 

What your conclusion should not include

There are a few things that you should definitely strive to avoid when writing your conclusion paragraph. These elements will only cheapen your overall argument and belabor the obvious.

Here are several conclusion mishaps to consider:

Whereas your introduction acts as a bridge that transfers your readers from their own lives into the “space” of your argument or analysis, your conclusion should help readers transition back to their daily lives. 

By following this useful roadmap, you can feel confident that you know how to write a good conclusion that leaves readers with a solution, a call to action, or a powerful insight for further study.

how to write the conclusion

The Writing Center • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill


What this handout is about.

This handout will explain the functions of conclusions, offer strategies for writing effective ones, help you evaluate conclusions you’ve drafted, and suggest approaches to avoid.

About conclusions

Introductions and conclusions can be difficult to write, but they’re worth investing time in. They can have a significant influence on a reader’s experience of your paper.

Just as your introduction acts as a bridge that transports your readers from their own lives into the “place” of your analysis, your conclusion can provide a bridge to help your readers make the transition back to their daily lives. Such a conclusion will help them see why all your analysis and information should matter to them after they put the paper down.

Your conclusion is your chance to have the last word on the subject. The conclusion allows you to have the final say on the issues you have raised in your paper, to synthesize your thoughts, to demonstrate the importance of your ideas, and to propel your reader to a new view of the subject. It is also your opportunity to make a good final impression and to end on a positive note.

Your conclusion can go beyond the confines of the assignment. The conclusion pushes beyond the boundaries of the prompt and allows you to consider broader issues, make new connections, and elaborate on the significance of your findings.

Your conclusion should make your readers glad they read your paper. Your conclusion gives your reader something to take away that will help them see things differently or appreciate your topic in personally relevant ways. It can suggest broader implications that will not only interest your reader, but also enrich your reader’s life in some way. It is your gift to the reader.

Strategies for writing an effective conclusion

One or more of the following strategies may help you write an effective conclusion:

Strategies to avoid

Four kinds of ineffective conclusions

Works consulted

We consulted these works while writing this handout. This is not a comprehensive list of resources on the handout’s topic, and we encourage you to do your own research to find additional publications. Please do not use this list as a model for the format of your own reference list, as it may not match the citation style you are using. For guidance on formatting citations, please see the UNC Libraries citation tutorial . We revise these tips periodically and welcome feedback.

Douglass, Frederick. 1995. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave, Written by Himself. New York: Dover.

Hamilton College. n.d. “Conclusions.” Writing Center. Accessed June 14, 2019. .

Holewa, Randa. 2004. “Strategies for Writing a Conclusion.” LEO: Literacy Education Online. Last updated February 19, 2004.

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So much is at stake in writing a conclusion. This is, after all, your last chance to persuade your readers to your point of view, to impress yourself upon them as a writer and thinker. And the impression you create in your conclusion will shape the impression that stays with your readers after they've finished the essay.

The end of an essay should therefore convey a sense of completeness and closure as well as a sense of the lingering possibilities of the topic, its larger meaning, its implications: the final paragraph should close the discussion without closing it off.

To establish a sense of closure, you might do one or more of the following:

To close the discussion without closing it off, you might do one or more of the following:

Finally, some advice on how not to end an essay:

Copyright 1998, Pat Bellanca, for the Writing Center at Harvard University

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How to Write Discussions and Conclusions

The discussion section contains the results and outcomes of a study. An effective discussion informs readers what can be learned from your experiment and provides context for the results.

What makes an effective discussion?

When you’re ready to write your discussion, you’ve already introduced the purpose of your study and provided an in-depth description of the methodology. The discussion informs readers about the larger implications of your study based on the results. Highlighting these implications while not overstating the findings can be challenging, especially when you’re submitting to a journal that selects articles based on novelty or potential impact. Regardless of what journal you are submitting to, the discussion section always serves the same purpose: concluding what your study results actually mean.

A successful discussion section puts your findings in context. It should include:

Tip: Not all journals share the same naming conventions.

You can apply the advice in this article to the conclusion, results or discussion sections of your manuscript.

Our Early Career Researcher community tells us that the conclusion is often considered the most difficult aspect of a manuscript to write. To help, this guide provides questions to ask yourself, a basic structure to model your discussion off of and examples from published manuscripts. 

how to write the conclusion

Questions to ask yourself:

How to structure a discussion

Trying to fit a complete discussion into a single paragraph can add unnecessary stress to the writing process. If possible, you’ll want to give yourself two or three paragraphs to give the reader a comprehensive understanding of your study as a whole. Here’s one way to structure an effective discussion:

how to write the conclusion

Writing Tips

While the above sections can help you brainstorm and structure your discussion, there are many common mistakes that writers revert to when having difficulties with their paper. Writing a discussion can be a delicate balance between summarizing your results, providing proper context for your research and avoiding introducing new information. Remember that your paper should be both confident and honest about the results! 

What to do

What not to do


Snippets of Effective Discussions:

Consumer-based actions to reduce plastic pollution in rivers: A multi-criteria decision analysis approach

Identifying reliable indicators of fitness in polar bears

There’s a lot to consider when deciding where to submit your work. Learn how to choose a journal that will help your study reach its audience, while reflecting your values as a researcher…

Ensure appropriateness and rigor, avoid flexibility and above all never manipulate results In many fields, a statistical analysis forms the heart of…

A thoughtful, thorough approach to your revision response now can save you time in further rounds of review. You’ve just spent months…



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このMind The Graphの記事では、以下のことを学びます。 結語の書き方 を、行動を喚起し、読者があなたの研究論文をより良く理解できるような方法で作成する。この記事では、ステップバイステップのガイダンスを提供する前に、定義といくつかの大まかな原則を提供します。






how to write the conclusion




例 現在、地球上で起こっている第6次絶滅の結果、多くの生物種が日々消滅している。今後50年の間に完全に絶滅させないために、人々が採りうる方策は少なくとも3つある。 より多くのリサイクルの選択肢、革新的なプラスチック製造技術、種の保存が命を救うことになるかもしれません。



例 イーロン・マスクは、私たちの運転、支払い、そして飛行の方法に革命を起こしました。 彼の革新は、あくまでも物事を単純化したいという動機からだが、必然的に歴史の流れを変えることになる。 マスクは学生時代に、今ではオンライン決済の最も広く使われている方法の一つであるPayPalの最初のアイデアを出した。テスラの自動車も同様です。



例 ガス自動車は電気自動車に比べ、非力で非効率的です。 排出ガスが少ないだけでなく、ドライバーはより早く目的地に到着することができます。さらに、ガソリン車には維持費がかかります。すべては、電気自動車に使われている、はるかに素直なエンジンの細部に起因しているのです。

このセクションでは、次のことを学びます。 結語の書き方 を効果的かつ適切に作成することができます。これらの簡単なステップを踏めば、研究論文に最も説得力のある結論を書くことができるようになります。








自分の発見がある分野にどのような影響を与えたか、具体例を挙げてください。曖昧な部分があれば、"So what? "と答えるように心がけるとよいでしょう。





Mind the Graphは、科学者コミュニティがアイデアやデータをより良く伝えるために、素晴らしいビジュアルインフォグラフィックスと、その活用を支援するためのツールです。 かがくてきすうじ .


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Jessica Abbadiaは、2020年からデジタルマーケティングに従事し、ASOとSEOを通じて様々な地域のアプリやウェブサイトのオーガニックパフォーマンスを向上させている弁護士です。現在、コミュニティの利益のために科学的で知的な知識を開発中。ジェシカは、読書と濃いコーヒーを飲むのが好きな動物権利活動家です。

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How to write a conclusion for a lab report + examples

how to write the conclusion

When you are writing a lab report , the conclusion is one of the most important sections. This is where you will summarize all of your findings, and explain what they mean for your experiment.

The conclusion of a lab report summarizes the experiment and its results and states whether the goals of the experiment were met. The first step is to restate the goals of the experiment. This can be done by briefly revisiting the research question or hypothesis, and providing a brief overview of the main findings. Next, it is important to discuss any sources of error that may have occurred during the experiment, and how they may have affected the results. Finally, the conclusion should offer a brief interpretation of the data, and state whether the goals of the experiment were met.

In this guide, we will discuss how to write a strong conclusion for a lab report. We will include tips on formatting and structure, as well as how to effectively communicate your findings. Let’s get started!

How to Write a Conclusion for a Lab Report

Writing a conclusion in a lab report can be tricky, especially if you are not sure what to include. Below are 5 core components of a good conclusion for any scientific lab report:

1. Restate the Experiment’s Goals.

At the beginning of your lab report, you should state the goals of your experiment. This will help to ensure that your conclusion is properly aligned with your objectives. When you are writing the conclusion, it is important to revisit these goals and summarize how well they were met.

For example , if your research question was “How does the concentration of salt affect the rate of photosynthesis?”, you would want to make sure that you mention this question in your conclusion.

2. Discuss the methods used.

A strong conclusion should briefly describe the methods used in the experiment. This will help to ensure that readers understand how the data was collected and can evaluate its reliability.

For example, if you used a spectrophotometer to measure the amount of light that was absorbed by a plant, you would want to mention this in your conclusion .

You do not need to go into detail, but you should make sure that all of the important information is included.

3. Include and Analyze Final Data

A lab report should include a conclusion that analyzes the final data. The conclusion should include a discussion of the implications of the data, as well as any errors that were made during the experiment. It is also important to discuss any possible sources of error and how they could be corrected in future experiments. Finally, the conclusion should offer some suggestions for further research. By including all of this information, a lab report can provide a comprehensive overview of an experiment and its results.

4. Summarize the findings.

Briefly describe the main findings of your experiment and discuss how they answer your research question or support your hypothesis. Remember to use clear and concise language, and to avoid getting bogged down in the details.

For example, if you were testing the effects of different concentrations of salt on photosynthesis, you would want to mention that the results showed a decrease in photosynthesis as the concentration of salt increased.

Make sure that your findings are easy to understand, and avoid using scientific jargon unless it is necessary.

5. State Whether Your Experiment Succeeded

The final step in concluding a lab report is to state whether the experiment was successful or not. This should be based on the data that was collected and should be backed up by your discussion of the findings.

If the experiment did not meet its goals, be sure to explain why. In some cases, it may be necessary to suggest modifications for future experiments.

Lab report conclusion examples

Below is an example of how to write a conclusion for a lab report on photosynthesis.

Topic : The effect of salt concentration on the rate of photosynthesis.

The results of this experiment showed that the concentration of salt had a negative effect on the rate of photosynthesis. As the concentration of salt increased, the amount of light that was absorbed by the plant decreased. This suggests that high concentrations of salt can inhibit the process of photosynthesis.

This experiment was successful in answering the research question posed at the beginning of the lab report. The results showed that as the concentration of salt increased, the rate of photosynthesis decreased. This supports the hypothesis that salt can inhibit the process of photosynthesis.

The experiment was not without its flaws, however. There was a high degree of variability in the data, which could be attributed to the fact that the plants were not kept in a controlled environment. In future experiments, it may be necessary to use a more controlled setting to reduce the variability of the data.

Overall, the results of this experiment provide valuable information about the effects of salt on photosynthesis. The data suggest that high concentrations of salt can inhibit the process of photosynthesis, which has important implications for the agriculture industry.

Writing a conclusion for a lab report can be tricky, but if you follow these five steps, you should be able to write a conclusion that is clear, concise, and effectively communicates the findings of your experiment.

Further Readings

Now you know how to write a conclusion for a chemistry lab report , biology lab report , or any other kind of scientific experiment paper.

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Dissertation topics, related guides, how to write a discussion in a lab..., how to write a biology lab report +..., how to write a lab report for chemistry..., how to write an abstract for a lab..., how to write an introduction for a lab..., how to write an executive summary for a....

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How to Write a Thesis or Dissertation Conclusion

Published on September 6, 2022 by Tegan George and Shona McCombes. Revised on November 11, 2022.

The conclusion is the very last part of your thesis or dissertation . It should be concise and engaging, leaving your reader with a clear understanding of your main findings, as well as the answer to your research question .

In it, you should:

Table of contents

Discussion vs. conclusion, how long should your conclusion be, step 1: answer your research question, step 2: summarize and reflect on your research, step 3: make future recommendations, step 4: emphasize your contributions to your field, step 5: wrap up your thesis or dissertation, full conclusion example, conclusion checklist, frequently asked questions about conclusion sections.

While your conclusion contains similar elements to your discussion section , they are not the same thing.

Your conclusion should be shorter and more general than your discussion. Instead of repeating literature from your literature review , discussing specific research results , or interpreting your data in detail, concentrate on making broad statements that sum up the most important insights of your research.

As a rule of thumb, your conclusion should not introduce new data, interpretations, or arguments.

Depending on whether you are writing a thesis or dissertation, your length will vary. Generally, a conclusion should make up around 5–7% of your overall word count.

An empirical scientific study will often have a short conclusion, concisely stating the main findings and recommendations for future research. A humanities dissertation topic or systematic review , on the other hand, might require more space to conclude its analysis, tying all the previous sections together in an overall argument.

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Scribbr editors not only correct grammar and spelling mistakes, but also strengthen your writing by making sure your paper is free of vague language, redundant words, and awkward phrasing.

how to write the conclusion

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Your conclusion should begin with the main question that your thesis or dissertation aimed to address. This is your final chance to show that you’ve done what you set out to do, so make sure to formulate a clear, concise answer.

An empirical thesis or dissertation conclusion may begin like this:

A case study –based thesis or dissertation conclusion may begin like this:

In the second example, the research aim is not directly restated, but rather added implicitly to the statement. To avoid repeating yourself, it is helpful to reformulate your aims and questions into an overall statement of what you did and how you did it.

Your conclusion is an opportunity to remind your reader why you took the approach you did, what you expected to find, and how well the results matched your expectations.

To avoid repetition , consider writing more reflectively here, rather than just writing a summary of each preceding section. Consider mentioning the effectiveness of your methodology , or perhaps any new questions or unexpected insights that arose in the process.

You can also mention any limitations of your research, but only if you haven’t already included these in the discussion. Don’t dwell on them at length, though—focus on the positives of your work.

You may already have made a few recommendations for future research in your discussion section, but the conclusion is a good place to elaborate and look ahead, considering the implications of your findings in both theoretical and practical terms.

When making recommendations for further research, be sure not to undermine your own work. Relatedly, while future studies might confirm, build on, or enrich your conclusions, they shouldn’t be required for your argument to feel complete. Your work should stand alone on its own merits.

Just as you should avoid too much self-criticism, you should also avoid exaggerating the applicability of your research. If you’re making recommendations for policy, business, or other practical implementations, it’s generally best to frame them as “shoulds” rather than “musts.” All in all, the purpose of academic research is to inform, explain, and explore—not to demand.

Make sure your reader is left with a strong impression of what your research has contributed to the state of your field.

Some strategies to achieve this include:

Again, avoid simply repeating what you’ve already covered in the discussion in your conclusion. Instead, pick out the most important points and sum them up succinctly, situating your project in a broader context.

The end is near! Once you’ve finished writing your conclusion, it’s time to wrap up your thesis or dissertation with a few final steps:

Here is an example of how you can write your conclusion section. Notice how it includes everything mentioned above:

V. Conclusion

The current research aimed to identify acoustic speech characteristics which mark the beginning of an exacerbation in COPD patients.

The central questions for this research were as follows: 1. Which acoustic measures extracted from read speech differ between COPD speakers in stable condition and healthy speakers? 2. In what ways does the speech of COPD patients during an exacerbation differ from speech of COPD patients during stable periods?

All recordings were aligned using a script. Subsequently, they were manually annotated to indicate respiratory actions such as inhaling and exhaling. The recordings of 9 stable COPD patients reading aloud were then compared with the recordings of 5 healthy control subjects reading aloud. The results showed a significant effect of condition on the number of in- and exhalations per syllable, the number of non-linguistic in- and exhalations per syllable, and the ratio of voiced and silence intervals. The number of in- and exhalations per syllable and the number of non-linguistic in- and exhalations per syllable were higher for COPD patients than for healthy controls, which confirmed both hypotheses.

However, the higher ratio of voiced and silence intervals for COPD patients compared to healthy controls was not in line with the hypotheses. This unpredicted result might have been caused by the different reading materials or recording procedures for both groups, or by a difference in reading skills. Moreover, there was a trend regarding the effect of condition on the number of syllables per breath group. The number of syllables per breath group was higher for healthy controls than for COPD patients, which was in line with the hypothesis. There was no effect of condition on pitch, intensity, center of gravity, pitch variability, speaking rate, or articulation rate.

This research has shown that the speech of COPD patients in exacerbation differs from the speech of COPD patients in stable condition. This might have potential for the detection of exacerbations. However, sustained vowels rarely occur in spontaneous speech. Therefore, the last two outcome measures might have greater potential for the detection of beginning exacerbations, but further research on the different outcome measures and their potential for the detection of exacerbations is needed due to the limitations of the current study.

Checklist: Conclusion

I have clearly and concisely answered the main research question .

I have summarized my overall argument or key takeaways.

I have mentioned any important limitations of the research.

I have given relevant recommendations .

I have clearly explained what my research has contributed to my field.

I have  not introduced any new data or arguments.

You've written a great conclusion! Use the other checklists to further improve your dissertation.

In a thesis or dissertation, the discussion is an in-depth exploration of the results, going into detail about the meaning of your findings and citing relevant sources to put them in context.

The conclusion is more shorter and more general: it concisely answers your main research question and makes recommendations based on your overall findings.

While it may be tempting to present new arguments or evidence in your thesis or disseration conclusion , especially if you have a particularly striking argument you’d like to finish your analysis with, you shouldn’t. Theses and dissertations follow a more formal structure than this.

All your findings and arguments should be presented in the body of the text (more specifically in the discussion section and results section .) The conclusion is meant to summarize and reflect on the evidence and arguments you have already presented, not introduce new ones.

For a stronger dissertation conclusion , avoid including:

Your conclusion should leave the reader with a strong, decisive impression of your work.

The conclusion of your thesis or dissertation shouldn’t take up more than 5–7% of your overall word count.

The conclusion of your thesis or dissertation should include the following:

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This resource outlines the generally accepted structure for introductions, body paragraphs, and conclusions in an academic argument paper. Keep in mind that this resource contains guidelines and not strict rules about organization. Your structure needs to be flexible enough to meet the requirements of your purpose and audience.

Conclusions wrap up what you have been discussing in your paper. After moving from general to specific information in the introduction and body paragraphs, your conclusion should begin pulling back into more general information that restates the main points of your argument. Conclusions may also call for action or overview future possible research. The following outline may help you conclude your paper:

In a general way,

Remember that once you accomplish these tasks, unless otherwise directed by your instructor, you are finished. Done. Complete. Don't try to bring in new points or end with a whiz bang(!) conclusion or try to solve world hunger in the final sentence of your conclusion. Simplicity is best for a clear, convincing message.

The preacher's maxim is one of the most effective formulas to follow for argument papers:

Tell what you're going to tell them (introduction).

Tell them (body).

Tell them what you told them (conclusion).

Project Management Assignment

How to write a Good Conclusion?

What is the conclusion.

Conclusions are frequently viewed as the most challenging section of an essay to write. They are, nevertheless, one of the most critical components of work because they bring clarity and insight into the subject. We’ll guide you on how to write a conclusion and offer you an outline to utilize in your next essay in this article.

The conclusion section is your last chance to convince your readers to agree with you and to make an impression on them as an expert writer. And the impression you leave with your readers after they’ve finished the essay will be shaped by the impression you leave with them in the conclusion. As a result, the conclusion of an essay should express a sense of completion and end for the subject.

In a research paper, essay, or article, the conclusion is the closing piece of writing that summarizes the entire topic’s efforts. The conclusion paragraph should restate your thesis statement, review the major supporting concepts covered throughout the paper, and give your last thoughts on the central idea. The main idea of your topic should also be included in this final summary. The “so what” is addressed in the conclusion by emphasizing the essay’s argument and providing the reader with a solution and query into the subject matter that supports why they should care.

Outline of the conclusion

                                            The Thesis statement is rephrased with an original topic sentence.

                                            Summarize the important arguments in the body of the essay

                                            Explain how the concepts fit together.

                                           Returns to the beginning

                                           Brings the story to a close

How to write a Conclusion Paragraph?

Every type of writing ends with a conclusion. When a reader reaches the end of your work, a good conclusion paragraph can change their minds, and knowing how to create a complete, interesting conclusion can improve the effectiveness of your writing.

How to write a Conclusion for An Essay?

The final paragraph of your paper is the conclusion. A good conclusion tries to tie together the essay’s main ideas, demonstrate why your argument is important, and make a lasting impact on the reader. Your conclusion should provide your argument a sense of closure and completion while simultaneously demonstrating what new issues or possibilities it has raised.

So, if we utilize shapes to show the content of the essay, it would look like this:

Knowing how to write a good conclusion is relatively apparent, depending on the length of your essay—you don’t want to simply summarize everything you wrote. Rather, the ending should provide a sense of conclusiveness while also addressing the topic’s meaning and potential. 

Here are five crucial points to consider when creating a good conclusion that will stay with the reader:

How to write a Research Paper Conclusion?

The conclusion of a research paper is the section that links everything together in a logical manner. A conclusion, as the final section of a research paper, gives a clear explanation of your research’s findings in a way that emphasizes the value of your research.

You can use the stages below to help you start drafting your conclusion:

Restating the Introduction

Changing the reader’s focus.

Posing Questions

Bring your ideas to a close., instead of summarizing, synthesize.

Your research paper’s conclusion is not a summary. While a summary can be included in this part, the conclusion is more than just a restatement of your arguments and analysis. Rather than repeating what you discussed in the abstract, introduction, and body of your study, show the reader how the important arguments of your research paper fit together in a logical way.

The way to write the conclusion brings your reader full idea by including the same components you used in your introduction. Retelling the main idea you mentioned in your introduction while establishing a fresh understanding of the issue based on the outcomes of your study that validates your arguments and/or assumptions is an example of how you can restate your introduction.

After bringing readers into your study through your introduction and immersing them in your techniques, analysis, and results, your conclusion serves as a bridge back to the real world. Changing your reader’s focus is a technique to encourage them to implement what they’ve learned from your research study in real life. This approach can also be used to propose a path of action for additional research on a current problem.

Explain the importance of the findings

You might consider the significance of these ideas after presenting the key arguments for your topic. After expressing your key points in your argument, you might discuss how the effects of your topic influence a given result. Similarly, you could provide the conclusions of research or other findings that can help you emphasize the importance of your knowledge.

The motivation for the research is a set of questions. Posing questions to your readers or to the public can assist them in obtaining a new perspective on the topic that they might not have had before reading your conclusion. It could also bring your major points together to form or develop a new idea based on your research.

As you near the end of your conclusion, consider including a call to action or a suggestion that encourages your readers to think about your argument further. This line can also be used to answer any questions that were left unanswered in your paper’s body paragraphs.

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How to Write a Conclusion

Last Updated: January 8, 2023

Template and Sample Conclusion

This article was co-authored by Christopher Taylor, PhD and by wikiHow staff writer, Danielle Blinka, MA, MPA . Christopher Taylor is an Adjunct Assistant Professor of English at Austin Community College in Texas. He received his PhD in English Literature and Medieval Studies from the University of Texas at Austin in 2014. This article has been viewed 442,763 times.

Writing the introduction and body of a paper is a big accomplishment, but you still need to write your conclusion. Writing a conclusion can feel difficult, but it's easier if you plan ahead. First, format your conclusion by revisiting your thesis, summarizing your arguments, and making a final statement. Then, re-read and revise your conclusion to make it effective.

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About This Article

Christopher Taylor, PhD

Writing a conclusion can seem difficult, but it’s easier if you think of it as a place to sum up the point of your paper. Begin your conclusion by restating your thesis, but don’t repeat it word-for-word. Then, use 1-2 sentences to summarize your argument, pulling together all of your points to explain how your evidence supports the thesis. End the paper with a statement that makes the reader think, like evoking a strong image or concluding with a call to action. Keep reading for tips on how to avoid cliches in your conclusion! Did this summary help you? Yes No

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How to Write a Compelling Cover Letter and Land Your Dream Job

How to Write a Compelling Cover Letter and Land Your Dream Job

A cover letter can help you stand out in the crowd by showcasing your skills, persona, and willingness to join the company and position you have applied for.

It’s only natural that you’re ambitious for your dream job. 

With a clear job description in your mind and a list of companies checked, you must be preparing for the application procedure. 

Suddenly you hear from good sources that a resume alone may not be enough; you also need a cover letter!

Could you relate?

Many applicants impatiently skip cover letters. However, it’s not an obstacle but a hurdle leading you to the finish line. 

So, if you want to craft a well-structured, compelling cover letter, this article will help you do that.

Read on; it’s just going to get better!

What Is a Cover Letter? 

A cover letter acts as a complement to the attached resume in your application. 

As the name suggests, it’s the first page that performs the opening act to your job application process. And it’s just 1 page long.

YouTube video

Though most information is in the resume, cover letters allow you to present the information personally. It doesn’t mean sharing all your history, likes, and dislikes. Instead, it’s a brief elaboration of all the information mentioned in the resume in a more personalized manner. 

Cover letters allow you to aptly describe the skills and achievements relevant to a specific job role. Here, you hint to the hirer why you stand as the best choice compared to the rest applicants. 

Please note that a cover letter is independent of a resume that waits right behind this opening page. It is wrong to assume that it should mention the same information already mentioned in the resume. Had that been the case, cover letters would’ve been redundant.

Also read: Premium Resume Builder to Build a Powerful Professional Resume

Why Do You Need a Cover Letter?

As per stats , 83% of the hirers consider attaching a cover letter important. Interestingly, 38% of the applicants do not attach a cover letter to their applications, even when the hiring company asks for it.

That means, by making a habit of adding a cover letter to your profile, you’ve already won the competition by 60% in case the company has asked for it. Interestingly, sometimes the hirer gets convinced of hiring the applicants simply by going through this introductory page without feeling the need to go beyond.

Isn’t this a powerful tool?

Cover letters are generally preferred when applying for higher profiles, but they could also be a deal cracker for entry-level candidates.


Undoubtedly, a cover letter is one of the most important segments of your job application. Let’s look at some of the key benefits of having a cover letter:

Moving on, let’s understand what sections you must add to your cover letter.

Different Sections of a Cover Letter 

Many applicants blabber about their profile, use unnecessary cliches and try to appear unique to fill this first page. However, it takes art to write a genuine cover letter, which the hirers always eye for. 

Let’s discuss how to write a compelling cover letter and the sections included in it:

The header is the first section of the cover letter. It is subdivided into the below order:  

Along with the name, add your place of stay with the city and zip code, followed by the phone number. Do not forget to add your email address.

Greet the hiring manager properly by adding salutations like “dear”. 

The name of the hiring manager should be written after the salutation. 

Example: Dear John Doe

Avoid generic writing here or in any part of the letter, which gives the hiring agency an idea that you are applying to various profiles by copy-pasting. 

Example: Hello, Sir/Madam. (Instead, be specific to whom you are addressing.)



As goes the saying, the first impression is the last. In order to hook the hirer to read ahead with interest, keep the introduction catchy.

Here, you can mention the job role that interests you and where you came to know about the requirement. If it’s through a friend, mention that unless it may have a negative impact.

Express your enthusiasm and willingness to work for this post. Mention a few of your skills and talents that you consider using for the company. Also, add a few relevant details about the company that you appreciate. This will impress the hirer that you’ve researched the company well.

Keep this paragraph brief and dense. The body section is the heart of a cover letter. 

Show how the company will benefit from the skill you mentioned in the introduction. Use a case study from the company’s requirement to present this. This will also show that you understand the company’s needs. 

Now is the time to showcase your achievement within the current company you’re associated with. This can also be explained in a story or as a case study. Use measurable figures (% or numbers) showing how your skills benefitted the current company. 

You can add another paragraph to mention additional skills that benefit the company.

In a short space, mention additional skills if necessary. This will give the hirer an idea of your career growth and previous experiences.

Round up the letter by reiterating your skills, strength, and interest in joining the company. Thank the reader for their time and leave an action step like anticipation towards the interview.

Also, mention that a resume containing your additional details has been attached.

Closure & Signature

The closing should be friendly and formal, followed by your full name.

Example : Sincerely,

                John Smithe

Formatting Rules for Cover Letters

After you have compiled a cover letter, review it once to check the grammar, tone, and other details of your write-up. Ensuring consistent formatting is also essential. It will contribute to the readability of your letter and add more professionalism to it. 


The below points will help you achieve this:

Note : Reducing the margin adds to cluttering all the words within the letter, affecting the readability.

Additional Tips for Creating a Cover Letter


Here are a few bonus tips to make your cover letter designing experience interesting.

Secondly, know that anyone can claim to possess particular skills. Instead of keeping it generic, elaborate on how you’ve brought results using these skills to a company. Have proof ready if asked.

Also read: Best Cover Letter Creators for Your Next Job Application

Cover Letter Creators


Many websites can create a cover letter for you with their customized templates that you can choose. Some of them are:

Some more free websites that offer basic letters (but with limited templates) are Indeed , CVshaper , and Canva .

Cover Letter Templates

Some of the cover letter templates are as follows:

Microsoft Office (CV Cover Letter) : Microsoft Office offers a pre-formatted cover letter in Word format so that you can create a professional-looking cover letter. This includes formatting and is easily customizable within the Word file. : It offers a CV cover letter for internship purposes with no experience. You can download the cover letter in different formats, such as Word, Google Docs, and Apple Pages format. These formats are printable, downloadable, and editable. 

Microsoft Office (Organic Shapes Cover Letter) : Get a good-looking cover letter template with Microsoft office that provides a striking organic shape and unique design. Build with Microsoft office cover letter templates and get results faster. 

Examples of Great Cover Letters

Here’s what a good cover letter may look like before you create one:


Notice how the header is centered on the top, along with contact and address details?

The cover letter is neither too long nor too short, explaining everything to the hirer in one page.


Here’s the next cover letter example. Can you notice something interesting about this one? 

This comes from a data analyst who has prior work experience. And the addition of previous experiences and skills gained connects with the company that can benefit them.

How Long Should a Cover Letter Be?

A cover letter is a 1-page document with a word count of 250-400. The focus, however, is on the ability, willingness, and presentation of the candidate, which is taken into consideration. 

Can You Use the Same Cover Letter for All Opportunities?

You can use the same template for multiple opportunities but not the same content. It deserves tailoring based on the company and job title you’re applying for. After all, the purpose of a cover letter is lost if it loses the personal touch.

Most applicants keep a template ready. Considering the opportunity you are applying for, you can modify the mood, tone, and stats of the letter, which makes it appealing to the reader.

Final Words

A cover letter is a 1-page document that extends the resume by adding the applicant’s personal touch. When written artistically, a cover letter can help you land your dream job. 

Thus, consider the essentials that build a cover letter’s structure, format it well, and consider a few additional to crack the selection process. 

While it’s best to write a cover letter by yourself, there are also customizable templates available on a few websites, with other facilities to create one.

Next, check out the free tools to create an outstanding visual resume/CV .


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How to Write a Report Conclusion

Are having trouble understanding how to write a report conclusion? It can be challenging to write a research paper conclusion. Conclusions should be concise and restate your research’s main points without repeating yourself. What you have presented in your paper can gain impact by having a strong conclusion paragraph. With the help of a report writer , you can have you report written within the deadline.

The significance of crafting a powerful concluding paragraph, how to do it, and some writing advice for research papers are all covered in this article.

Why is writing a conclusion for your research paper important?

It is to be crucial to include a conclusion in your research paper to remind your readers of the potency and significance of your argument.

Report Writing Guidelines Conclusion

Concluding comments in your essay can also assist in drawing the reader’s attention back to the key reasons and arguments in favor of the stance you took in your study. Conclusions can also act as a springboard for further investigation, inspiring fresh concepts to address a problem you highlighted in your paper or presenting fresh perspectives on a subject.

How to Write a Strong Personal Statement, for further reading

Types of research paper conclusions.

Your choice on how to write your conclusion will depend on your study topic and the format of your paper. You can choose which method to use while writing your conclusion by consulting the information below.

Summarizing the argument

A concluding summary is frequently utilized to provide a concise summary of your topic and thesis. While some research articles may call for a different kind of conclusion, this is thought to be the most typical one. This form of conclusion is frequently required for research papers on topics including argumentative papers, problem-solution studies, persuasive essays, and scientific and historical subjects.

Externalizing Judgments

An externalizing conclusion presents ideas or points that may not have been explicitly mentioned or pertinent to how your study and thesis were presented. These kinds of conclusions, nevertheless, can be powerful since they offer fresh perspectives that expand on the research question you initially raised. Externalizing conclusions encourages readers to consider the implications of your subject in fresh ways.

Editor’s decision

You give your own ending thoughts or commentary in an editorial conclusion. This kind of conclusion ties your ideas to the research you’ve discussed. You could express your thoughts on the conclusions, the findings, or the subject in general. The editorial conclusion can be particularly effective in research studies that give opinions, approach a subject humanistic ally, or present contentious information.

How to create a research paper conclusion

The following procedures can serve as a starting point for your conclusion writing:

The main points explained with a little example following.

        I.            State the subject of your study.

Reiterating your research topic should be your initial step in producing your conclusion. Usually, reiterating the issue in one phrase is sufficient, and you should also emphasize why it is significant. Your conclusion should express only the most crucial details in a clear, succinct manner. Here’s an illustration:

“The decline in aquatic animals and the rise in dangerous drinking water since 2010 have both been impacted by the increase in water pollution.”

     II.            Reiterate the argument.

Next, repeat the research paper’s thesis. This can be accomplished by updating the initial thesis you stated in the paper’s introduction. Your conclusion’s thesis statement needs to be phrased differently from what you used in the introduction. The writing of this component in a single sentence is likewise effective. Here’s an illustration:

“Keeping the ecological balance and preserving public health depend on having clean water.”

   III.            Condense the key findings of your investigation.

The essential points of your research report can then be summarized. To select only the most pertinent information and ideas, it can be good to read your document again. More information than what you provided in your paper’s key arguments or supporting evidence shouldn’t be necessary. Reminding the reader of the significance of the research issue is the aim of the key point summary. As an example of how to achieve this, consider the following:

“More and more contaminants are getting into our freshwater supplies as sugar planting expands. This rise in pollution has caused a significant decline in marine life, a fish die-off, an increase in respiratory illnesses among local residents, and a shortage of clean drinking water.”

   IV.            Link the major points’ importance or outcomes.

You can explain the significance of these points after going over your argument’s main points. For instance, you may discuss how the effects of your issue affect a particular conclusion after expressing the key arguments of your argument. Similarly, you may include research findings or other material that will help underline the importance of your knowledge. Here’s an illustration:

“The water quality is still being measured by ecologists and marine biologists, and experts are still looking for solutions to stop the pollution run-off from industrial farms. The EPA anticipates that this research will eventually result in a reduction in the amount of pollutants in our freshwater systems.”

      V.            State your conclusions.

As you wrap up your conclusion, consider posing a question or a call to action that will encourage readers to consider your point of view further. This phrase can also answer any queries that were not addressed in the paper’s body paragraphs. Here’s an illustration:

“Our freshwater ecosystems and drinking water supplies will undoubtedly deteriorate if we do not take action to counter the negative impacts that industrial farming has on our clean water. To preserve our clean water while also meeting the agricultural needs of our economy, more research and innovation are required.”

Writing Advice for Your Conclusion

The following advice will be useful as you compose your research paper’s conclusion:

However, adopting the summarizing structure might assist you ensure that you are including each piece as it applies to your research. You can also experiment with alternative conclusion styles.

In Conclusion

A conclusion states what you have done on the report in brief. Remind the reader of your report what you were tackling at hand. Show the reader some authenticity by saying what you think of the report’s topic. Give a few more ideas but briefly. A conclusion is the easiest and flexible part of the report because it is based on what the whole report is all about.

Lastly, you hire a report writer to write you report conclusion.

Professional Report Writing Service. Every project that we deal with is tailored in such a way that even your hairdresser can understand if she or he reads it. 

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How To Write a Conclusion for an Essay: Expert Tips and Examples

three tips for what to do when writing a conclusion and three tips for what not to do

You’ve worked so hard on your essay, written the best introduction and body paragraphs known to humankind, and you’re ready to leave it at that. Except every good story deserves a good ending, and essays are no different! You need a good conclusion paragraph to tie things up and send the reader off with new, happy thoughts. But what is a conclusion, and how do you write a good one?

What Is a Conclusion?

In its simplest terms, a conclusion is the last paragraph of your essay after your body paragraphs.

The length of your conclusion can vary, but as with other paragraphs, as long as you keep it around five sentences, you’re golden.

Parts of a Conclusion

The actual components of a conclusion will vary depending on the essay type , but the standard conclusion will include:

That last bit is actually the most important part of the conclusion. It’s where you get a satisfactory ending that has people wanting to learn more about the topic, from you or elsewhere.

Conclusions for Essays, Research Papers, Reports, and Beyond

For the most part, if you know how to write a conclusion for an essay, you know how to write conclusions period. You won’t find too much variation between an essay and other papers, with some slight exceptions.

For example, conclusions for empirical research papers (the type that would get published in academic journals) are more succinct and narrow in their vision, avoiding the addition of any new information. These more scientific papers have their own form and structure with the “conclusion” folded into the discussion section.

How To Write the Perfect Conclusion

There isn’t much to a conclusion, but that doesn’t mean you can ignore it completely. It does take a little time and practice to get into the groove of conclusions, and looking at examples of conclusions  or good conclusion starters can give you a solid idea of what to expect. With a few tips, you’ll be concluding your essays like a professional in no time.

Start With “In Conclusion”

This is perhaps a controversial take. Some writers say that writing in conclusion is too robotic or unnecessary, but starting your concluding paragraph with in conclusion is actually good. 

For the reader, in conclusion signals that they have reached the end of the essay. For you, writing in conclusion can flip the switch in your brain to get into conclusion mode.

If you’re not a huge fan of that wording, you have plenty of other ways to say in conclusion that convey the same idea. You’re by no means required to use it, but it can feel like a softer transition compared to immediately restating your thesis.

Restate and Repeat Your Main Ideas

Part of your conclusion will involve repeating or restating your thesis and the main ideas of your essay. This mainly helps to remind the reader of why you wrote your essay and what you talked about. 

That might seem silly for a short five-paragraph essay , but if you wrote a 10-page paper, chances are pretty good that your reader might have forgotten what you wrote at the beginning of the paper.

Reiterating your thesis statement and main ideas also helps to tie things together. It’s one thing to just present a thesis statement alone in the introduction . It’s something else to consider it in the context of everything you talked about.

But Don’t Get Too Formulaic

At the same time, try not to get too formulaic. That can leave you sounding robotic.

Instead of simply reiterating your thesis, think more about why your thesis matters now that you’re at the end of your essay. How do your body paragraphs feed into that “why”?

Think Outside of Your Essay

You’ve spent days planning, researching, and writing the crux of your essay, so it might seem odd to try to think outside of your essay. That’s the whole point of your conclusion. It considers that intense analysis and critical thinking and connects it to the rest of the world.

So how exactly do you think outside your essay?

Get a Little Cheesy

Essays have the reputation of being academic, formal, and buttoned-up. There’s nothing entirely wrong with that, but it can be part of what makes them difficult for someone to really dive into. The conclusion is a chance to drop that formality and allow for a little emotion.

Think of how bedtime stories end with some sort of moral. That can read as “cheesy” or “corny” in your essay, but it really just translates to levels of sincerity. Providing some sort of broad moral or lesson is a good way to end an essay. This is related to the above of thinking outside your essay, but it’s also an opportunity to show your own voice as a person.

how to write the conclusion

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Writing conclusions.

Though expectations vary from one discipline to the next, the conclusion of your paper is generally a place to explore the implications of your topic or argument. In other words, the end of your paper is a place to look outward or ahead in order to explain why you made the points you did.

Writing the Conclusion

In the past, you may have been told that your conclusion should summarize what you have already said by restating your thesis and main points. It is often helpful to restate your argument in the conclusion, particularly in a longer paper, but most professors and instructors want students to go beyond simply repeating what they have already said. Restating your thesis is just a short first part of your conclusion. Make sure that you are not simply repeating yourself; your restated thesis should use new and interesting language.

After you have restated your thesis, you should not just summarize the key points of your argument. Your conclusion should offer the reader something new to think about—or, at the very least, it should offer the reader a new way of thinking about what you have said in your paper.

You can employ one of several strategies for taking your conclusion that important step further:

The strategy you employ in writing a conclusion for your paper may depend upon a number of factors:

Choose a strategy that best maintains the flow and tone of your paper while allowing you to adequately tie together all aspects of your paper.

The Final "So what?" Strategy

Part of generating a thesis statement sometimes requires answering the "so what?" question—that is, explaining the significance of your basic assertion. When you use the "so what?" strategy to write your conclusion, you are considering what some of the implications of your argument might be beyond the points already made in your paper. This strategy allows you to leave readers with an understanding of why your argument is important in a broader context or how it can apply to a larger concept.

For example, consider a paper about alcohol abuse in universities. If the paper argues that alcohol abuse among students depends more on psychological factors than simply the availability of alcohol on campus, a "so what?" conclusion might tie together threads from the body of the paper to suggest that universities are not approaching alcohol education from the most effective perspective when they focus exclusively on limiting students' access to alcohol.

To use this strategy, ask yourself, "How does my argument affect how I approach the text or issue?"

The "Connecting to a Course Theme" Strategy

When you use the "connecting to a course theme" strategy to write your conclusion, you are establishing a connection between your paper's thesis and a larger theme or idea from the course for which you are writing your paper.

For example, consider a paper about mothers and daughters in Eudora Welty's Delta Wedding for a class called "The Inescapable South." This paper argues that a strong dependence on the mother is analogous to a strong dependence on the South. A "connecting to a course theme" conclusion for this paper might propose that Welty's daughter characters demonstrate what type of people can and cannot escape the South.

To use this strategy, ask yourself, "What is an overall theme of this course? How does my paper's thesis connect?"

The "Complicating Your Claim" Strategy

When you use the "complicating your claim" strategy to write your conclusion, you are using one or more additional resources to develop a more nuanced final thesis. Such additional resources could include a new outside source or textual evidence that seemingly contradicts your argument.

For example, consider a paper about Ireland's neutrality during World War II. This paper argues that Ireland refused to enter the war because it wanted to assert its sovereignty, not because it had no opinion about the conflict. A "complicating your claim" conclusion for this paper might provide historical evidence that Ireland did aid the Allies, suggesting that the Irish were more influenced by international diplomacy than their formal neutrality might suggest.

To use this strategy, ask yourself, "Is there any evidence against my thesis?" or "What does an outside source have to say about my thesis?"

The "Posing a New Question" Strategy

When you use the "posing a new question" strategy to write your conclusion, you are inviting the reader to consider a new idea or question that has appeared as a result of your argument.

For example, consider a paper about three versions of the folktale "Rapunzel." This paper argues that German, Italian, and Filipino versions of "Rapunzel" all vary in terms of characterization, plot development, and moral, and as a result have different themes. A "posing a new question" conclusion for this paper might ask the historical and cultural reasons for how three separate cultures developed such similar stories with such different themes.

To use this strategy, ask yourself, "What new question has developed out of my argument?"

The "Addressing Limitations" Strategy

When you use the "addressing limitations" strategy to write your conclusion, you are discussing the possible weaknesses of your argument and, thus, the fallibility of your overall conclusion. This strategy is often useful in concluding papers on scientific studies and experiments.

For example, consider a paper about an apparent correlation between religious belief and support for terrorism. An "addressing limitations" conclusion for this paper might suggest that the apparent correlation relies on the paper's definition of "terrorism" and, since the definition is not objective, the apparent correlation might have been wrongly identified.

To use this strategy, ask yourself, "In what aspects is my argument lacking? Are there circumstances in which my conclusions might be wrong?"

Polishing Your Conclusion—and Your Paper

After you've completed your conclusion, look over what you have written and consider making some small changes to promote clarity and originality:

Also, be sure to proofread your conclusion carefully for errors and typos. You should double-check your entire paper for accuracy and correct spelling as well.

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How to write an essay: Conclusion

The last section of an academic essay is the conclusion . The conclusion should reaffirm your answer to the question, and briefly summarise key arguments.  It does not include any new points or new information. A conclusion has three sections. First, repeat the thesis statement. It won’t use the exact same words as in your introduction, but it will repeat the point: your overall answer to the question. Then set out your general conclusions , and a short explanation of why they are important.

Finally, draw together the question , the evidence in the essay body, and the conclusion. This way the reader knows that you have understood and answered the question. This part needs to be clear and concise.

Conclusion example

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Reading and Writing CSV in Bash

how to write the conclusion

Comma-Separated Values (CSV) is a widely used file format for storing data in tabular form, where each row represents a record and each column represents a field within that record. The values are separated by a comma, which is why the format is called CSV. CSV is a popular data format for exchanging information between different platforms, programs, and applications, and typially adopts the form of:

Working with CSV files is a common task for many people who work in fields such as data analysis, software development, and system administration. Knowing how to read and write CSV files in a Bash environment is essential for automating tasks and processing large amounts of data efficiently.

In this article, we will look at various ways to read and write CSV files in Bash. We'll explore the different tools available and provide examples of how to use them. Whether you're a beginner or an experienced Bash user, this article will provide you with the information you need to effectively work with CSV files in your shell scripts.

Now, we'll take a look at how to extract data from a CSV file using tools available in a Bash environment.

Here's an example of how to use awk to read a CSV file and extract its data:

In this example, the while loop reads the CSV file line by line, with each line being separated into columns using the IFS variable, which is initially set to ",". The read command then reads the columns into the variables col1 , col2 , and col3 . Finally, we use echo to print out the values of each column.

Alternatively, one of the most commonly used tools for reading CSV files in Bash is awk . awk is a powerful text-processing tool that can be used for a variety of tasks, including reading and processing CSV files. Here's an example command that prints the first two columns of a CSV file:

In this command, the -F ',' option specifies that the field separator is a comma, and {print $1, $2} tells awk to print out the first two columns of the file filename.csv . We can modify the command to print other columns or apply conditions on the fields.

If the CSV file has a different delimiter, we can modify the -F option to match it. For instance, if the CSV file uses tabs as a separator, we can use -F '\t' to split fields based on tabs. If the CSV file has a header row, we can skip it by using the NR>1 pattern before the {print} statement.

In addition to awk , there are other tools available for reading CSV files in Bash, such as sed . sed is another text-processing tool that can be used to extract data from a CSV file.

While both awk and sed are powerful tools, they each have their own pros and cons. awk is often considered more flexible and easier to use, while sed is often considered faster and more efficient. The choice between these tools will depend on the specific requirements of your project.

One of the simplest ways to write CSV files in Bash is to use the echo command and redirect its output to a file instead of the standard output pipe. For example:

In this example, we use the echo command to write the header row to the output.csv file. The > operator is used to create a new file or overwrite an existing file, while the >> operator is used to append data to an existing file. In this case, we use >> to add additional rows to the output.csv file.

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Another option for writing CSV files in Bash is to use printf . The printf command provides more control over the output format and is often used when writing to a file. For example:

In this example, we use the printf command to write the header row and data rows to the output.csv file. The format string \n is used to add a newline character at the end of each row.

When working with large or complex CSV files in Bash, we need to follow some best practices to avoid common pitfalls and improve performance. Here are some tips:

In conclusion, working with CSV files in Bash can be simple and efficient, as long as we follow some best practices and use the right tools.

By using awk and echo commands, we can read and write CSV files without relying on external tools or libraries. However, we need to be careful when processing large or complex CSV files and avoid common pitfalls, such as reading or writing to files in a loop or ignoring data cleaning and formatting.

With the tips and tricks we've covered in this article, we hope you'll be able to handle CSV files in Bash with ease and confidence.

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Working With an XML File in Python

Author: Aditya Raj Last Updated: February 27, 2023

XML files are used to store data as well as to transmit data in software systems. This article discusses how to read, write, update, and delete data from an XML file in Python. For this task, we will use the xmltodict module in python.

What is an XML File?

Create an xml file in python, read an xml file in python, add a new section to an xml file in python, update value in an xml file using python, delete data from xml file in python.

XML (eXtensible Markup Language) is a markup language that is used to store and transmit data. It is similar to HTML in structure. But, unlike HTML, XML is designed to store and manipulate data, not to display data. XML uses a set of markup symbols to describe the structure and meaning of the data it contains, and it can be used to store any type of data, including text, numbers, dates, and other information.

An XML file is a plain text file that contains XML code, which can be read by a wide range of software applications, including web browsers, text editors, and specialized XML tools. The structure of an XML file consists of elements, which are defined by tags, and the data within those elements is stored as text or other data types.

how to write the conclusion

The syntax for declaring data in an XML file is as follows.

To understand this, consider the following example.

The above XML string is a simple XML document that describes the details of an employee. 

Each of these elements is nested within the parent <employee> element, creating a hierarchical structure. This structure allows for the data to be organized in a clear and concise manner, making it easy to understand and process.

XML is widely used for data exchange and storage because it is platform-independent, meaning that XML data can be transported and read on any platform or operating system, without the need for proprietary software. It is also human-readable, which makes it easier to debug and maintain, and it is extensible, which means that new elements can be added as needed, without breaking existing applications that use the XML data.

XML files are saved using the .xml extension. Now, we will discuss approaches to read and manipulate XML files using the xmltodict module. You can install this module using pip by executing the following command in your command prompt.

To create an XML file in python, we can use a python dictionary and the unparse() method defined in the xmltodict module. For this, we will use the following steps.

After execution of the above steps, the XML file will be saved in the file system. You can observe this in the following example.

Instead of using the write() method, we can directly write the XML data into the file using the unparse() method. For this, we will pass the python dictionary as the first input argument and the file pointer as the second input argument to the unparse() method. After execution of the unparse() method, the data will be saved to the file.

You can observe this in the following example.

The output file looks as follows.

XML File

To read an XML file in python, we will use the following steps.

After executing the above steps, we can read the XML file into a python dictionary. You can observe this in the following example.

To add a new section to an existing XML file, we will use the following steps.

After executing the above steps, new data will be added to the XML file. You can observe this in the following example.

XML file after adding data

In this example, you can observe that we have added a single element as well as a nested element to the XML file.

To add a single element to the XML file, we just need to add a single key-value pair to the dictionary. To add an entire section, we need to add a nested dictionary.

To update a value in the XML file, we will first read it into a python dictionary. Then, we will update the values in the dictionary. Finally, we will write the dictionary back into the XML file as shown below.

XML file after update

To delete data from the XML file, we will first read it into a python dictionary. Then, we will delete the key-value pairs from the dictionary. Next, we will dump the dictionary back into the XML file using the unparse() method. Finally, we will close the file using the close() method as shown below.

XML file after deletion

In this example, you can observe that we have deleted a single element as well as a nested element from the XML file.

In this article, we have discussed how to perform create, read, update, and delete operations on an XML file in python using the xmltodict module. To learn more about XML files, you can read this article on how to convert XML to YAML in Python . You might also like this article on how to convert JSON to XML in python .

I hope you enjoyed reading this article. Stay tuned for more informative articles.

Happy Learning!

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