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So much is at stake in writing a conclusion. This is, after all, your last chance to persuade your readers to your point of view, to impress yourself upon them as a writer and thinker. And the impression you create in your conclusion will shape the impression that stays with your readers after they've finished the essay.

The end of an essay should therefore convey a sense of completeness and closure as well as a sense of the lingering possibilities of the topic, its larger meaning, its implications: the final paragraph should close the discussion without closing it off.

To establish a sense of closure, you might do one or more of the following:

  • Conclude by linking the last paragraph to the first, perhaps by reiterating a word or phrase you used at the beginning.
  • Conclude with a sentence composed mainly of one-syllable words. Simple language can help create an effect of understated drama.
  • Conclude with a sentence that's compound or parallel in structure; such sentences can establish a sense of balance or order that may feel just right at the end of a complex discussion.

To close the discussion without closing it off, you might do one or more of the following:

  • Conclude with a quotation from or reference to a primary or secondary source, one that amplifies your main point or puts it in a different perspective. A quotation from, say, the novel or poem you're writing about can add texture and specificity to your discussion; a critic or scholar can help confirm or complicate your final point. For example, you might conclude an essay on the idea of home in James Joyce's short story collection,  Dubliners , with information about Joyce's own complex feelings towards Dublin, his home. Or you might end with a biographer's statement about Joyce's attitude toward Dublin, which could illuminate his characters' responses to the city. Just be cautious, especially about using secondary material: make sure that you get the last word.
  • Conclude by setting your discussion into a different, perhaps larger, context. For example, you might end an essay on nineteenth-century muckraking journalism by linking it to a current news magazine program like  60 Minutes .
  • Conclude by redefining one of the key terms of your argument. For example, an essay on Marx's treatment of the conflict between wage labor and capital might begin with Marx's claim that the "capitalist economy is . . . a gigantic enterprise of dehumanization "; the essay might end by suggesting that Marxist analysis is itself dehumanizing because it construes everything in economic -- rather than moral or ethical-- terms.
  • Conclude by considering the implications of your argument (or analysis or discussion). What does your argument imply, or involve, or suggest? For example, an essay on the novel  Ambiguous Adventure , by the Senegalese writer Cheikh Hamidou Kane, might open with the idea that the protagonist's development suggests Kane's belief in the need to integrate Western materialism and Sufi spirituality in modern Senegal. The conclusion might make the new but related point that the novel on the whole suggests that such an integration is (or isn't) possible.

Finally, some advice on how not to end an essay:

  • Don't simply summarize your essay. A brief summary of your argument may be useful, especially if your essay is long--more than ten pages or so. But shorter essays tend not to require a restatement of your main ideas.
  • Avoid phrases like "in conclusion," "to conclude," "in summary," and "to sum up." These phrases can be useful--even welcome--in oral presentations. But readers can see, by the tell-tale compression of the pages, when an essay is about to end. You'll irritate your audience if you belabor the obvious.
  • Resist the urge to apologize. If you've immersed yourself in your subject, you now know a good deal more about it than you can possibly include in a five- or ten- or 20-page essay. As a result, by the time you've finished writing, you may be having some doubts about what you've produced. (And if you haven't immersed yourself in your subject, you may be feeling even more doubtful about your essay as you approach the conclusion.) Repress those doubts. Don't undercut your authority by saying things like, "this is just one approach to the subject; there may be other, better approaches. . ."

Copyright 1998, Pat Bellanca, for the Writing Center at Harvard University

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How to Write a Conclusion

Last Updated: January 8, 2023

Template and Sample Conclusion

This article was co-authored by Christopher Taylor, PhD and by wikiHow staff writer, Danielle Blinka, MA, MPA . Christopher Taylor is an Adjunct Assistant Professor of English at Austin Community College in Texas. He received his PhD in English Literature and Medieval Studies from the University of Texas at Austin in 2014. This article has been viewed 442,763 times.

Writing the introduction and body of a paper is a big accomplishment, but you still need to write your conclusion. Writing a conclusion can feel difficult, but it's easier if you plan ahead. First, format your conclusion by revisiting your thesis, summarizing your arguments, and making a final statement. Then, re-read and revise your conclusion to make it effective.

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Christopher Taylor, PhD

Writing a conclusion can seem difficult, but it’s easier if you think of it as a place to sum up the point of your paper. Begin your conclusion by restating your thesis, but don’t repeat it word-for-word. Then, use 1-2 sentences to summarize your argument, pulling together all of your points to explain how your evidence supports the thesis. End the paper with a statement that makes the reader think, like evoking a strong image or concluding with a call to action. Keep reading for tips on how to avoid cliches in your conclusion! Did this summary help you? Yes No

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How to Write a Conclusion Paragraph (in Three Easy Steps!)


Written by  Scribendi

If you've ever seen or read about a great lawyer (or watched a great actor play a great lawyer) in action, you know that a key element in winning a case is the closing argument.

The same goes for the concluding paragraph in a piece of writing.

The conclusion is your last opportunity to persuade your reader that the information you just imparted is significant. This is particularly important because a reader will typically remember the conclusion paragraph more vividly than the beginning of your paper. (Thank you, recency bias !)

Luckily, we've crafted a foolproof, three-step method to show you how to write a conclusion. Let's dive in!

Step 1: Anchor It

A good conclusion paragraph begins by transitioning your message from the body of your paper to the conclusion and anchoring it to your thesis statement .

A transitional phrase should be used in the opening of your conclusion; consider using a phrase like "it is clear," "it is evident," or "overall." Similarly, a lawyer might begin their closing argument with a line like "without a doubt." This sentence will set the tone for the rest of the concluding argument.

Rephrasing your main point to establish your conclusion and tie all your arguments together is an effective way to kick off the paragraph and begin to bring your thought process full circle for your reader.

Step 2: Prove It

Every good lawyer's closing argument is presented with intent and persuasion. Lawyers explain why their evidence is superior to that of the opposing council and why the judge or jury should consider their arguments when arriving at a verdict. This is what your conclusion paragraph should also achieve.

Your conclusion is the big finish to your paper. Be careful not to repeat your introduction or main ideas verbatim. Instead, you want to summarize your evidence while reminding the reader why it is significant in the context of your paper.

In the courtroom, once the closing argument has begun, a lawyer will try to persuade the jury to consider all of the valid points they presented throughout the case and why that evidence matters—similarly, you should explain to your reader why they should care about what you said in your paper.

To begin this process, review the main points you made within your paper. Create a summary of each point as well as the significant contributions each makes to your argument. Next, concisely present each summary in a sentence or two for the reader.

Think of it this way—if a lawyer's client has an alibi supported by their employer and colleagues that they were at work when a particular crime took place, the lawyer might summarize this finding as follows:

The alibi provided by my client's employer and colleagues indicates that there were no plausible means by which my client could have left the office, robbed the bank, and made it back to their desk without being noticed. The time required to travel between these locations is too significant for this to be possible; no person could have successfully accomplished this task without their absence being noted.

Use transitional phrases to move from one idea to the next. Consider how each point works in tandem with the others to arrive at the conclusion you have drawn—or want the reader to draw—from your work.

If our hypothetical accused has an alibi, an eyewitness description of the actual culprit, and no DNA evidence placing them at the scene of the crime, then a seamless summary of these facts using this advice may read as follows:

The alibi provided by my client's employer and colleagues indicates that there were no plausible means by which my client could have left the office, robbed the bank, and made it back to their desk without being noticed. The time required to travel between these locations is too significant for this to be possible; no person could have successfully accomplished this task without their absence being noted. Furthermore, a key witness stated that the perpetrator of this crime was a Caucasian male with blonde hair and a tall frame. My client is not only female but also stands at a height of only 5'2"; this is a clear indication that my client's appearance does not align with the eyewitness's account of the true culprit's appearance. These key description discrepancies are only furthered by the lack of DNA evidence produced by the prosecution.

As you can see here, each idea supports one overall theme and provides evidence that leads to a verdict or a conclusion (i.e., innocence). This evidence is used to persuade the target audience (in this case [pun intended], the jury). Similarly, your conclusion should present evidence to convince your reader to agree with your main argument.

In the final sentence(s) of your conclusion paragraph, you need to bring your desired conclusion to light. Leave the reader feeling as though your evidence is, without a doubt, valid. Accordingly, the lawyer of the hypothetical client accused of bank robbery may read a closing sentence similar to the following:

Not only has the prosecution failed to produce any substantially valid evidence against my client, but the evidence that has been presented in this court further supports my client's innocence. Therefore, we ask the jury to render a verdict of not guilty.

Step 3: Close It (Flawlessly)

If you were undergoing the trial of a lifetime, you would want your lawyer's closing statements to be delivered flawlessly and without hesitation. The same is true for your conclusion paragraph. To be persuasive and convincing, it needs to be logical, coherent, and grammatically correct.

Once you have written the first draft of your conclusion paragraph, take a moment to reread it. Ensure that you have indicated a transition from the body of your paper to your conclusion and that the key elements of your paper are anchored on your overall argument.

Make adjustments to your statements to ensure that they are concise, accurately reflect your intention, and explicitly provide the evidence required to support your claims. Furthermore, check that you did not introduce any new major ideas (these should all be discussed in the main body of your work).

Then, ask a friend or—better yet—a professional essay editor to edit your paper. This step may seem inconsequential; however, the most minor details and adjustments can truly empower and sculpt an argument.

How many shows or movies have you watched more than once? You may have observed that each time you rewatch certain scenes, you notice inconsistencies and inaccuracies. Editing a paper is no different. The editing process ensures that your ideas are clear of all ambiguities and errors and polishes your conclusion paragraph into a beautifully articulated reflection on your work as a whole.

Here’s an Example

If the thesis of your paper indicated that businesses would be more profitable if they adopted a four-day workweek to ensure higher employee engagement, then your concluding paragraph might be structured and written as follows using our foolproof, three-step method to writing a great conclusion paragraph.

It is clear that a four-day work week is beneficial for both businesses and employees.
When an employee has a healthy work–life balance, they are more likely to be engaged when they are at work. As a result of this heightened engagement, the business can operate more efficiently, thus generating higher profits. Furthermore, if an employee is engaged, they are less likely to leave their organization, and instances of absenteeism will decrease. This will lower both hiring and turnover costs as well as benefit plan costs.

Close It (Flawlessly)

Although this business structure may require operational adjustments and potential increases in short-term costs, the long-term benefits are indisputable.

Using our three-step method, you, too, can learn how to write a conclusion paragraph. Just remember: practice makes perfect! No lawyer becomes great overnight, and the same goes for great writers.

Here's a handy graphic describing each step involved in writing a great conclusion paragraph. Feel free to download, save, and print it at your convenience.

How to Write a Conclusion Paragraph with Scribendi

Happy writing!

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Scribendi Editing and Proofreading

Scribendi’s in-house editors work with writers from all over the globe to perfect their writing. They know that no piece of writing is complete without a professional edit, and they love to see a good piece of writing turn into a great one after the editing process. Scribendi’s in-house editors are unrivaled in both experience and education, having collectively edited millions of words and obtained nearly 20 degrees collectively. They love consuming caffeinated beverages, reading books of various genres, and relaxing in quiet, dimly lit spaces.

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Simple Ways to Write a Short Essay

Throughout your life, you may receive numerous requests to write essays. It can be frightening, mainly if you are unsure what an essay is and how to write one. In this article, we'll take a closer look at what an essay is, what it is intended to accomplish, and the different types of essays.

First, Let's Define an Essay

An essay is typically a brief piece describing the author's viewpoint or personal experience. Beyond that, this kind of writing has many uses, such as criticizing and whatnot.

Although there are many different kinds of essays when discussing types, they are frequently divided into the following four groups −

Argumentative essay

Expository essay

Narrative essay

Descriptive essay

People tend to believe writing an essay is as easy as typing, but successful essays require much more planning. If you've never written an essay before, struggle with writing, and want to get better at it, or were given the assignment to do so, you should follow these steps to create a flawless essay.

Step 1: Choosing a Topic

No matter what kind of essay you are writing, understanding the prompt is the first step. You might have the option to choose your topic for your assignment, or you might have to respond to a specific question.

how to write a conclusion easy

Don't just start writing about the first thing that comes to mind. Instead, you should choose the best topic that will almost certainly earn you a high grade. Make sure the topic you select can convey the purpose of your essay by giving it some thought.

Step 2: Do Some Research on the Topic

Time to think of some ideas and do some research on the subject. Start by quickly noting down what you are already familiar with. You can then easily record any helpful information you discovered along with your sources and find the answers to your predetermined question. To make future citations and references simpler, make a note of any concepts, discussions, quotations, or examples you want to use in your writing along with the source.

how to write a conclusion easy

If you have time, you can make an extra effort to research outside your course textbooks. To learn more, you can refer various informational sources, including journals, newspapers, and online resources.

Step 3: Form a Thesis Statement

You need a thesis statement to demonstrate your main idea, even if your assignment doesn't pose a straightforward question. Additionally, it should clarify what you believe about the subject and point readers in the right direction for the essay. You should write a concise sentence that presents a debatable argument.

how to write a conclusion easy

Step 4: Essay Outline

It can be as easy as writing down your ideas on a mind map or fully developing them in a straightforward outline. Here, the goal is to arrange the arguments and supporting data you gathered. Never omit this step when composing your essay. It will assist in organizing your writing and help you determine how to include all your key ideas while maintaining a logical flow.

how to write a conclusion easy

Step 5: Writing the Introduction Paragraph

Planning a schedule before you write earlier in the day is crucial. Essay writing shouldn't cause you to lose sleep, and hastily written assignments are more likely to contain errors. Thus, you must start writing earlier to receive a distinction on your essay.

If you mess the introduction part, then no matter how well you have written it inside, the perception will always be different because of your bad introduction. With a hook, you must grab the reader's interest right away.

how to write a conclusion easy

Even though you may be writing an official academic essay, you are still writing for a specific audience. So you should be careful to make your piece attractive so that it can able to grab the instructor's attention. You can use dialogue, story, shocking statistics, or a quotation if it is interesting and relates to the thesis statement.

Step 6: Writing the Body of the Essay

This section of the essay develops the argument and supports your thesis statement. It should explain, outline, or defend your position on the subject. A substantial body paragraph includes a topic sentence, additional explanation, and support from reliable sources. Additionally, it should make sense to your reader and tie back to the main subject.

how to write a conclusion easy

Make sure that you properly end each paragraph by restating the main point and connecting it to the following one when moving from one idea to the next.

Step 7: Writing the Conclusion

Your opportunity to leave readers with a positive impression of your work is in the conclusion, which is the last section of your essay. It ought to confirm your response to the query. Writing a concise summary of your prior arguments in three to five sentences is required.

how to write a conclusion easy

Remember that there shouldn't be any new information in your conclusion. Restate your thesis statement once more to strengthen your argument and connect your points.

Step 8: Editing the Essay

Your essay has not yet been completed. You should reread your work once you've completed writing to make corrections. Read your essay from beginning to conclusion to ensure a solid flow and structure. Verify that the correct structure is used, and your most vital ideas should be included in the first and last paragraphs.

Check to see if your essay addresses the assignment and consider any potential improvements to your argument. Check if your topic sentence is backed up by evidence or examples in every paragraph.

how to write a conclusion easy

To ensure that your essay is flawless, check it for grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors. Eliminate all filler and pointless sections, vary your expressions, and don't overuse transitions or vocabulary

Every essay or paper must go through the same preparation, writing, and editing stages; however, the time and work required for each stage vary depending on the type of essay. For instance, if you're writing a five-paragraph expository essay for a high school assignment, you'll likely spend the most time writing. However, if you're writing a college-level argumentative essay, you'll need to spend more time researching your subject and coming up with an original argument before you begin writing.

Ankur Choudhury


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How to Write a Personal Statement (with Tips and Examples)

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Table of Contents

What is a personal statement, 6 tips on how to write a personal statement, personal statement examples (for college and university), faqs about writing personal statements, conclusion on how to write a personal statement.

How do you tell someone who you are in just a few hundred words?

It’s certainly no easy task, but it’s one almost every college applicant must do. The personal statement is a crucial part of any college or university application.

So, how do you write a compelling personal statement?

In this article, we’ll give you all the tools, tips, and examples you need to write an effective personal statement.

A personal statement is a short essay that reveals something important about who you are. It can talk about your background, your interests, your values, your goals in life, or all of the above.

Personal statements are required by many college admission offices and scholarship selection committees. They’re a key part of your application, alongside your academic transcript, standardized test scores, and extracurricular activities.

The reason application committees ask you to write a personal statement is so they can get to know who you are. 

Some personal statements have specific prompts, such as “Discuss a period of personal growth in your life” or “Tell us about a challenge or failure you’ve faced.” Others are more open-ended with prompts that essentially boil down to “Tell us about yourself.”

No matter what the prompt is, your goal is the same: to make yourself stand out to the selection committee as a strong candidate for their program.

Here are some things a personal statement can be:

It can be funny. If you have a great sense of humor, your personal statement is a great place to let that shine.  

It can be vulnerable. Don’t be afraid to open up about hardships in your life or failures you’ve experienced. Showing vulnerability can make you sound more like a real person rather than just a collection of application materials.  

It can be creative. Candidates have got into top schools with personal statements that take the form of “a day in the life” descriptions, third-person short stories, and even cooking recipes.

Now we’ve talked about what a personal statement is, let’s quickly look at what a personal statement isn’t:

It isn’t a formal academic paper. You should write the personal statement in your natural voice, using first-person pronouns like “I” and “me,” not in the formal, objective language you would use to write an academic paper.

It isn’t a five-paragraph essay. You should use as many paragraphs as you need to tell your story instead of sticking to the essay structure you learned in school.

It isn’t a resumé. You should try to describe yourself by telling a clear and cohesive story rather than providing a jumbled list of all of your accomplishments and ambitions.

personal statement definition

Here are our top six tips for writing a strong personal statement.

Tip 1: Do Some Serious Self-Reflection

The hardest part of writing a personal statement isn’t the actual process of writing it.

Before you start typing, you have to figure out what to write about. And that means taking some time to reflect on who you are and what’s important in your life.

Here are some useful questions you can use to start your self-reflection. You can either answer these on your own by writing down your answers, or you can ask a trusted friend to listen as you talk about them together.

What were the key moments that shaped your life? (e.g. an important friendship, a travel experience, an illness or injury)

What are you proud of? (e.g. you’re a good listener, you always keep your promises, you’re a talented musician)

How do you choose to spend your time? (e.g. reading, practicing soccer, spending time with your friends)

What inspires you? (e.g. your grandmother, a celebrity, your favorite song)

Doing this self-reflection is crucial for figuring out the perfect topics and anecdotes you can use to describe who you are.

Tip 2: Try to Avoid Cliché Topics

College application committees read thousands of personal statements a year. That means there are some personal statement topics they see over and over again.

Here are a few examples of common personal statement topics that have become cliché:

Winning a tournament or sports game

Volunteering in a foreign country

Moving to a new home

Becoming an older sibling

Being an immigrant or having immigrant parents

If you want to make a strong impression in the application process, you need to make your personal statement stand out from the crowd.

But if your chosen personal statement topic falls into one of these categories, that doesn’t necessarily mean you shouldn’t use it. Just make sure to put a unique spin on it so it still delivers something the committee hasn’t seen before.

how to write a conclusion easy

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Tip 3: Show, Don’t Tell

One common mistake you might make in your personal statement is to simply tell the reader what you want them to know about you, such as by stating “I have a fear of public speaking” or “I love to cook.”

Instead of simply stating these facts, you should show the committee what you’re talking about through a story or scene, which will make your essay much more immersive and memorable.

For example, let’s say you want the committee to know you overcame your fear of public speaking. Instead of writing “I overcame my fear of public speaking,” show them what it was like to be onstage in front of a microphone. Did your palms get clammy? Did you feel light-headed? Did you forget your words?

Or let’s say you want the committee to know you love to cook. Instead of writing “I love to cook,” show them why you love to cook. What’s your favorite dish to cook? What does the air smell like when you’re cooking it? What kitchen appliances do you use to make it?

Tip 4: Connect the Story to Why You’re Applying

Don’t forget that the purpose of your personal statement isn’t simply to tell the admissions committee who you are. That’s an important part of it, of course, but your ultimate goal is to convince them to choose you as a candidate.

That means it’s important to tie your personal story to your reasons for applying to this specific school or scholarship. Finish your essay with a strong thesis.

For example, if your story is about overcoming your fear of public speaking, you might connect that story to your ambition of becoming a politician. You can then tie that to your application by saying, “I want to apply to this school because of its fantastic politics program, which will give me a perfect opportunity to use my voice.”

Tip 5: Write in Your Own Voice

The personal statement isn’t supposed to be written in a formal tone. That’s why they’re called “personal” statements because you have to shape it to fit your own voice and style.

Don’t use complicated or overwrought language. You don’t need to fill your essay with semicolons and big words, unless that’s how you sound in real life.

One way to write in your own voice is by speaking your personal statement out loud. If it doesn’t feel natural, it may need changing. 

Tip 6: Edit, Edit, Edit!

It’s important to revise your personal statement multiple times in order to make sure it’s as close to perfect as possible.

A single typo won’t kill your application, but if your personal statement contains multiple spelling errors or egregious grammar mistakes, you won’t be putting your best foot forward.

ProWritingAid can help you make sure your personal statement is as clean as possible. In addition to catching your grammar errors, typos, and punctuation mistakes, it will also help you improve weaknesses in your writing, such as passive voice, unnecessary repetition, and more.

Let’s look at some of the best personal statements that have worked for successful candidates in the real world. 

Harvard Personal Statement Example

Love. For a word describing such a powerful emotion, it is always in the air. The word “love” has become so pervasive in everyday conversation that it hardly retains its roots in blazing passion and deep adoration. In fact, the word is thrown about so much that it becomes difficult to believe society isn’t just one huge, smitten party, with everyone holding hands and singing “Kumbaya.” In films, it’s the teenage boy’s grudging response to a doting mother. At school, it’s a habitual farewell between friends. But in my Chinese home, it’s never uttered. Watching my grandmother lie unconscious on the hospital bed, waiting for her body to shut down, was excruciatingly painful. Her final quavering breaths formed a discordant rhythm with the steady beep of hospital equipment and the unsympathetic tapping hands of the clock. That evening, I whispered—into unhearing ears—the first, and only, “I love you” I ever said to her, my rankling guilt haunting me relentlessly for weeks after her passing. My warm confession seemed anticlimactic, met with only the coldness of my surroundings—the blank room, impassive doctors, and empty silence. I struggled to understand why the “love” that so easily rolled off my tongue when bantering with friends dissipated from my vocabulary when I spoke to my family. Do Chinese people simply love less than Americans do?

This is an excerpt from a personal statement that got the applicant admitted to Harvard University. The applicant discusses her background as a Chinese-American by musing on the word “love” and what that means within her family.

The writer uses vulnerable details about her relationship with her grandmother to give the reader an understanding of where she comes from and how her family has shaped her.  

You can read the full personal statement on the Harvard Crimson website.

Tufts Personal Statement Example

My first dream job was to be a pickle truck driver. I saw it in my favorite book, Richard Scarry’s “Cars and Trucks and Things That Go,” and for some reason, I was absolutely obsessed with the idea of driving a giant pickle. Much to the discontent of my younger sister, I insisted that my parents read us that book as many nights as possible so we could find goldbug, a small little golden bug, on every page. I would imagine the wonderful life I would have: being a pig driving a giant pickle truck across the country, chasing and finding goldbug. I then moved on to wanting to be a Lego Master. Then an architect. Then a surgeon. Then I discovered a real goldbug: gold nanoparticles that can reprogram macrophages to assist in killing tumors, produce clear images of them without sacrificing the subject, and heat them to obliteration. Suddenly the destination of my pickle was clear. I quickly became enveloped by the world of nanomedicine; I scoured articles about liposomes, polymeric micelles, dendrimers, targeting ligands, and self-assembling nanoparticles, all conquering cancer in some exotic way. Completely absorbed, I set out to find a mentor to dive even deeper into these topics. After several rejections, I was immensely grateful to receive an invitation to work alongside Dr. Sangeeta Ray at Johns Hopkins.

This is the beginning of a personal statement by Renner Kwittken, who was admitted into Tufts University as a pre-medical student.

Renner uses a humorous anecdote about being a pickle truck driver to describe his love for nanomedicine and how he got involved in his field. You can feel his passion for medicine throughout his personal statement.

You can find Renner’s full essay on the Tufts Admissions page.

Law School Personal Statement Essay Example

For most people, the slap on the face that turns their life around is figurative. Mine was literal. Actually, it was a punch delivered by a drill sergeant at Fort Dix, New Jersey, while I was in basic training. That day’s activity, just a few weeks into the program, included instruction in “low-crawling,” a sensible method of moving from one place to another on a battlefield. I felt rather clever for having discovered that, by looking right rather than down, I eliminated my helmet’s unfortunate tendency to dig into the ground and slow my progress. I could thus advance more easily, but I also exposed my unprotected face to hostile fire. Drill sergeants are typically very good at detecting this type of laziness, and mine was an excellent drill sergeant. So, after his repeated suggestions that I correct my performance went unheeded, he drove home his point with a fist to my face. We were both stunned. This was, after all, the New Army, and striking a trainee was a career-ending move for a drill sergeant, as we were both aware. I could have reported him; arguably, I should have. I didn’t. It didn’t seem right for this good sergeant, who had not slept for almost four days, to lose his career for losing his temper with my laziness. Choosing not to report him was the first decision I remember making that made me proud.

These are the first three paragraphs of an anonymous personal statement by a Wheaton College graduate, who used this personal statement to get into a top-25 law school.

This statement describes a time the applicant faced a challenging decision while in the army. He ended up making a decision he was proud of, and as a result, the personal statement gives us a sense of his character.

You can find the full essay on the Wheaton Academics website.

Here are some common questions about how to write a personal statement.

How Long Should a Personal Statement Be?

The length of your personal statement depends on the specific program you’re applying to. The application guidelines usually specify a maximum word count or an ideal word count.  

Most personal statements are between 500–800 words. That’s a good general range to aim for if you don’t have more specific guidelines.  

Should Personal Statements Be Different for Scholarships?

Many scholarship applications will ask for personal statements with similar prompts to those of college applications.

However, the purpose of a personal statement you’d write for a scholarship application is different from the purpose of one you’d write for a college application.

For a scholarship application, your goal is to showcase why you deserve the scholarship. To do that, you need to understand the mission of the organization offering that scholarship.

For example, some scholarships are meant to help first-generation college students get their degree, while others are meant to help women break into STEM.

Consider the following questions:

Why is this organization offering scholarships?

What would their ideal scholarship candidate look like?

How do your experiences and goals overlap with those of their ideal scholarship candidate?

You can use the same personal anecdotes you’d use for any other personal statement, but you’ll have a better chance of winning the scholarship if you tailor your essay to match their specific mission.

How to Start a Personal Statement

You should start your personal statement with a “hook” that pulls the reader in. The sooner you catch the reader’s attention, the more likely they’ll want to read the entire essay.

Here are some examples of hooks you can use:

A story (e.g. When the spotlight hit my face, I tried to remind myself to breathe. )

A setting description (e.g. My bedroom floor is covered with dirty laundry, candy wrappers, and crumpled sheet music. )

A funny anecdote (e.g. When I was a little kid, my friends nicknamed me Mowgli because of my haircut. )

A surprising fact (e.g. I've lived in 37 countries .)

There you have it—our complete guide to writing a personal statement that will make you stand out to the application committee.

Here’s a quick recap: 

A personal statement is a short essay that shows an application committee who you are

Start with a strong hook that pulls the reader in

Tell a story to engage the reader 

Write in your own voice, not in a formal tone

Good luck, and happy writing!

Hannah Yang

Hannah is a speculative fiction writer who loves all things strange and surreal. She holds a BA from Yale University and lives in Colorado. When she’s not busy writing, you can find her painting watercolors, playing her ukulele, or hiking in the Rockies. Follow her work on hannahyang.com or on Twitter at @hannahxyang.

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Home / Guides / Writing Guides / Parts of a Paper / How to Write a Conclusion

How to Write a Conclusion


In this lesson, you will learn how to write a conclusion that follows from your argument.

Guide Overview

Which do you pick?

Writing Conclusions

When you write an argument, you need to make sure your reader walks away knowing exactly what your claim is and why it is correct. You can reinforce your claim one last time by writing a conclusion that supports your argument.​

For example, consider the following claim:

Animal testing is harmful to the animals tested on and is unnecessary.

What Goes into a Conclusion?

Your conclusion is the last thing your audience reads. It should relate back to your argument and leave your reader with something to think about.

Your conclusion may include:

Including a “so what?” in your conclusion helps your readers to see why your claim is important. ​It tells readers why your argument is relevant to their lives. You can add a “so what?” to your conclusion by returning to your original claim and asking, “so what?” “why is this idea important? ” Include the answer in your conclusion.

To support the claim that animal testing is wrong, you might say the following:

Animal rights is of concern to many people, but we often fail to consider whether the products we use were tested on animals or were made in a way that harms animals. As such, some animal lovers may not realize they are using products made in a way they fundamentally disagree.

Call to Action

A call to action rallies your readers to do something in response to your claim. If you are writing an argument about how climate change is caused by people, include a call to action at the end, asking your readers to make changes and fight back. A call to action helps readers to not only reflect on your claim, but also to walk away and do something with the information you’ve given them.

Going back to the example of your claim that animal testing is wrong, you might say the following:

Ending animal testing is as simple as purchasing products from companies that refuse to test their products on animals, and boycotting brands that do animal testing. For those hoping to take a larger stance against animal testing, writing letters or calling government representatives to express dissatisfaction with the practice can make a difference, as can participating in protests.

Restate Your Claim

The conclusion is the last thing your audience reads. This is a great place to restate your thesis and remind readers of what you are arguing and why. But remember, you don’t want to restate your thesis exactly, find a new way of saying it that ties in some of the evidence you’ve shared.

Here, you want to restate your claim that animal testing is wrong in different words. For example:

“The evidence above suggests that animal testing, known to be detrimental to animals, is also avoidable”
“While animal testing is widely known to harm animals, the myth that it is the best way of testing products has been dispelled through the evidence presented above.

Your conclusion can be made up of any or all of these three elements. You may want to restate your claim and tell your readers why it is important. Or, you could give your readers the “so what?” as part of a call to action.

Exactly what you include in your conclusion is up to you, but it should always relate to your claim and leave readers with something to think about.​

What Shouldn’t Go in a Conclusion

And remember, your conclusion should never introduce new information or claims. According to Chris Erat from the Clarkson Writing Center:

An effective conclusion allows the reader to reflect on the thesis statement after reading the supporting evidence.

End Product: A Strong Conclusion

Based on the points we’ve reviewed, a final conclusion about our animal testing claim may look like this:

Animal rights is of concern to many people, but we often fail to consider whether the products we use were tested on animals or were made in a way that harms animals. As such, some animal lovers may not realize they are using products made in a way they fundamentally disagree. Ending animal testing is as simple as purchasing products from companies that refuse to test their products on animals, and boycotting brands that do animal testing. For those hoping to take a larger stance against animal testing, writing letters or calling government representatives to express dissatisfaction with the practice can make a difference, as can participating in protests. While animal testing is widely known to harm animals, the myth that it is the best way of testing products has been dispelled through the evidence presented above.

Lesson Conclusion

In this lesson, you learned how to write a conclusion that leaves your reader with something to think about.

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The Beginner's Guide to Writing an Essay | Steps & Examples

An academic essay is a focused piece of writing that develops an idea or argument using evidence, analysis, and interpretation.

There are many types of essays you might write as a student. The content and length of an essay depends on your level, subject of study, and course requirements. However, most essays at university level are argumentative — they aim to persuade the reader of a particular position or perspective on a topic.

The essay writing process consists of three main stages:

Table of contents

Essay writing process, preparation for writing an essay, writing the introduction, writing the main body, writing the conclusion, essay checklist, lecture slides, frequently asked questions about writing an essay.

The writing process of preparation, writing, and revisions applies to every essay or paper, but the time and effort spent on each stage depends on the type of essay .

For example, if you’ve been assigned a five-paragraph expository essay for a high school class, you’ll probably spend the most time on the writing stage; for a college-level argumentative essay , on the other hand, you’ll need to spend more time researching your topic and developing an original argument before you start writing.

Before you start writing, you should make sure you have a clear idea of what you want to say and how you’re going to say it. There are a few key steps you can follow to make sure you’re prepared:

Once you’ve got a clear idea of what you want to discuss, in what order, and what evidence you’ll use, you’re ready to start writing.

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The introduction sets the tone for your essay. It should grab the reader’s interest and inform them of what to expect. The introduction generally comprises 10–20% of the text.

1. Hook your reader

The first sentence of the introduction should pique your reader’s interest and curiosity. This sentence is sometimes called the hook. It might be an intriguing question, a surprising fact, or a bold statement emphasizing the relevance of the topic.

Let’s say we’re writing an essay about the development of Braille (the raised-dot reading and writing system used by visually impaired people). Our hook can make a strong statement about the topic:

The invention of Braille was a major turning point in the history of disability.

2. Provide background on your topic

Next, it’s important to give context that will help your reader understand your argument. This might involve providing background information, giving an overview of important academic work or debates on the topic, and explaining difficult terms. Don’t provide too much detail in the introduction—you can elaborate in the body of your essay.

3. Present the thesis statement

Next, you should formulate your thesis statement— the central argument you’re going to make. The thesis statement provides focus and signals your position on the topic. It is usually one or two sentences long. The thesis statement for our essay on Braille could look like this:

As the first writing system designed for blind people’s needs, Braille was a groundbreaking new accessibility tool. It not only provided practical benefits, but also helped change the cultural status of blindness.

4. Map the structure

In longer essays, you can end the introduction by briefly describing what will be covered in each part of the essay. This guides the reader through your structure and gives a preview of how your argument will develop.

The invention of Braille marked a major turning point in the history of disability. The writing system of raised dots used by blind and visually impaired people was developed by Louis Braille in nineteenth-century France. In a society that did not value disabled people in general, blindness was particularly stigmatized, and lack of access to reading and writing was a significant barrier to social participation. The idea of tactile reading was not entirely new, but existing methods based on sighted systems were difficult to learn and use. As the first writing system designed for blind people’s needs, Braille was a groundbreaking new accessibility tool. It not only provided practical benefits, but also helped change the cultural status of blindness. This essay begins by discussing the situation of blind people in nineteenth-century Europe. It then describes the invention of Braille and the gradual process of its acceptance within blind education. Subsequently, it explores the wide-ranging effects of this invention on blind people’s social and cultural lives.

Write your essay introduction

The body of your essay is where you make arguments supporting your thesis, provide evidence, and develop your ideas. Its purpose is to present, interpret, and analyze the information and sources you have gathered to support your argument.

Length of the body text

The length of the body depends on the type of essay. On average, the body comprises 60–80% of your essay. For a high school essay, this could be just three paragraphs, but for a graduate school essay of 6,000 words, the body could take up 8–10 pages.

Paragraph structure

To give your essay a clear structure , it is important to organize it into paragraphs . Each paragraph should be centered around one main point or idea.

That idea is introduced in a  topic sentence . The topic sentence should generally lead on from the previous paragraph and introduce the point to be made in this paragraph. Transition words can be used to create clear connections between sentences.

After the topic sentence, present evidence such as data, examples, or quotes from relevant sources. Be sure to interpret and explain the evidence, and show how it helps develop your overall argument.

Lack of access to reading and writing put blind people at a serious disadvantage in nineteenth-century society. Text was one of the primary methods through which people engaged with culture, communicated with others, and accessed information; without a well-developed reading system that did not rely on sight, blind people were excluded from social participation (Weygand, 2009). While disabled people in general suffered from discrimination, blindness was widely viewed as the worst disability, and it was commonly believed that blind people were incapable of pursuing a profession or improving themselves through culture (Weygand, 2009). This demonstrates the importance of reading and writing to social status at the time: without access to text, it was considered impossible to fully participate in society. Blind people were excluded from the sighted world, but also entirely dependent on sighted people for information and education.

See the full essay example

The conclusion is the final paragraph of an essay. It should generally take up no more than 10–15% of the text . A strong essay conclusion :

A great conclusion should finish with a memorable or impactful sentence that leaves the reader with a strong final impression.

What not to include in a conclusion

To make your essay’s conclusion as strong as possible, there are a few things you should avoid. The most common mistakes are:

Braille paved the way for dramatic cultural changes in the way blind people were treated and the opportunities available to them. Louis Braille’s innovation was to reimagine existing reading systems from a blind perspective, and the success of this invention required sighted teachers to adapt to their students’ reality instead of the other way around. In this sense, Braille helped drive broader social changes in the status of blindness. New accessibility tools provide practical advantages to those who need them, but they can also change the perspectives and attitudes of those who do not.

Write your essay conclusion

Checklist: Essay

My essay follows the requirements of the assignment (topic and length ).

My introduction sparks the reader’s interest and provides any necessary background information on the topic.

My introduction contains a thesis statement that states the focus and position of the essay.

I use paragraphs to structure the essay.

I use topic sentences to introduce each paragraph.

Each paragraph has a single focus and a clear connection to the thesis statement.

I make clear transitions between paragraphs and ideas.

My conclusion doesn’t just repeat my points, but draws connections between arguments.

I don’t introduce new arguments or evidence in the conclusion.

I have given an in-text citation for every quote or piece of information I got from another source.

I have included a reference page at the end of my essay, listing full details of all my sources.

My citations and references are correctly formatted according to the required citation style .

My essay has an interesting and informative title.

I have followed all formatting guidelines (e.g. font, page numbers, line spacing).

Your essay meets all the most important requirements. Our editors can give it a final check to help you submit with confidence.

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An essay is a focused piece of writing that explains, argues, describes, or narrates.

In high school, you may have to write many different types of essays to develop your writing skills.

Academic essays at college level are usually argumentative : you develop a clear thesis about your topic and make a case for your position using evidence, analysis and interpretation.

The structure of an essay is divided into an introduction that presents your topic and thesis statement , a body containing your in-depth analysis and arguments, and a conclusion wrapping up your ideas.

The structure of the body is flexible, but you should always spend some time thinking about how you can organize your essay to best serve your ideas.

Your essay introduction should include three main things, in this order:

The length of each part depends on the length and complexity of your essay .

A thesis statement is a sentence that sums up the central point of your paper or essay . Everything else you write should relate to this key idea.

The thesis statement is essential in any academic essay or research paper for two main reasons:

Without a clear thesis statement, an essay can end up rambling and unfocused, leaving your reader unsure of exactly what you want to say.

A topic sentence is a sentence that expresses the main point of a paragraph . Everything else in the paragraph should relate to the topic sentence.

At college level, you must properly cite your sources in all essays , research papers , and other academic texts (except exams and in-class exercises).

Add a citation whenever you quote , paraphrase , or summarize information or ideas from a source. You should also give full source details in a bibliography or reference list at the end of your text.

The exact format of your citations depends on which citation style you are instructed to use. The most common styles are APA , MLA , and Chicago .

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How to Write a Conclusion Paragraph for an Essay

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The first steps for writing any college essay are coming up with a strong thesis statement and composing a rough introduction . Once you've done that, you can collect information that supports your thesis, outline your essay's main points, and start writing your body paragraphs . Before you can submit the essay, though, you'll also need to write a compelling conclusion paragraph.

Conclusions aren't especially difficult to write and can even be fun, but you still need to put in effort to make them work. Ultimately, a strong conclusion is just as important as an effective introduction for a successful paper.

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Here, we explain the purpose of a conclusion and how to write a conclusion paragraph using a simple three-step process.

The Purpose of a Conclusion Paragraph

A conclusion paragraph does :

A conclusion paragraph does not :

How to Write a Conclusion in 3 Easy Steps

Step 1: restate your thesis claim and evidence.

The conclusion's primary role is to convince the reader that your argument is valid. Whereas the introduction paragraph says, "Here's what I'll prove and how," the conclusion paragraph says, "Here's what I proved and how." In that sense, these two paragraphs should closely mirror each other, with the conclusion restating the thesis introduced at the beginning of the essay.

In order to restate your thesis effectively, you'll need to do the following:

Here's an example of an introduction and a conclusion paragraph, with the conclusion restating the paper's primary claim and evidence:


It is a known fact that archaic civilizations with clearly defined social classes often survived longer than those without. One anomaly is seventh-century Civilization X. Close analysis of the cultural artifacts of the Civilization X region reveals that a social system that operates on exploitation, rather than sharing, will always fail. This lack of inclusion actually leads to a society's downfall. Excavated military objects, remnants of tapestries and clay pots, and the poetry of the era all demonstrate the clash between exploitation and sharing, with the former leading to loss and the latter leading to success.

In the 600s C.E., Civilization X survived because it believed in inclusion and sharing rather than exploitation. As demonstrated, the civilization was often aware of the choice between sharing with others and taking from them. The cultural artifacts from the era, namely military items, household objects, and verbal art, all indicate that Civilization X believed sharing ensured survival for all, while taking allowed only a few to survive for a shorter time.

Step 2: Provide New and Interesting Insight

In addition to restating the thesis, a conclusion should emphasize the importance of the essay's argument by building upon it. In other words, you want to push your ideas one step beyond your thesis. One intriguing insight at the end can leave your professor pondering your paper well after they finish reading it — and that's a good sign you turned in a well-written essay.

Note that the conclusion paragraph must only mention that this new idea exists and deserves some focus in the future; it shouldn't discuss the idea in detail or try to propose a new argument.

The new insight you raise in your conclusion should ideally come from the research you already conducted. Should a new idea come to you while writing the body paragraphs, go ahead and make a note to remind you to allude to it in your conclusion.

Here are some typical starting points for these new insights:

Step 3: Form a Personal Connection With the Reader

The final step when writing a conclusion paragraph is to include a small detail about yourself. This information will help you build a more intimate bond with your reader and help them remember you better. Think of this step as an opportunity to connect the academic research to your and your reader's personal lives — to forge a human bond between the lines.

Formal essay-writing typically avoids first- and second-person pronouns such as "I" and "you." There are, however, two exceptions to this rule, and these are the introduction and conclusion paragraphs.

In the conclusion, you may use first-person pronouns to attempt to establish an emotional connection with the reader.

In the introduction, you may use the words "I" or "me" just once to clarify that the essay's claim is your own. In the conclusion, you may use first-person pronouns to attempt to establish an emotional connection with the reader, as long as this connection is related in some way to the overarching claim.

Here's an example of a conclusion paragraph that uses both first- and second-person pronouns to connect the thesis statement (provided above) to the student's own perspective on stealing:

Civilization X believed that invading Civilization Y would help them survive long, hunger-inducing winters. But all people go through moments when they crave security, especially in times of scarcity. I would certainly never consider taking the belongings of a neighbor, nor, I expect, would you. Yet we must consider the Civilization X artifacts that justify "taking" as signs of more than simple bloodthirst — they are also revelations of the basic human need for security. Perhaps if we had lived during the 600s C.E., you and I would have also taken from others, even while commanding others not to take from us.

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How To Write a Conclusion In 3 Simple Steps

Learn how to write a conclusion in 3 simple steps, and no time at all! Find out what a good conclusion looks like, and how to write a terrific one!

A satisfactory conclusion is the most crucial part of your essay. It is the last thing your reader will see, and it’s your final opportunity to make an impression and drive home your argument. So, let’s learn how to write a conclusion and why a powerful conclusion is vital to your essay’s success. 

Conclusions, or your concluding paragraphs, have three important jobs- they restate your thesis, reinforce your argument, and remind readers of the importance of your subject. 

Below is a guide on how to write a conclusion in three easy to follow steps. If you adhere to this roadmap, you will thoughtfully conclude your essay, reinforce your argument, and leave your reader curious about your subject. So, let’s get started learning how to write a conclusion. 

How to Write a Conclusion in Three Steps

Step 1: restate your thesis. .

Your thesis statement is an essential part of your essay, so it’s important to reinforce that thesis in your conclusion. The first thing you’ll do is restate your idea by using different phrasing. Let’s take a straightforward thesis and rephrase it for a concluding paragraph. 

Read how to read a thesis statement in four steps here.

Say your thesis statement is: Giraffes are the best animal because of their spotted hide and long necks. 

Start your conclusion by taking that thesis and restating it like this: We’ve learned that giraffes are superior to other animals because of their long necks and spots. 

We’ve learned that giraffes are superior to all other animals because of their long necks and bright spots.← A giraffe’s neck allows the animal to reach the topmost leaves of a tree and avoid competing with other animals. The animal’s patches aid with blood flow and cool their body in the arid savanna. Despite their creative adaptations, Giraffes have no defense against their most significant threat, habitat loss. Giraffe herds are spread thin, and their population has declined 40 percent over the last 30 years. We must place Giraffes on the endangered species list or risk losing this majestic animal permanently.  

Step 2: Reinforce the main points of your argument.  

A satisfactory conclusion mirrors a good introduction. What do I mean by that? A conclusion is like a reverse of your introduction. To open your essay, you start by speaking broadly about your subject and narrow it down to a specific thesis statement. 

Action Steps: 

We’ve learned that giraffes are superior to all other animals because of their long necks and bright spots. A giraffe’s neck allows the animal to reach the topmost leaves of a tree and avoid competing with other animals. The animal’s patches aid with blood flow and cool their body in the arid savanna.← Despite their creative adaptations, Giraffes have no defense against their most significant threat, habitat loss. Giraffe herds are spread thin, and their population has declined 40 percent over the past three decades. We must place Giraffes on the endangered species list or risk losing this majestic animal forever.  

Step 3: Remind readers why your topic is important & leave them thinking.

One goal of your conclusion should be to keep your readers thinking about your subject or argument. An excellent way to do this is to pose a question or questions about your topic. Remind your readers what the implications of your thesis are. 

Techniques to close your essay: 

We’ve learned that giraffes are superior to all other animals because of their long necks and bright spots. A giraffe’s neck allows the animal to reach the topmost leaves of a tree and avoid competing with other animals. The animal’s patches aid with blood flow and cool their body in the arid savanna. Despite their creative adaptations, Giraffes have no defense against their most significant threat, habitat loss. Giraffe herds are spread thin, and their population has declined 40 percent over the past three decades. We must place Giraffes on the endangered species list or risk losing this majestic animal forever. ←

Tips for a good conclusion: 

What to avoid in your conclusion: 

Continued reading on Conclusions :

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How to Write a Conclusion for an Essay

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By the time you get to the final paragraph of your paper, you have already done so much work on your essay, so all you want to do is to wrap it up as quickly as possible. You’ve already made a stunning introduction, proven your argument, and structured the whole piece as supposed – who cares about making a good conclusion paragraph?

The only thing you need to remember is that the conclusion of an essay is not just the last paragraph of an academic paper where you restate your thesis and key arguments. A concluding paragraph is also your opportunity to have a final impact on your audience. 

Feeling Overwhelmed Writing Your Essay Conclusion?

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How to write a conclusion paragraph that leaves a lasting impression – In this guide, the team at EssayPro is going to walk you through the process of writing a perfect conclusion step by step. Additionally, we will share valuable tips and tricks to help students of all ages impress their readers at the last moment.

Instead of Intro: What Is a Conclusion?

Before we can move on, let’s take a moment here to define the conclusion itself. According to the standard conclusion definition, it is pretty much the last part of something, its result, or end. However, this term is rather broad and superficial.

When it comes to writing academic papers, a concluding statement refers to an opinion, judgment, suggestion, or position arrived at by logical reasoning (through the arguments provided in the body of the text). Therefore, if you are wondering “what is a good closing sentence like?” – keep on reading.

What Does a Good Conclusion Mean?

Writing a good conclusion for a paper isn’t easy. However, we are going to walk you through this process step by step. Although there are generally no strict rules on how to formulate one, there are some basic principles that everyone should keep in mind. In this section, we will share some core ideas for writing a good conclusion, and, later in the article, we will also provide you with more practical advice and examples.

objectives conclusion

Here are the core goals a good conclusion should complete:

Another key thing to remember is that you should not introduce any new ideas or arguments to your paper's conclusion. It should only sum up what you have already written, revisit your thesis statement, and end with a powerful final impression.

When considering how to write a conclusion that works, here are the key points to keep in mind:

How Long Should a Conclusion Be? 

Although there are no strict universal rules regarding the length of an essay’s final clause, both teachers and experienced writers recommend keeping it clear, concise, and straight to the point. There is an unspoken rule that the introduction and conclusion of an academic paper should both be about 10% of the overall paper’s volume. For example, if you were assigned a 1500 word essay, both the introductory and final clauses should be approximately 150 words long (300 together).

Why You Need to Know How to End an Essay:

A conclusion is what drives a paper to its logical end. It also drives the main points of your piece one last time. It is your last opportunity to impact and impress your audience. And, most importantly, it is your chance to demonstrate to readers why your work matters. Simply put, the final paragraph of your essay should answer the last important question a reader will have – “So what?”

If you do a concluding paragraph right, it can give your readers a sense of logical completeness. On the other hand, if you do not make it powerful enough, it can leave them hanging, and diminish the effect of the entire piece.

Strategies to Crafting a Proper Conclusion

Although there are no strict rules for what style to use to write your conclusion, there are several strategies that have been proven to be effective. In the list below, you can find some of the most effective strategies with some good conclusion paragraph examples to help you grasp the idea.

One effective way to emphasize the significance of your essay and give the audience some thought to ponder about is by taking a look into the future. The “When and If” technique is quite powerful when it comes to supporting your points in the essay’s conclusion.

Prediction essay conclusion example: “Taking care of a pet is quite hard, which is the reason why most parents refuse their children’s requests to get a pet. However, the refusal should be the last choice of parents. If we want to inculcate a deep sense of responsibility and organization in our kids, and, at the same time, sprout compassion in them, we must let our children take care of pets.”

Another effective strategy is to link your conclusion to your introductory paragraph. This will create a full-circle narration for your readers, create a better understanding of your topic, and emphasize your key point.

Echo conclusion paragraph example: Introduction: “I believe that all children should grow up with a pet. I still remember the exact day my parents brought my first puppy to our house. This was one of the happiest moments in my life and, at the same time, one of the most life-changing ones. Growing up with a pet taught me a lot, and most importantly, it taught me to be responsible.” Conclusion:. “I remember when I picked up my first puppy and how happy I was at that time. Growing up with a pet, I learned what it means to take care of someone, make sure that he always has water and food, teach him, and constantly keep an eye on my little companion. Having a child grow up with a pet teaches them responsibility and helps them acquire a variety of other life skills like leadership, love, compassion, and empathy. This is why I believe that every kid should grow up with a pet!”

Finally, one more trick that will help you create a flawless conclusion is to amplify your main idea or to present it in another perspective of a larger context. This technique will help your readers to look at the problem discussed from a different angle.

Step-up argumentative essay conclusion example: “Despite the obvious advantages of owning a pet in childhood, I feel that we cannot generalize whether all children should have a pet. Whereas some kids may benefit from such experiences, namely, by becoming more compassionate, organized, and responsible, it really depends on the situation, motivation, and enthusiasm of a particular child for owning a pet.”

What is a clincher in an essay? – The final part of an essay’s conclusion is often referred to as a clincher sentence. According to the clincher definition, it is a final sentence that reinforces the main idea or leaves the audience with an intriguing thought to ponder upon. In a nutshell, the clincher is very similar to the hook you would use in an introductory paragraph. Its core mission is to seize the audience’s attention until the end of the paper. At the same time, this statement is what creates a sense of completeness and helps the author leave a lasting impression on the reader.

Now, since you now know what a clincher is, you are probably wondering how to use one in your own paper. First of all, keep in mind that a good clincher should be intriguing, memorable, smooth, and straightforward.

Generally, there are several different tricks you can use for your clincher statement; it can be:

Regardless of the technique you choose, make sure that your clincher is memorable and aligns with your introduction and thesis.

Clincher examples: - While New York may not be the only place with the breathtaking views, it is definitely among my personal to 3… and that’s what definitely makes it worth visiting. - “Thence we came forth to rebehold the stars”, Divine Comedy - Don’t you think all these advantages sound like almost life-saving benefits of owning a pet? “So we beat on, boats against the current, borne back ceaselessly into the past.”, The Great Gatsby

conclusion strategies

Conclusion Writing Don'ts 

Now, when you know what tricks and techniques you should use to create a perfect conclusion, let’s look at some of the things you should not do with our online paper writing service :

In case, you have written a conclusion, but you're not sure if it’s good enough?

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Conclusion Paragraph Outline

The total number of sentences in your final paragraph may vary depending on the number of points you discussed in your essay, as well as on the overall word count of your paper. However, the overall conclusion paragraph outline will remain the same and consists of the following elements:

conclusion outline

The first part of your paragraph should drive readers back to your thesis statement. Thus, if you were wondering how to start a conclusion, the best way to do it is by rephrasing your thesis statement.

Right after revisiting your thesis, you should include several sentences that wrap up the key highlights and points from your body paragraphs. This part of your conclusion can consist of 2-3 sentences—depending on the number of arguments you’ve made. If necessary, you can also explain to the readers how your main points fit together.

Finally, you should end your paragraph with a last, powerful sentence that leaves a lasting impression, gives a sense of logical completeness, and connects readers back to the introduction of the paper.

These three key elements make up a perfect essay conclusion. Now, to give you an even better idea of how to create a perfect conclusion, let us give you a sample conclusion paragraph outline with examples from an argumentative essay on the topic of “Every Child Should Own a Pet:

This is a clear example of how you can shape your conclusion paragraph.

How to Conclude Various Types of Essays

Depending on the type of academic essay you are working on, your concluding paragraph's style, tone, and length may vary. In this part of our guide, we will tell you how to end different types of essays and other works.

How to End an Argumentative Essay

Persuasive or argumentative essays always have the single goal of convincing readers of something (an idea, stance, or viewpoint) by appealing to arguments, facts, logic, and even emotions. The conclusion for such an essay has to be persuasive as well. A good trick you can use is to illustrate a real-life scenario that proves your stance or encourages readers to take action. More about persuasive essay outline you can read in our article.

Here are a few more tips for making a perfect conclusion for an argumentative essay:

How to End a Compare and Contrast Essay

The purpose of a compare and contrast essay is to emphasize the differences or similarities between two or more objects, people, phenomena, etc. Therefore, a logical conclusion should highlight how the reviewed objects are different or similar. Basically, in such a paper, your conclusion should recall all of the key common and distinctive features discussed in the body of your essay and also give readers some food for thought after they finish reading it.

How to Conclude a Descriptive Essay

The key idea of a descriptive essay is to showcase your creativity and writing skills by painting a vivid picture with the help of words. This is one of the most creative types of essays as it requires you to show a story, not tell it. This kind of essay implies using a lot of vivid details. Respectively, the conclusion of such a paper should also use descriptive imagery and, at the same time, sum up the main ideas. A good strategy for ending a descriptive essay would be to begin with a short explanation of why you wrote the essay. Then, you should reflect on how your topic affects you. In the middle of the conclusion, you should cover the most critical moments of the story to smoothly lead the reader into a logical closing statement. The “clincher”, in this case, should be a thought-provoking final sentence that leaves a good and lasting impression on the audience. Do not lead the reader into the essay and then leave them with dwindling memories of it.

How to Conclude an Essay About Yourself

If you find yourself writing an essay about yourself, you need to tell a personal story. As a rule, such essays talk about the author’s experiences, which is why a conclusion should create a feeling of narrative closure. A good strategy is to end your story with a logical finale and the lessons you have learned, while, at the same time, linking it to the introductory paragraph and recalling key moments from the story.

How to End an Informative Essay

Unlike other types of papers, informative or expository essays load readers with a lot of information and facts. In this case, “Synthesize, don’t summarize” is the best technique you can use to end your paper. Simply put, instead of recalling all of the major facts, you should approach your conclusion from the “So what?” position by highlighting the significance of the information provided.

How to Conclude a Narrative Essay

In a nutshell, a narrative essay is based on simple storytelling. The purpose of this paper is to share a particular story in detail. Therefore, the conclusion for such a paper should wrap up the story and avoid finishing on an abrupt cliffhanger. It is vital to include the key takeaways and the lessons learned from the story.

How to Write a Conclusion for a Lab Report

Unlike an essay, a lab report is based on an experiment. This type of paper describes the flow of a particular experiment conducted by a student and its conclusion should reflect on the outcomes of this experiment.

In thinking of how to write a conclusion for a lab, here are the key things you should do to get it right:

How to Write a Conclusion for a Research Paper

Writing a paper is probably the hardest task of all, even for experienced dissertation writer . Unlike an essay or even a lab report, a research paper is a much longer piece of work that requires a deeper investigation of the problem. Therefore, a conclusion for such a paper should be even more sophisticated and powerful. If you're feeling difficulty writing an essay, you can buy essay on our service.

research paper conclusion

However, given that a research paper is the second most popular kind of academic paper (after an essay), it is important to know how to conclude a research paper. Even if you have not yet been assigned to do this task, be sure that you will face it soon. So, here are the steps you should follow to create a great conclusion for a research paper:

Start your final paragraph with a quick reminder of what the topic of the piece is about. Keep it one sentence long.

Next, you should remind your readers what your thesis statement was. However, do not just copy and paste it from the introductory clause: paraphrase your thesis so that you deliver the same idea but with different words. Keep your paraphrased thesis narrow, specific, and topic-oriented.

Just like the case of a regular essay’s conclusion, a research paper’s final paragraph should also include a short summary of all of the key points stated in the body sections. We recommend reading the entire body part a few times to define all of your main arguments and ideas.

In the research paper conclusion, it is vital to highlight the significance of your research problem and state how your solution could be helpful.

Finally, at the end of your conclusion, you should define how your findings will contribute to the development of its particular field of science. Outline the perspectives of further research and, if necessary, explain what is yet to be discovered on the topic.

Then, end your conclusion with a powerful concluding sentence – it can be a rhetorical question, call to action, or another hook that will help you have a strong impact on the audience.

To create a top-notch research paper conclusion, be sure to answer the following questions:

Additionally, here are a few more handy tips to follow:

Address to our term paper writers if you need to proofread or rewrite essay.

So, What Is a Good Closing Sentence? See The Difference

One of the best ways to learn how to write a good conclusion is to look at several professional essay conclusion examples. In this section of our guide, we are going to look at two different final paragraphs shaped on the basis of the same template, but even so, they are very different – where one is weak and the other is strong. Below, we are going to compare them to help you understand the difference between a good and a bad conclusion.

Here is the template we used: College degrees are in decline. The price of receiving an education does not correlate with the quality of the education received. As a result, graduated students face underemployment, and the worth of college degrees appears to be in serious doubt. However, the potential social and economic benefits of educated students balance out the equation.

Strong Conclusion ‍

People either see college as an opportunity or an inconvenience; therefore, a degree can only hold as much value as its owner’s skillset. The underemployment of graduate students puts the worth of college degrees in serious doubt. Yet, with the multitude of benefits that educated students bring to society and the economy, the equation remains in balance. Perhaps the ordinary person should consider college as a wise financial investment, but only if they stay determined to study and do the hard work.

Why is this example good? There are several key points that prove its effectiveness:

Weak Conclusion

In conclusion, with the poor preparation of students in college and the subsequent underemployment after graduation from college, the worth associated with the college degree appears to be in serious doubt. However, these issues alone may not reasonably conclude beyond a doubt that investing in a college degree is a rewarding venture. When the full benefits that come with education are carefully put into consideration and evaluated, college education for children in any country still has good advantages, and society should continue to advocate for a college education. The ordinary person should consider this a wise financial decision that holds rewards in the end. Apart from the monetary gains associated with a college education, society will greatly benefit from students when they finish college. Their minds are going to be expanded, and their reasoning and decision making will be enhanced.

What makes this example bad? Here are a few points to consider:

Good Conclusion Examples

Now that we've learned what a conclusion is and how to write one let's take a look at some essay conclusion examples to strengthen our knowledge.

The ending ironically reveals that all was for nothing. (A short explanation of the thematic effect of the book’s end) Tom says that Miss Watson freed Jim in her final will.Jim told Huck that the dead man on the Island was pap. The entire adventure seemingly evaporated into nothingness. (How this effect was manifested into the minds of thereaders).
All in all, international schools hold the key to building a full future that students can achieve. (Thesis statement simplified) They help students develop their own character by learning from their mistakes, without having to face a dreadful penalty for failure. (Thesis statement elaborated)Although some say that kids emerged “spoiled” with this mentality, the results prove the contrary. (Possible counter-arguments are noted)
In conclusion, public workers should be allowed to strike since it will give them a chance to air their grievances. (Thesis statement) Public workers should be allowed to strike when their rights, safety, and regulations are compromised. The workers will get motivated when they strike, and their demands are met.
In summary, studies reveal some similarities in the nutrient contents between the organic and non-organic food substances. (Starts with similarities) However, others have revealed many considerable differences in the amounts of antioxidants as well as other minerals present in organic and non-organic foods. Generally, organic foods have higher levels of antioxidants than non-organic foods and therefore are more important in the prevention of chronic illnesses.
As time went by, my obsession grew into something bigger than art; (‘As time went by’ signals maturation) it grew into a dream of developing myself for the world. (Showing student’s interest of developing himself for the community) It is a dream of not only seeing the world from a different perspective but also changing the perspective of people who see my work. (Showing student’s determination to create moving pieces of art)
In conclusion, it is evident that technology is an integral part of our lives and without it, we become “lost” since we have increasingly become dependent on its use. (Thesis with main point)

You might also be interested in reading nursing essay examples from our service.

Stuck On Your Conclusion?

Hopefully, this guide helped you grasp the general idea of what an essay’s conclusion is and how to write a good one. However, if you are still struggling with making an impactful final clause, do not hesitate to entrust this matter to professionals. The expert writers from EssayPro can help you cope with essay writing and ensure you an excellent grade. Just ask us ' write my essay online ' and we will process your requests asap.

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A Complete Guide on How to Write a Conclusion for an Essay

You’ve just finished writing an amazing essay, but you’re not sure how to conclude it properly. 

You are not alone. In fact, most people don’t know how to write a conclusion properly, which is why so many essays sound unfinished.

Indeed, it can be tough to know how to write a conclusion for your essay. You want to leave your reader with something memorable. A memorable hook that will make them think about your topic long after they finish reading.

Having difficulty in doing so?

Let us help you! This guide will show you everything you need to know about writing a conclusion for your essay, from restating your thesis to summarizing your main points. Plus, we’ll give you samples on how to make your conclusion stand out from the rest.

Without further ado, let’s write a compelling conclusion for your essay 

How to Create an Outline for the Conclusion Paragraph?

The last paragraph of an essay writing is known as the conclusion. This summarizes all the important points and restates your thesis statement introduced in the first paragraph. 

The purpose of a conclusion is to tie up all the information discussed in the paper. Therefore, a conclusion ensures to bring everything to a satisfying close. 

So, writing a well-crafted conclusion is essential for leaving readers with a lasting impression of your writing skills. And provide them with insight into the topic at hand.

Here is a conclusion paragraph outline 

Let’s understand the components one by one so that you don’t simply summarize the points vaguely.

Topic Sentence

The conclusion of any essay is the last thing a reader will encounter, and its impact can linger long after they’ve finished the paper.

Convey your main point without simply repeating arguments made in earlier chapters, crafting the perfect topic sentence for your conclusion is essential. 

How you do this will depend on the type of paper you’re writing and how you want to present your thoughts.

Start by summarizing the key points of your essay for context, then move into broader themes touched upon in its pages. By this, you will create a concise sentence that conveys exactly what should be taken away from your thesis statement.

Placement:  The topic sentence should appear near the beginning of your concluding paragraph and give readers a clear direction as to where your argument is headed.

Supporting Sentences

Supporting sentences are useful for making your conclusion more concrete and logical. These are statements that explain or prove the main idea of your conclusion.

By taking the time to craft supporting sentences, you can effectively illustrate why readers should agree with your viewpoint. 

Closing sentence

Writing a concluding sentence for a conclusion can be surprisingly difficult. However, with the right approach, it is possible to craft an effective and engaging piece of writing that brings the reader to a satisfying ending.

Things to keep in mind:

With practice and creativity, you can write persuasive conclusions that keep readers engaged. 

Once you know the basic outline of your last paragraph, it’s time to start writing your conclusion. 

How to Write a Conclusion Paragraph for an Essay?

Writing well-crafted conclusions not only provides satisfaction for authors but helps readers get the most out of the conclusion content. 

Therefore, your conclusion should be strong enough to leave readers feeling empowered with new knowledge and new perspectives.

Here are some guidelines to help you create powerful implications for your argument.

Use the Introductory Paragraph as a Guide

Your conclusion does not have to be a copy of your introduction. However, you can look back at the opening paragraph for inspiration and identify the main points to write a successful ending.

The conclusion of an effective essay will remind the reader of the main point and purpose for writing it.

Emphasize the Main Key Points

Reiterating your main points will help to drive home your argument and ensure that your audience understands what you are trying to say.

Use Transition Between Opening and Closing Lines

You can leave the reader with a strong feeling of closure by going back to the themes present in the introduction. 

This can be done using,

Consider the Reader’s Emotional Appeal

When you are writing content, read your paper and think about the emotions of your readers. Set the tone of the conclusion accordingly.

Ask questions:

 Keep this in mind as you create content, and you’ll be able to better connect with your audience.

End With a Thought-Provoking Sentence

You want your final sentence to make the reader think. Make them question what they have read and wonder what will happen next. This will leave a powerful and memorable influence on the reader and make them want to come back for more.

Let’s see.

By now you know the outline and how to write a general conclusion paragraph. But different essays require different writing styles. Hence continue reading to know the type of content to include in different essays. 

Writing Conclusions for Different Types of Essays

You can use conclusions every time you write an essay, report, or article that discusses issues, or events.

In short, your conclusion should answer the question: “so what?”

Here we have gathered your teacher’s favorite essays and explained how to write their conclusion. Download the conclusion pdf guide and write an effective conclusion.

As we have seen, a well-written conclusion paragraph can make all the difference in the world, while a poorly written one can ruin an essay. 

It is thus important to be aware of both the good and bad examples that are out there and to learn from them.

Let’s understand how to write a conclusion for an essay example using good and poor concluding paragraphs.

Good and Poor Conclusions Paragraph Examples

To ease your burden, these two conclusion paragraph samples will help you differentiate between the two. 

Refer below for a poorly constructed conclusion paragraph to avoid writing such confusing conclusions.

This sample on how to write a conclusion example of a bad conclusion will enable you to be mindful of using such vague conclusion sentences in your essay.

Readers don’t want a boring and half-done conclusion that misleads them. So, let’s understand the things to avoid in conclusion writing to have a better approach toward your conclusions.

The Don’ts of Writing a Good Conclusion

Here are a few things to avoid while crafting your conclusions.

We are sure that by avoiding these strategies in your last paragraph, you can write a compelling thought-provoking experience for the readers.

Let’s wrap it all up!

All in all, we have covered a great deal about how to write an effective conclusion. This blog helped you understand how to write a conclusion paragraph outline of different essay types. Alongside this, it provided some good and poorly constructed conclusion samples on how to write a powerful conclusion. 

With all of this information in hand, you are now ready to write your own concluding paragraph. Don’t forget the things to avoid while writing conclusions so that your essay can be synced together into one solid piece of writing

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

There are four main types of conclusions suitable for different academic papers: 1. Embedded 2. Retrospective 3. Reflective 4. Projective.

The 4 kinds of infective conclusions are; 1. The “That’s My Story and I’m Sticking to It” Conclusion 2. The “Sherlock Holmes” Conclusion 3. The “America the Beautiful”/”I Am Woman”/”We Shall Overcome” Conclusion. 4. The “Grab Bag” Conclusion

A good conclusion paragraph will usually be around 3-5 sentences. This should give you enough time to go over your main ideas and concepts briefly. Your conclusion is the last thing your reader will remember about your essay, so make it count!

George Conder

George Conder

What is a Topic Sentence

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How to write a book conclusion in three stupidly simple steps

How to write a book conclusion in three stupidly simple steps

March 19, 2021 by Liz Green

How do you write a conclusion for a non-fiction, self-help book? What do you say at the end of your book? Why is it sooooooo hard to wrap things up? You’ve written about so much stuff already—what’s left to say? How do you end your book in an awesome, not-at-all-lame way that makes readers excited to tell others what they’ve learned, eager to put their new knowledge into practice, and raving about you, the incredible author?!

As an editor and book coach, I read a TON of first-draft manuscripts, and writers almost always overcomplicate their book’s conclusion . There are really only three things a conclusion needs—and they are stupidly simple . Trust me: your big, beautiful brain is overcomplicating this conclusion thing, so let me break it down for you.

But first, do you need a structure for your conclusion?

This is the third post in a series. The first is How to Write a Book Introduction , and the second is How to Write a Book Chapter That’s Actually Good . As I said in those posts, not everyone needs a structure like the three steps presented here. If you're flying by the seat of your pretty panties and writing epic books, then go you!

But if you're not flying the g-string of victory, and you need some writing help,   here are three stupidly simple steps to write a book conclusion without overcomplicating the matter.

Three Stupidly Simple Steps to Write a Book Conclusion

Step 1. remember the point of all this.

Remind the reader of the point of this book —which is usually that they want to move from where they’re currently at to a solution . Refer to the I Get It and The Solution sections of your introduction and recall some of those details here.

Length: Three to five paragraphs.

Step 2. Here’s a little recap

Remind the reader of everything you’ve taught them. You might feel like you’re rehashing stuff; that’s how it should be. Humans need repetition to learn, so repeat the key takeaway from every chapter , and relate it back to how it will help the reader overcome their current challenge. Use the If You Remember Nothing Else… section of each chapter for this.

Length: One or two sentences to introduce this recap, plus one to three sentences per chapter recap, plus one or two sentences to conclude this section.

Step 3. What’s next?

Paint a picture of what life will be like for your reader when they’ve acted upon everything you’ve taught them. Let them see the new life available to them. This will leave them encouraged and excited.

Add a call-to-action at the end. This should direct them to somewhere where they can learn more . Often this is your website. Sometimes it’s a Facebook or other social media group, or a particular page on your site where they can access an additional resource. Consider how this book will funnel readers into interacting with you, and direct readers accordingly.

Length: Three to four paragraphs.

A note about length guidelines

The length guidelines above are  only guidelines ! Don’t get caught up in adhering to them. Writing is a creative process that can never be completely codified. The guidelines are there to keep you from steering wildly off-track, but  you must be the judge of your own work , and write accordingly.

If you have a book coaching package with me, I’ll guide you on length as we work through each chapter and tell you if your drafts are too long or short. If you’ve hired me as an editor , I’ll look out for this as I edit your writing. Otherwise, use your judgment to assess if you’ve said everything you need to on a topic in the shortest possible way.

Additional Conclusion Notes

The conclusion will be your shortest chapter in the book. It doesn’t really matter how long it is, but if it’s coming up at the same length as your chapter or longer, you need to revisit it. (See Most Common Pitfall, below.)

Writing Practice

If you get stuck during the writing process, drafting your conclusion can be a fantastic exercise to refocus on what you’re trying to accomplish.

Revisit your introduction (if you’ve written it) or introduction outline (if you haven’t yet) and ensure you’re tying up any loose ends. Refer back to anything you promised in the introduction and mention here how you fulfilled that promise .

Most Common Pitfall

Do not teach new content in your conclusion! Writers are usually generous people who want to give everything they’ve got to their reader. They’re often uncomfortable writing a chapter that doesn’t give more information, more teaching, and more help. However, this is the easiest and most common way of ruining a conclusion.

Your conclusion should just recap everything you’ve already said. This isn’t a cop-out; it’s essential in helping your reader retain the information and feel confident enacting it. If you overload the reader at this crucial moment, you’ll sink them. Hold back. Help them absorb what you’ve shared. They will love you for it.

What questions do you have about the three stupidly simple steps to write a book’s conclusion? Email me and ask away! I'm happy to help however I can.

Liz "One, Two, Three, I’m Outie" Green Editor, Book Coach, and Ghostwriter Green Goose Writing

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How to write a book chapter that's actually good.

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How to write a book introduction

Don't know where to start writing your book? Wondering how to write an introduction? Not sure what to include in your book's introduction? This is for you. If you're writing self-help, a guide, something that's designed to help other people by sharing your experience, knowledge, and stories, listen up for the seven essential parts of a book introduction . Read more…

how to write a conclusion easy

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How to write a conclusion to an essay

Which do you think count more: first impressions or last impressions?

A conclusion is the last impression that a reader will have of your essay: make it count!

Introduction to writing a conclusion

A conclusion is the final idea left with the reader at the end of an essay. Without it, an essay would be unfinished and unfocused.

A conclusion should link back to the essay question and briefly restate your main points drawing all your thoughts and ideas together so that they make sense and create a strong final impression.

A conclusion often includes a final thought or reflection to highlight the significance of the topic . It is usually a short paragraph.

Video about how to reflect on your main points in a conclusion

Reflecting on the argument.

Before you write your conclusion, it is a good idea for you to look again at your ideas in the essay. It can be particularly useful to re-read your introduction and think about what you have realised and explored as you wrote the essay. Your conclusion can then sum up what you have understood more deeply about the literature text and the essay topic.

If you think of your essay as a type of argument, persuading the reader to a particular point of view, then the conclusion can be a powerful way of bringing together the most important aspects of your argument.

Which of these statements is not true?

a) A conclusion brings together lots of new ideas to interest the reader.

b) A conclusion brings together the ideas already discussed in the essay.

c) A conclusion is important because it brings together what you understand about the text and topic.

Answer a) A conclusion is not the moment to introduce new ideas!

Drawing your essay to a close

Link back to the question.

Keep your conclusion focused by linking back to the question, title, statement or topic of the essay. This can be achieved by using key words from the essay question. For example:

Why is Jack an important character in the novel Lord of the Flies ?

In conclusion, the character of Jack is important because he represents the violent side of human nature in the novel.

Summarise the main points

In the conclusion, you should not simply repeat what you have said in the rest of the essay, but aim to reinforce these key ideas by briefly summarising your main points. One way to do this is to look back at all the topic sentences from the paragraphs in your essay and bring them together:

In conclusion, the character of Jack is important because he symbolises violence and savagery in the novel. His desire for power and increasing bloodlust represent the negative side of human nature. He is a charismatic character who is feared by the other boys on the island. He therefore acts as an important contrast to the character of Ralph.

Your conclusion should leave the reader thinking about the significance of the whole topic. So, in a literature essay, it is a good idea to include a final thought or reflection, perhaps one that looks forward, or outwards from the novel. For example:

At the end of the novel Jack’s reign of terror ends with the arrival of the British Naval Officer and this perhaps leaves the reader with some sense of optimism that human beings can change for the better when they are no longer frightened and under the power of an evil leader.

Which links back to the question?

Which of the following concluding sentences clearly links back to this question: How is the character important in the novel?

a) In the novel, the main character changes from being selfish and angry to being caring and happy. b) Overall, this character is important in the novel because they learn the most important life lesson: look after others not just yourself. c) The novel is a ghost story and the sinister setting of the orphanage adds to the horror.

Answer: b) ‘Overall, this character is important in the novel because they learn the most important life lesson: look after others not just yourself.’ Key words in the title ‘character’ and ‘important’ have been used to link the conclusion back to the essay question.

Useful sentence starters

You could use one of the following sentence starters to signal to the reader that you are concluding the essay:

What to avoid

The conclusion is an important way to wrap up your ideas. Without a conclusion, your writing may seem unfinished or your overall aim may not be clear. The conclusion is your final chance to leave an impression on the reader.

Test your knowledge

Writing in response to fiction, how to use evidence from a text, how to write an essay, how to write an introduction to an essay.

how to write a conclusion easy

How to Write an Effective Essay Conclusion (6 Techniques)

I’m Tutor Phil, and in this tutorial, I’ll teach you six different techniques to write a conclusion paragraph for an expository essay. You can use any one of these to suit your essay, class, or instructor.

Sample Essay Thesis for Our Conclusions

To write a conclusion, we need an essay or at least its summary. Here are the thesis statement and structure of the body of the essay for which we’ll write the conclusion paragraph. 

“In spite of a couple of minor drawbacks, a vacation in the Dominican Republic can be totally awesome. There may not be much sight-seeing, and the weather may disappoint at the wrong time of the year. However, beautiful sandy beaches, excellent food, and 24-hour entertainment really make it a winner.”

Sample Structure of the Body of the Essay

how to write a conclusion easy

Without further ado, let’s explore how you can write an essay conclusion. Here are… 

Six Essay Conclusion Writing Techniques

Technique 1. Restate your main and supporting points 

This conclusion writing technique is foundational. Teachers and graders expect it most commonly, and you’ll use it most often. It is easy to write, and it satisfies most graders, including those who grade tests and exams. 

Let’s write one. What do we have in our sample essay thesis and structure? We have an essay that is divided into two parts – a smaller negative part and a larger positive part. 

So, it’s a mostly positive review of a vacation spot. 

Rewriting the Thesis Statement

All we really need to do here is rewrite the thesis statement (including the supporting points), using different words. 

In case your thesis statement does not include your supporting points, you should read my guide to writing an effective thesis statement .

But in any case, don’t worry. Just look at your essay structure the way I represent it in the diagram and write down your supporting points. And let’s do the restatement.

Sample Restatement Conclusion Paragraph

“To sum up, the Dominican Republic is mostly a winning vacation spot. The scarcity of interesting places to see and a few rainy days could dim the experience. But a vacation in this tropical country is very likely to be a success because of the pristine beaches, excellent dining, and the possibility to party non-stop.”

If you compare this conclusion with the thesis statement , you’ll notice several things:

You see, it’s hard for a grader to argue with it. It is true to the rest of the essay, yet is not an exact copy of anything in it.

When looking for non-repetitive words, you can use an online thesaurus, such as Thesaurus.com . A thesaurus is simply a tool that gives you synonyms, antonyms, and other words that you can use in your writing. 

How to Take Your Conclusion Beyond Restatement

Some graders, mostly college professors, want and expect conclusions that are more than just a simple restatement.

The five other ways to write a conclusion paragraph that I’m about to give you will make your conclusion mostly non-repetitive. I say “mostly” because we’ll have to at least briefly restate the main point, whatever technique we choose.

Remember – you can combine these techniques. You can start out by restating the main and any of the supporting points briefly. And then you can follow up with one or more of the ideas below. 

Now, here are the rest of the conclusion writing techniques. 

Technique 2. Admit that your point of view is limited 

In our sample essay thesis, when we discuss the positives, we choose to talk about the beaches, the food, and the entertainment. 

This leaves out many other positive aspects of the Dominican Republic as a vacation destination. 

So, in your conclusion, you can simply admit that you chose to focus on some of the aspects but not the others that are also worthy of talking about. But you simply omitted them because of the time or word count constraints. 

Sample Limited View Conclusion Paragraph

“In conclusion, many things make the Dominican Republic a really great vacation destination. The beaches, the food, and the entertainment are only a few of them. To discuss all of them, such as the hospitality of the local people, the water sports, and low prices, would take up many pages. Suffice it to say that this country is definitely a winner when it comes to picking a spot to relax and renew.”

In this example, the third sentence is where we throw in a few additional positive elements. 

Note that we won’t elaborate on any of these elements. We simply mention them briefly and leave them at that. And the rest of the conclusion is mostly restatement.

Technique 3. Provide a future perspective 

Sample Future Perspective Conclusion Paragraph

“To conclude, the Dominican Republic is a really great vacation destination thanks to its beaches, food, and entertainment. Importantly, it looks like the traveler of the future is bound to have even more fun in this paradise. Many new hotels, clubs, and fishing and scuba diving ventures are being developed today. And that is exciting!”

Technique 4. Provide a historical perspective 

This conclusion writing technique is easy, too. It may involve a small bit of research, but you can use it even on a test where it’s okay to just use your imagination.

Here, you simply look back in time and discuss how your subject fared in the past. In our case, let’s pretend that the Dominican Republic was not a popular destination 20 years ago. 

Sample Historical Perspective Conclusion Paragraph

“Although the Dominican Republic was not even on a traveler’s map 20 years ago, today it is one of the best vacation spots in the world. In the past couple of decades, its coastal areas have evolved from rural vacant lands to a series of resorts with great beaches, amazing food, and non-stop entertainment.”

Again, I’m making things up here just for the sake of an example. But you can see that in the midst of restated material, we have some history woven in. 

Technique 5. Zoom out

This technique is about providing a bigger picture. It is more of a bird’s eye view because that’s what zooming out on a map does – it allows you to see more than just your subject. 

Let’s zoom out and look at the Caribbean as a whole. And we can mention several other destinations in that part of the world. 

Sample Zoomed Out Conclusion Paragraph

“The Dominican Republic is mostly a great vacation spot. Though it may not offer spectacular sightseeing or perfect weather, its beaches, food, and entertainment are sure to satisfy vacationers. In today’s world, people have all kinds of choices. Some like Jamaica, others the Bahamas, and still others love the Cayman Islands. But the Dominican Republic should definitely be on the list of serious vacationers.”

We added two sentences about three other vacation spots in the Caribbean into the conclusion paragraph. And again, it is just a brief mention. And then we go back to DR as our subject. 

Technique 6. Make suggestions for future research

This technique is commonly accepted in research papers. A good, legitimate way to conclude a study is to suggest future areas of research for this subject. 

Like in technique 2, you can admit that you haven’t quite covered something enough or at all, and future researchers would do well to research those things. 

Sample Future Research Suggestion Conclusion Paragraph

“To conclude, the literature has revealed that the Dominican Republic has been increasing in popularity as a vacation spot in the past decade. Future studies can explore the role of different aspects of resorts that contributed to this increase the most. It would be interesting to see if people have been attracted more to the beaches, the food, the entertainment, or to other factors more than to others.”  

A Few Misconceptions About Essay Conclusions

“Essay conclusions should captivate the reader.”

“Conclusions should enforce and deepen the supporting points.”

No, they should not. All the relevant evidence to support your main point should be presented in the body of the essay.

No, it’s not. You “sell” your essay and your main point in the opening paragraph or even in the title. And if your first paragraph was not enticing enough, then trust me – the reader won’t even get to your conclusion. 

Essay Conclusion Writing Tips 

Hope this was helpful.

Now go write that essay conclusion!

Tutor Phil is an e-learning professional who helps adult learners finish their degrees by teaching them academic writing skills.

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Essay Writing Guide

How To Write A Conclusion

Nova A.

Learn How to Write a Conclusion in Simple Steps

Published on: Oct 26, 2017

Last updated on: Jan 23, 2023

how to write a conclusion

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Many students struggle to find the perfect ending for their essays. The conclusion is just as important to an essay's success as the introduction. Without it, you will have failed in your goal of captivating and compelling readers from beginning through the end.

Students wonder why they get poor grades even after submitting a well-structured paper. They do not pay attention to the fact that the reason behind this is that the paper may not give a sense of completeness.

It is important to learn how to write a conclusion and make sure the ending is worth remembering. Writing an engaging, captivating wrap-up may seem difficult but with planning, it becomes easier than one would think.

Keep reading and get to know how to write a perfect conclusion paragraph.

How to Write a Conclusion Paragraph?

The last paragraph in essay writing summarizes all the important points and restates your  thesis statement  introduced in the first paragraph. Conclusions are used to wrap up the whole information discussed in the paper. After moving from the introduction and body paragraphs to the conclusion, make sure it pulls back to the main points of your argument.

There are many questions regarding a conclusion that people are looking for answers to:

If you are looking to answer to any of the above questions, refer to the following section and find a step-by-step guide for writing a proper conclusion.

Writing a conclusion does not mean reiterating the introduction. But you can take help from the first paragraph of your paper and draw out the important points to write an impressive ending.

If it is a long paper, a good approach is to look at what each paragraph was about. In this way, you can get an idea to summarize the key points in the last paragraph.

Another effective approach is to end your paper with something for the readers to think about. You can also offer something to do for readers after finishing reading your paper.

A conclusion is meant to summarise your work and provide a sense of closure for the reader. Writing in this manner can be an excellent way of bringing everything full circle and ensuring that there are no loose ends left.

Follow the same guidelines if you don’t know how to write a conclusion for a speech.

Conclusion Paragraph Outline

Writing an  essay introduction  and body paragraphs is a great accomplishment. But don’t forget you have to pay equal attention to the concluding paragraph as well.

The conclusion to any essay should be as engaging and exciting for the reader. It can't just end like an ordinary conversation.

Here is the conclusion paragraph outline that you should follow for a perfect closing.

Also known as a conclusion starter, used once again and for the last time rephrasing the thesis statement. A  topic sentence  should have the main idea but different wording than the introduction.

This section summarizes the main arguments discussed in the essay’s body paragraphs. In addition to that, it explains how the ideas fit together.

The final words of the essay should connect back to the main idea discussed in the introductory paragraph. The last sentence should provide a sense of closure by clearly making a final point.

Conclusion Paragraph Examples

The best way to learn more about writing an effective conclusion is to look at conclusion paragraph examples by professional writers. Below we have provided you with two perfect conclusion examples to help you learn how to write a conclusion for an essay.

The following is a list of conclusion examples for various types of writing assignments. They give you an idea of how to wrap up your paper or project in time.

How to Write a Conclusion For an Essay - Example

How to Write a Conclusion For a Research Paper - Example

How to write a Conclusion For an Argumentative Essay - Example

How to Write a Conclusion For a Report - Example

How to Write a Conclusion For a Thesis - Example

How to Write a Conclusion For a Persuasive Essay - Example

Conclusion Paragraph Example 1

Violence was not the creation of television. The links between television and violence are pretty clear but we must not draw false conclusions in this regard. If television is considered to be the only influence on a child and there is no context in which the child views television, the consequences can be very damaging. The television does not corrupt the child solely, that process starts earlier by the forces that make the television the child’s moral arbiter - roles for which it is entirely unsuited. Clearly, television does not have to be a nanny, relatively little thought and money should be applied to a child’s programming. That it becomes a dangerous outcome, television itself is not to blame.

Conclusion Paragraph Example 2

People either see college as a great opportunity or nothing but an inconvenience. Thus a degree can only hold a value as much as its owner’s skill set. The unemployment among young graduates puts the worth of college degrees in doubt. But the number of benefits that educated and skilled students bring to society and the economy. The connection between these remains in balance. Ordinary people might consider college as a good investment opportunity, but only if they stay focused and determined to study hard.

Do not copy the examples as it is in your assignment otherwise you will have to face the consequences of plagiarism.

Tips for Writing a Great Conclusion

For writing a great conclusion, keep in mind the following tips to know what it takes for writing a perfect ending. These tips will help you check the conclusion and other parts of essays if they meet the specific recommendations or not.

Hopefully, now you know how to write a good conclusion paragraph.

But if you are struggling to write an effective essay conclusion and need a bit of extra help. It is better to go for professional  essay help  by contacting us at  MyPerfectWords.com  to get high-quality academic help at ease.

Our experienced team of  professional essay writers  can complete even the trickiest tasks and solve your writing problems in the shortest duration. So what are you waiting for? Go ahead and let us create an impressive paper for you. 

Place your order now to get the best  essay writing help .

Frequently Asked Questions

How long should a conclusion be.

A conclusion paragraph is typically 4-5 sentences long and contains an average of 50 to 75 words. It should be longer than the rest of your essay, but not so much that you're summarizing everything in it or repeating yourself.

How long should a 3000-word essay conclusion be?

The conclusion should take up 10% of the total word count in an academic essay. For example, in a 3000-word essay, the conclusion should be 2 paragraphs.

What are the 5 steps of a conclusion?

Here are the five steps of writing a good conclusion. 

What are the 3 parts to a conclusion?

The main three parts of a conclusion are: 

Nova A. (Literature, Marketing)

Nova Allison is a Digital Content Strategist with over eight years of experience. Nova has also worked as a technical and scientific writer. She is majorly involved in developing and reviewing online content plans that engage and resonate with audiences. Nova has a passion for writing that engages and informs her readers.

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The Only Guide to Essay Writing You’ll Ever Need

Matt Ellis

Feel passionately about something and want to share it? Write an essay! Disagree with a popular opinion and wish to convince others to join you? Write an essay! Need to write something because the college you dream of attending is making you? Write an essay! 

“Essay” is a loose term for writing that asserts the author’s opinion on a topic, whether academic, editorial, or even humorous. There are a thousand different approaches to essay writing and a million different topics to choose from, but what we’ve found is that good essay writing tends to follow the same framework. 

Give your essays extra polish Grammarly helps you write with confidence Write with Grammarly

Below we discuss that framework and how you can apply it to your essays, whatever types they may be. But first, let’s start with the nucleus of any good essay: the topic.

Your essay needs a thesis statement 

There are three things to consider before writing your essay: thesis, type, and audience. Of these, the most important by far is your thesis, or the crux of what your essay is about.

Your thesis, encapsulated in your thesis statement , is the central point you’re trying to make. The thesis of Bertrand Russell’s essay “ In Praise of Idleness ,” for example, is that people focus too much on work and don’t value time spent idly. Essays can occasionally stray and go into related tangents, but they always come back to that one core idea in the thesis. 

You should always pinpoint your thesis before writing. If you’re having trouble nailing it down, ask yourself, “What’s the one thing I want my reader to remember when they’re done reading my essay?”

The best practice is to include your thesis as soon as possible, even in your topic sentence if it’s appropriate. You’ll want to reiterate it throughout the essay as well, especially when wrapping up everything in the conclusion. 

The rest of your essay, then, supports your thesis. You can include empirical evidence, testimonials, logical deductions, or even persuasive rhetoric —whatever gets the job done. The point is that you’re building upon your initial thesis, not switching to completely different topics. 

Types of essays

Like any form of writing, essays come in many different types. Sometimes the assignment dictates the type, as with admissions essays, and other times the thesis will determine it. Regardless, it helps to know what your options are, so here are some of the most common essay types: 

Argumentative essay

Argumentative essays assert or defend a position. This is the most common type of school paper, so keep that in mind when writing your first college essay . 

Admissions essay

Most colleges request an admissions essay in applications, which typically revolve around why you’re interested in their school. 

Persuasive essay

A persuasive essay is just as it sounds: an essay to persuade or convince the reader of a certain point. It’s similar to an argumentative essay— they both strongly favor a particular point of view, but the difference is the end goal: Argumentative essays just have to present their case, while persuasive essays have to present their case and win over the reader. 

Compare-and-contrast essay

When you want to devote equal attention to two opposing things, a compare-and-contrast essay works better than argumentative or persuasive essays, which lean to one side over the other.

Personal essay

Personal essays are often anecdotal or real-life stories of the authors, like the works of David Sedaris . Because they tend to follow narrative structures, the thesis can be flexible or interpretive. 

Expository essay

An expository essay thoroughly explains a certain topic to expand the reader’s knowledge. It is similar to an argumentative and persuasive essay in format, but with one key difference: expository essays don’t have a bias. 

Know your essay’s audience

Your final consideration is who will read your essay—a teacher, an admissions counselor, your peers, the internet at large, etc. 

No matter what you’re writing, your audience should influence your language. For one thing, your readers determine whether the essay is formal or casual , which has an enormous impact on language, word choice, and style . Take emojis for example: In a casual essay they might be welcome, but for formal writing they’re not the most appropriate choice. 😓

Your audience also affects the essay’s tone, or how you sound on an emotional level (enthusiastic, cautious, confident, etc.). If you’d like to know more, you can read about the 10 common types of tone here . 

The essay writing process

If you’re writing an essay, research paper , term paper, novel, short story, poem , screenplay, blog article about essay writing—when writing just about anything , really—it’s crucial to follow an efficient writing process. Even if you prefer the stream of consciousness style for writing your rough draft, you still need to have an orderly system that allows you to revise and hone. 

For essay writing, we recommend the standard five-step writing process :

1 Brainstorming

It always helps to collect your thoughts before you begin writing by brainstorming . Based on your prompt or thesis, try to generate as many ideas as possible to include in your essay. Think of as many as time allows, knowing that you’ll be able to set aside the ideas that don’t work later. 

2 Preparing

The preparation phase consists of both outlining your essay and collecting resources for evidence. Take a look at the results of your brainstorming session. First, isolate the ideas that are essential to support your thesis and then organize them in a logical and progressive order. In this stage you’ll incorporate your essay structure, which we explain below.

If you want empirical evidence or complementary citations, track them down now.  The way you write citations depends on the style guide you’re using. The three most common style guides for academics are MLA , APA , and Chicago , and each has its own particular rules and requirements for citing just about  any  kind of source, including newspaper articles ,  websites ,  speeches , and  YouTube videos .

This is the main stage of essay writing where you roll up your sleeves and actually write your first draft . Remember that everything doesn’t have to be perfect; this is your first draft, not your final draft, so give yourself the freedom to make errors. If you’re focusing on getting every single word right, you’ll miss the big picture. 

The revisions stage involves your second draft, your third draft, or even your twelfth draft if necessary. Address all the nuances and subtleties you glossed over in the first draft. 

Pay attention to both word choice and clarity , as well as sophisticated writing techniques like avoiding the passive voice . If you’re not confident in your writing skills yet, the Grammarly Editor ensures your writing is readable, clear, and concise by offering sentence structure and word choice suggestions, plus clarity revisions as you write. Grammarly helps catch common mistakes with sentence structure—like run-on sentences, sentence fragments, passive voice, and more.  

5 Proofreading

When all the heavy-duty revisions are finished, it’s time for the final polish. Go through your essay and correct misspellings , formatting issues, or grammatical errors. This is also where you can turn to Grammarly’s AI-powered writing assistant, which helps catch these common mistakes for you. Or  copy and paste your writing to check your grammar and get instant feedback on grammar, spelling, punctuation, and other mistakes you might have missed.

Essay structure

Essay structure almost always follows a simple beginning-middle-end format, or in this case, an introduction-body-conclusion format. However, it’s what’s contained within those sections that makes all the difference. 


Essays follow the same guidelines for introductions as any other piece of writing, with an extra emphasis on presenting the thesis prominently, ideally in the topic sentence. By the end of your introduction paragraph, your reader should know without a doubt what your essay is about. From there, follow the conventional best practices on how to write an introduction . 

Body paragraphs

The majority of your essay is body paragraphs , all of which support your thesis and present evidence. 

Pay close attention to how you organize your body paragraphs. Some arguments benefit from a logical progression, where one point leads to a second, and that second point leads to a third. Remember that the reader doesn’t understand the topic like you do (that’s why you’re writing the essay), so structure your paragraphs in the way that’s best for their comprehension. 

What if you’re writing an argumentative essay where you compare and contrast two or more points of view? Do you present your argument first and then share opposing points of view, or do you open with your opposition’s argument and then refute it? 

Serious writers can get pretty technical about how to organize an argumentative essay. There are three approaches in particular used often: Aristotlian (classical), Rogerian , and Toulmin . However, these can get exceedingly complicated, so for a simple essay, a basic structure will do just fine:

Essay conclusions wrap up or summarize your thesis in a way that’s easy for the reader to digest. If you get the chance, you can add a new perspective or context for understanding your thesis, but in general the conclusion should not present any new evidence or supporting data. Rather, it’s more of a recap. For more specific tips, read about how to write a conclusion for an essay here . 

Five-paragraph essay

For quick and simple essays, you don’t need to get too technical with your essay structure. The five-paragraph essay structure works well in a pinch. This contains:

While this essay structure might not be flexible enough for more advanced topics, it comes in handy when speed is a factor, like during timed tests. 

Essay writing tips

Master the five fundamentals.

Especially for school essays, your reader will scrutinize how well you handle the fundamentals. Knowing about essay structure and the writing process is one thing, but can you demonstrate an understanding of language style? Can you develop your thesis logically and coherently? Are your references and citations trustworthy?

When you’re ready for the next step of essay writing, take a look at the five concepts you must master to write better essays . The tips there pick up where this guide leaves off. 

Seek out another pair of eyes

This tip is not just for essays; it’s always advisable to have someone else read over your writing before finalizing it. All too often we miss the forest for the trees, and thinking long and hard on the same topic can give you tunnel vision. The solution is to get a fresh take from someone who’s seeing it for the first time. 

Typically you can swap with a friend and edit each others’ works. If that’s not an option, however, you can also use a writing center or join a writing group online. At the very least, you should sleep on it and take another look when you’re refreshed. 

Remember: Grammar and form are essential 

It’s not always about what you say, but how you say it. You could have the most obvious, objectively agreeable thesis in the world, but if your writing is incoherent, confusing, and full of mistakes, it’s tough to engage with your reader. 

For when your writing needs to make the right impact, Grammarly Premium offers full-sentence rewrites for confusing sentences—from splitting long sentences, cutting extra words, or rearranging key phrases—in addition to catching common grammar mistakes. It also gives you readability-focused formatting suggestions, so you know your writing is clear. It also helps those who are looking to improve their writing skill level in English, with suggestions for commonly misused words and phrases. 

Honing your writing with these elements in mind is key to relaying your point to your reader—and asserting your thesis as effectively as possible.

how to write a conclusion easy


An Easy Guide On How To Write A Query Letter

Table of Contents

What is a Query?

You should first understand what a query is all about before you proceed to writing a query letter.

Simply put, a query is a question. You are asking an individual a question, most especially to settle or resolve your doubt on a particular situation.

It could be placed in such a way that you are questioning such a person to gain knowledge about the person’s misconduct. Like, “can you answer why you are yet to get to the office at this time?”.

What is a Query Letter?

Query letter is issued out to an individual or a worker of an organisation who in one way or the other has committed an offence. 

All you need to know about how to write a query letter will be stated here and you will gain enough from this. Learning how to write a query letter is quite simple, as it should be a one-page letter. 

A query letter should be short and straight to the point. There is no need for a long story. 

The recipient of the query letter should know that you’re displeased with him/her, no time for how you are, or unnecessary questions.

A query letter is given to people, be it in the financial institutions, federal service, state service and a host of others. 

Often times, a query letter is mostly given to someone that has gone against the code and conduct of a particular organisation and to call such a person to order, the need for a query letter comes up.

A query letter is also seen as a warning letter. A letter given to an individual to warn him/her to desist from their misconduct, else, leading to grave consequences.

No one at work would want to be issued a query letter or a warning letter as it is a minus in his/her records.

A query letter is written to address issues such as late coming, inappropriate dressing/behaviour, poor performance at the workplace and a host of others.

As a boss at the working place, you have noticed quite a number of toxic coworkers and you must confront their misconduct by sending a query letter or warning letter.

Or when a co-worker is not performing as he/she should, the person is first reprimanded, this could be by word of mouth or a letter of misconduct is issued. 

If such a person fails to persist from such an act, then, a query letter is issued to such person to know the cause of misconduct. 

Are you a writer who wants his/her write-ups published online? Join Insight.ng’s Whatsapp community. 

How To Write a Query Letter

Put in mind that the query letter should be written as formal letter, not informal letter. Don’t make the mistake of being friendly or asking questions that doesn’t involve the offense you’re addressing.

At most your query letter should be between 3-5 paragraphs. You should provide a detailed explanation of why you’re writing the letter in the first place. Include details about the wrongdoings of the person and also the time it occurred should be clearly stated in the letter, what the person did wrong, and if there had been prior warnings before writing the query letter, they should be mentioned in the letter.

Read also: How to write an excuse letter of absence from work. 

Samples of a Query Letter  

Head of Department,

Digging & Wells Co,

Esther Banks,

Florence Peter,

Date: 16th March 2018

Subject: Late Coming to the Business Office 

Dear Florence,

It has  come to our recent observation that you have been coming late to the business office for the last two weeks (14 working days)and it is in your best interest to reconsider your choice of resumption to the business office, as your decision would either affect you positively or negatively. 

You can go back to the company’s code of conduct books to get acquainted better with the timings of the business office. From 7:30am till 5:30pm

Kindly desist from your newfound hobby of coming late to the business office as this practice is strongly frowned upon by the management. Take this as a warning as a repeat of such behaviour would lead to serious punishment.

(Your Signature),


Read also: How to write a professional cover letter for job application.  

Here is another sample of a query letter below and this is placing focus on the nonchalant attitude of this particular worker to work.

Perhaps you have such a person in your office/organisation, this query letter is definitely your go-to if you’re considering issuing one to the person.

Abayomi Pamilerin,

Retail Officer.

Marketing Department.

From:  Justin Joseph,

Head of Human Resources.

December 12th, 2022. 

Subject: Letter of Query for Misconduct.

This letter serves as a formal reprimand for your display of unprofessionalism and nonchalant attitude to the growth of the business office.

You were invited to a meeting that included the branch manager, the head of the disciplinary committee and other co workers that were involved in this misconduct on October 20, 2022. 

You were informed at this meeting that your nonchalant attitude and poor performance are not acceptable in the workplace. You were warned against engaging in such activity. 

On November 15, 2022, a warning email was sent to you requesting you to change your behaviour which you have failed to obey after the meeting. You continued your behaviour despite the warnings you have received.

Seeing that this is the third time we have expressed our dislike towards your behaviour, you have decided to desist from this same attitude. This behaviour of yours is inappropriate because it is against our code of conduct in Section 1, Part B which states boldly that the working environment should be peaceful, and the laws abided to, anything against this seeks for the disunity of the organisation which you have failed to abide by.

Your employment would be terminated without further notice if such behaviour is repeated as you have been given enough chances to change your attitude to work and your attitude to your coworkers.

Let this letter open your eyes to your nonchalant attitude and total disregard to your boss and fellow workers in the business office as a repeat performance would not be accepted.

A justification for your continued attitude must be written and sent to [email protected] as requested by the management. Should you have a justification or you feel there is a miscommunication, include it in your letter also. 

Yours Sincerely, 

Justin Joseph.

[Your Signature] 

Read also: Insights on how to write a resignation letter. 

Now you know what a query letter is. With the samples above, you have something to use as a guide at your place of work. Don’t forget that the query letter should be a formal letter and not an informal letter.

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How to Write a Criminal Law Dissertation? The Simple Guide

topics for law dissertation

Criminal law is a critical topic of legal degree that needs much focus and attention to learn. Even the slight distraction can cost students to sleep the issue understanding. College students have to write multiple tasks while pursuing a legal degree. They get many complex issues, which have to craft with quality. But to create a lengthy document, they need much knowledge of the subject. It also requires in-depth analysis and time to take over the writing. In this situation, seeking  law dissertation help  can be valuable to complete the document on time. Online experts have expertise in writing work because they do this daily.

A criminal law dissertation topic is a vast field. If a student wants to learn everything about current issues, it requires much time and concentration. But one difficulty scholars face is learn the legal language to write like professionals. Crafting and learning a criminal law dissertation is daunting for students. Mainly, when writing a dissertation in criminal law, students need to examine all facts found during the research before framing the answer. This process mostly takes time, and a scholar has to have perfect knowledge of legal terms to use them in writing a project.

A prime problem students encounter while writing criminal law dissertations is not having proper learning. There are high possibilities for scholars to write a poor-quality project with less knowledge. Hiring law dissertation help to complete legal work with high quality. Also, professionals can do everything from topic selection to writing according to structure. Taking the help of experienced people can put an end to all the tangled problems. It is the most valuable benefit for students to deliver a project without delay.

Table of Contents

What Is a Criminal Law Dissertation?

Before starting to write the criminal law dissertation, it is obvious to know this field correctly. Students have to write multiple types of projects while pursuing a legal degree. But writing a document based on criminal law might be a new experience for scholars. In addition, this is much longer, and more detailed information needs to craft a better work. Still seeking law dissertation help from a subject expert can prepare the document for students quickly. There are many points which students have to remember if they want to create a legal project correctly. By keeping this in mind, it is easy for them to craft a document by following  the guidelines. 

But picking topics for law dissertation is another problem students find difficult. Choosing a better issue related to the question needs knowledge and research. It is the most vital part of a criminal law dissertation because it highlights your views and ideas throughout the title. University professors get a rough idea with a better topic which impresses them and ultimately gives students maximum scores. You can read the following sections to know the essential points of writing. But first, read the next paragraph, which can assist in choosing criminal law dissertation topics.

Choosing Criminal Law Dissertation Topics

The most critical point while writing a dissertation is choosing an accurate topic to write a long piece of write-up. It is also a large document that consists of a major part of the degree. Here is a short guide to choosing better titles:

Now after knowing how to choose topics for law dissertation, you can go on to the next stage, which is about to learn the correct structure of a dissertation. It can be helpful for crafting a document with an accurate format, which is also essential to get better scores.

How to Structure a Criminal Law Dissertation?

There are some things that students should determine in the general structure of the criminal law dissertation. You can follow the below pointers to craft a well-formatted document:

Students must keep these above things in mind to make a perfect document. They have a hectic schedule because of multiple write-ups, regular classes, and extra activities, which makes their life challenging. They can seek law dissertation help experts to create exceptional writing work. Also, following the above-written pointers is valuable to prepare for a better legal task without taking a lot of stress.

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How to Write a Personal Statement for a Job? 4 Easy Steps to Write a Great One!

how to write a personal statement for a job

If you’re wondering how to write a personal statement for a job , do not worry anymore – it is really easy! In order to write a good personal statement, you must be prepared with a crisp and precise short paragraph, comprising 3-4 lines, to fit into the cover letter for the job you’re applying for.

Prospective employers and hiring managers are always looking for potential candidates with relevant experience, relevant skills, and a hunger for learning and improving constantly. Fortunately, anybody can showcase their potential and catch the attention of a hiring manager, with a proper personal supporting statement.

Writing a great personal statement along with your cover letter will impress your employer, which will help you get ahead to the next step of the hiring process – The Interview. So, a strong personal summary for your potential employer and the job description is the first step to standing out!

Read ahead to know more about what is a personal statement and how to write a personal statement for a job, which will catch the attention of your employer with the most precise and crisp description.

Table of Contents

1. How to Write a Personal Statement for a Job?

1.1 what is a personal statement.

how to write a personal statement for a job

A Personal Statement is a brief personal summary of your personal attributes, relevant skills like soft and technical skills, academic achievements, and career goals. The same personal statement stand is attached to the top of the cover letter for the job application.

Personal statements are generally used to display the key points and share details about your personal profile, to present why and how are you the perfect candidate for the job description they’ve given. The word count of a personal statement is normally 150-200 words.

Sometimes, employers ask for only a personal statement of 500-100 words instead of an entire CV or Cover Letter. In those cases, you can write a bit more but always use the valuable space for writing a crisp and strong statement that solidifies your skills and how you’re suitable for the job advert.

Whatever the word limit may be, divide the words evenly with consistent paragraphs of 2-3 lines, if 150 words, or 4-5 lines if the word range is even more. In the online exciting world of job searches, the attention span of humans has reduced, as they have got busier with so many job applications.

To stand out from the bulk mass of candidates, it is crucial to present a precise, neatly structured supporting statement, which only speaks to the point when it comes to your skills. It has been confirmed that employers barely give 10 seconds to each personal statement, so it is indeed needed to catch the attention within those first seconds.

1.2 Do’s before Writing your Personal Statement

1.2.1 create an outline or a structure.

In order to write a good personal statement, you must create the outline or structure of your personal statement. For this, you need to watch out for the word range asked of you in the job advert. It is always important to carefully read the job description and prepare the outline, accordingly to the needs of the job advert.

Read the criteria and specific skills they are looking for in their candidates in the particular role you’re applying for. When you’ve already identified what your employer wants from an ideal candidate, it would be easier for you to group your paragraphs accordingly.

Suppose you’re writing about your skills in your supporting statement. It is cleaner and more well-organized if you divided your skills into technical and soft skills. You use the first paragraph to describe your skills regarding the role and why you’d be a great fit for the company.

In the next paragraph, you may add your soft skills, which are not directly involved with the particular role, however, are precious qualities that one can look for in an employee. A few of the most demanded soft skills – Problem-solving, Listening skills, Team player, and Analyzing skills.

For another example, if you want to showcase your experiences in a similar field, you dedicate two paragraphs to your experience part. You can talk about your first job in the first paragraph and the last job in your second paragraph, to highlight a proper overview of your career path.

It is also a piece of crucial career advice that you must tailor individual and distinct personal statements for each and every job you apply to. You cannot use the same personal statement for every job other jobs, with the same wording or same structure. It gives off a straight-up terrible impression and your application would be disqualified. So, be careful with this.

1.2.2 Collect the Important Information

Once you’ve decided on a structure, it is time to collect and arrange all the information you want to add to your personal statement for the job application. Many candidates do the mistake of researching less on this part, while it is the exact part that needs the most attention.

You must brainstorm and collect all the group activities, personal projects, workshops, courses, internships, or even jobs, which is relevant to the job you’re applying to. Suppose you’re applying for Graphic Designing, but you do not have experience in that field.

At times like these, it’s best to avoid the part lacking experience and emphasis the workshops or courses you’ve attended to sharpen your knowledge and skills in Graphic Design. Make sure to present only true and relevant information to the employers. Faking a skill or an experience would not help you, rather without solid evidence, your application may get bypassed.

Similarly, if you want to display how good of a team player you are, with great social and communication skills, you may refer to a group event in which you contributed as a team leader or member. You may talk about the major contribution you brought to the team and how it helped you develop a strong bond with your teammates.

The same group event could be used to cite your organizational skills or leadership skills. So, it totally depends on which part of the project you showcase to the employers, according to the requirements of the job advert.

Make sure to always be relevant and write to the point focusing only on the skills the employers are looking for. You may add extra skills if you’ve more words or paragraphs to draw attention to your personal statement.

1.2.3 Start Writing your Personal Statement

Once you’ve prepared the structure as well as collected the pieces of evidence to refer back to your resume, it is time to hold your pen and start writing the first draft of your personal statement. To hold the attention of the employers in the first second, you must begin your opening sentence with a twist.

The same goes for the closing paragraph and sentences, they must be used to re-emphasize your suitability for the particular role and how you could be the right candidate and a good match for their company.

You may also include your future plans and professional goals you’re aiming to achieve, to solidify your dedication and commitment to the company. It would land a great impression on the employers for candidates who mention their company and why they are motivated to work there.

1.3 How to Write your Personal Statement in 4 Easy Steps

1.3.1 start a strong opening sentence by introducing yourself.

People struggle with this part a lot. Writing a crisp and short introduction about yourself is definitely a bit tricky, especially when you do not know what to mention at the beginning. You can start the opening sentence with who you are, why you’re applying for this role, and where you work currently or simply your work history.

Please refrain from your introduction being too lengthy or descriptive. It is best to wrap up your introduction with the first 2-3 lines. If the word limit range is vast, then you take 4-5 lines for the introduction. Here are a few examples to understand.

This is a very neat and straightforward way to begin your personal statements. Employers will know you’re serious and not willing to beat around the bush. A short and precise opening sentence also takes less time to read, so employers will likely read the next paragraph as well.

1.3.2 Focus on Presenting your Main Skills

For clearer personal specifications, straight up begin naming your main key skills while referring to your collected evidence, such as projects internships, or workshops. Quote your relevant experiences and skills, both technical and soft that are essential for the job post you’re applying for.

Do mention where and how did you gain and put your relevant skills into practice in real-life situations or projects. For example, if you’re citing as being a problem solver, you can refer to your university projects where you handled a team on your own and solved disputes and communication gaps between the members.

It would come across as reliable and more convincing if you cite actual examples, with proper evidence. Do not make up a pretentious story about organizing an event or handling a team. Present only true and relevant information when applying to the job post.

1.3.3 Explain your Suitability for the Role and your Interest in the Company

After you’ve mentioned your skills, summarize a little and discuss why you think you are the right candidate for the role and what could you bring new to their table. Mention the abilities that set you apart from the crowd and your enthusiasm for the company.

Hiring managers and employers prefer motivated candidates even over experienced ones. So, even if you have the skills and experience, show your interest and excitement for the role and how you would follow the company to learn and improve in the process of working.

A learning mindset oozing with energy for the new company will always be the savior at the end of your personal statement. You can also mention the name of the company and what part of their work culture you respect and look forward to. This will certainly leave a lasting impact on your application.

1.3.4 Wrap up your Statement with a Re-Emphasis

For the ending part, write a short paragraph in concise detail to mention your suitability for the role once again. Do not show any hesitation or doubt when it comes to your set of skills. Sound confident and enthusiastic about the role.

Avoid writing any negative statement at the ending paragraph, whether it is a lack of experience or a lack of potential skills. Even if you lack at any, instead of mentioning it, explain how you’re willing to learn any new skills that you’ll be required of.

This way, you stay positive and clean, while displaying confidence in your work abilities and skills. Every employer is on the go for this kind of candidate. Here are a few examples .

how to write a personal statement for a job

2. Additional Tips to Write a Good Personal Statement

3. Conclusion

There you go! Now that you know how to write a personal statement for a job , be assured -you’ll definitely grab the attention of your potential company or organization.

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Take time when you’re gathering references to prove your skills, and avoid the mistakes that candidates usually make. Introduce yourself with a vibrant and catchy sentence and confidently state your suitability for the role at the end. Now, you’re all set to submit a great personal statement for any job you’re interested in.

Sampurna Laha

Sampurna is an experienced food & travel niche writer passionate about reading and experimenting with new destinations and their cuisine. Aspiring to become a professional lifestyle blogger, with a media studies background, she will lead you through some of the best recipes, restaurants, and landmarks worldwide.

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5 Ways Students Can Use ChatGPT To Improve Study & Work

Elise Williams

Elise Williams

Pdfelement-powerful and simple pdf editor.

Get started with the easiest way to manage PDFs with PDFelement!

ChatGPT was recently launched, yet many people can't stop talking about it. This AI-powered chatbot offers a fantastic platform for users to interact conversationally. ChatGPT is helpful in virtually all fields, and one of the top beneficiaries is students. ChatGPT for students is revolutionizing how students study and handle assignments, business plans, and CVs for jobs.

This article gives you the top 5 ways students can use ChatGPT to improve their study and work.

In this article

1. students can use chatgpt to take notes in class.

Students may prepare meticulously for exams. While this is true, preparing for an exam is an obvious requirement. Many teachers struggle to make study plans and take the right notes in class. However, technology is changing the landscape.

Students can use Wondershare PDFelement - PDF Editor to make study plans, notes, and other relevant learning materials. Thanks to the amazing PDF features that transform how you work with documents. PDFelement has gone a step further and integrated ChatGPT. This is simply amazing.

banner bottom

You can imagine working with PDFelement and ChatGPT on the same platform! PDFelement allows you to edit, create, convert, annotate, print, protect, share, merge, compress, and read these learning materials.

On the other hand, ChatGPT allows you to translate, query, and summarize large PDFs into relevant points for easy teaching. This is the experience every teacher is looking for, and you can afford to miss it.

The good thing is that ChatGPT comes with PDFelement. It is a one-time solution; you don't need to create a separate login account for ChatGPT.

How To Use ChatGPT To Make Notes in Class

The following steps illustrate using ChatGPT in PDFelement to make learning materials like notes, exams, and lesson plans.

Step 1 To begin with, open the target PDF file with PDFelement.

Step 2 You should see a robot icon at the bottom left when the PDF file loads. This is the icon of Wondershare PDFelement AI reading assistant powered by ChatGPT. Click this icon to display the ChatGPT window.

chatgpt ai reading assistant pdfelement

Step 3 Enter a suitable command in the ChatGPT text field to ask ChatGPT to make notes from the PDF. You can also ask it to generate exam questions or other relevant content from this PDF. Copy the results and create a new PDF from it.

2. Use ChatGPT To Translate & Summarize Long Articles

ChatGPT is a powerful tool for translating and summarising long articles into short, readable content. Research can be tiresome and time-consuming. Scores of students burn the midnight oil to find the right content for their research articles.

Reading a large file to obtain desired content is not a walk in the park. Even if you have the energy and impetus, it is just a matter of time before you hit a snag. This is exactly where you need the services of ChatGPT.

chatgpt translate text

ChatGPT allows you to summarize long articles in a matter of seconds. It analyzes large content volumes and uses this understanding to create the respective summary. This tool captures key points in the article and displays them in point form.

This way, extracting and reading relevant information from a long article becomes extremely easier and more convenient. Furthermore, ChatGPT is useful in translating texts from one language to another.

This AI-powered platform has been trained using large datasets from diverse languages and can accurately translate the content.

Therefore, you don't have to worry about the language of the source content. Ultimately, ChatGPT saves energy, time, and resources.

How To Summarize Long Articles With ChatGPT in PDFelement

The following steps illustrate how to summarize a long article with ChatGPT.

Step 1 First, open Wondershare PDFelement on your computer. Click the "Open PDF" button and upload the PDF file article that you want to summarize.

Step 2 When the article is uploaded to PDFelement's interface, navigate to the chat field and enter the command "summarize this paragraph into a list of important points".

chatgpt ai assistant summarize pdf

Step 3 Click the "Send" button, and ChatGPT will display the summary points of the main talking points in the article you provided. You can copy the result and create a new PDF file for this summary.

Step 4 You can also ask the AI assistant to translate texts, helping you understand articles in foreign languages easily.

chatgpt assistant pdfelement translate text

3. Prepare for Exams With ChatGPT

Preparing for exams is not an easy task. Revising and gathering the right materials for certain topics can be daunting, especially if you run out of time. You could be moving from one PDF to another, looking for the right points, or struggling to solve problems.

All these struggles can give you the experience to forget. Fortunately, ChatGPT can help you significantly solve these problems and make your exam preparations easier.

chatgpt prepare exam

The secret is installing the latest version of Wondershare PDFelement, which is integrated with ChatGPT!

While PDFelement gives you a platform to read your PDFs seamlessly, ChatGPT allows you to summarize, translate, solve problems, calculate, and answer questions.

The good thing is that you don't have to create a separate login account for ChatGPT. It is integrated with PDFelement.

4. Use ChatGPT for CV and Personal Statement Writing in Job Search

Job hunting can be daunting, and students understand how tiresome it can be, especially if you are not using the right technology. Customizing your CV and tailoring it to meet the job requirements requires time and energy. Furthermore, tracking the progress of the job you applied for and finding the right jobs to apply for also adds an insult to injury.

chatgpt create resume

Fortunately, several tools make it easy to generate amazing CVs and personal statements for job searches. When you visit the internet and curate these tools, dozens of them will pop up on your screen. These tools include visualCV, Zety, Enhancv, ResumeGenius, and Resume. The list is long.

While these websites are helpful, ChatGPT is a game changer in this rapidly evolving field. Its ability to use various sources and create a resume that best fits the job you need is amazing.

You only provide the relevant details and ask ChatGPT to generate a suitable resume. In a matter of seconds, this platform generates a good resume that can take you places.

Also, you can use ChatGPT to write a cover letter for a job. If you give it the right information, it is unsurprising if you get blown away by the result. While ChatGPT is a great tool, it is always important not to use the resume exactly the way it is.

chatgpt assistant pdfelement create cover letter

You can proofread and remove unnecessary sections or mistakes. Nevertheless, the quality of resume and personal statements they generate are top-grade.

5. Students Use ChatGPT to Create Business Plans & Start Their Own Business

Business plans are common in schools, and students understand the struggles of writing them. Getting the right structure and feeding the right content can be tiresome and time-consuming.

To begin with, you might be in the dark regarding what topic best suits you. You can research the whole day for title ideas but still remain undecided or unconvinced. Such experiences are not great, and you don't want to get stuck there.

Fortunately, ChatGPT makes your work easier. While it might not be fully accurate, it helps you brainstorm and generate good content for your business plan.

chatgpt assist business

You can ask for the business plan's best title ideas, structure, and respective content. This way, you don't have to open dozens of websites and books to write a proper business plan. You can ask ChatGPT to give you samples or write a suitable business plan for you.

If you want to proceed and start your own business, ChatGPT can be much more resourceful. You can ask questions like what business is suitable, how to start it, challenges, cost estimates, legal fees, potential locations, and everything surrounding your business idea.

Frame your questions correctly to get better results from ChatGPT.

How To Create a Business Plan With ChatGPT

The following steps show how students can use ChatGPT to prepare for exams.

Step 1 Open the target large PDF file with PDFelement. When the PDF file opens, click the ChatGPT icon at the bottom left of the window. Alternatively, you can search for a business plan template from PDFelement Template Mall.

business template mall pdfelement

Step 2 From the ChatGPT window, type commands in the text field to ask ChatGPT the structure of a business plan to get more knowledge about the elements in your business proposal.

chatgpt assistant pdfelement answer business questions

Step 3 You can also ask the AI assistant to draft any parts of the business proposal for you.

chatgpt assistant pdfelement create business objective

Step 4 You can copy the results and export them as a summarized PDF.

Free of bias, ChatGPT is an amazing tool for students. It is resourceful, and students can use it in a variety of ways to solve their problems. However, ChatGPT alone cannot be effective. This is why Wondershare PDFelement integrated ChatGPT with its latest version.

PDFelement will give you an amazing platform to read and process learning materials and meet your needs. ChatGPT allows you to translate, query, and summarize your work. What an amazing combination! Download the latest version of Wondershare PDFelement and improve your studies like never before.

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A beginner’s guide to testing your websites built with the Ghost platform

A beginner’s guide to testing your websites built with the Ghost platform

Jaidev Singh

Suppose you are leveraging the Ghost platform’s powers to run your business or blogging websites and are wondering what factors you need to consider before you deploy and publish it. In that case, this guide should prove helpful, and by the end, you should have a better understanding of testing a website built with Ghost.

Table Of Contents

What is Ghost?

Ghost is an open-source blogging platform built to simplify the process of online publishing for individual bloggers and online publications. One can use its tools to create blogging websites, publish content and even send newsletters to their paid audience.

It launched in 2013, with the project founder having worked in WordPress – a Content Management Site (CMS) also used for making websites and blogs. Today, Ghost is a popular choice amongst individuals and organizations for publishing blogs and content. Some notable users of the platform are IBM, Tinder, Sky News, VEVO, and Zappos.

Also, It is the #1 CMS on GitHub, having 42k stars (by the time of writing this blog) and being used by millions of people.

It offers an on-prem solution and also a managed service – Ghost (Pro) that requires minimal to no maintenance and handling of servers. If you are a person who wants flexibility, is tech savvy, or has a tech team to manage and monitor the servers, the on-prem solution might be the one for you, whereas if you don’t want all that hassle and just want to focus on the content, Ghost (Pro) would be a good choice.

On top of this, it offers multiple third-party integrations like Stripe, Google Analytics, Twitter, YouTube, and many more that can enhance your website.

There are, of course, other CMS alternatives available to start your blogging site or other websites, like Substack, WordPress, Medium, Patreon, etc.

The moving parts

So, you must be wondering that since everything is being handled by the Ghost blogging platform itself and that there is a lot of abstraction from the internal workings, what is there left to be tested by you? Let’s see.

Ghost is built on NodeJS, and uses technologies like ExpressJS, MySQL & SQLite databases, and Markdown, Ember, Handlebars for templating and user interface. Most of these things are used internally and abstracted from you as a user.

However, what we can control is the Handlebars part of it, which is used for creating the user interface (HTML) of your website. Ghost provides various themes out of the box, and one can also create a theme and upload it. So, we can use Handlebars, which is a templating language, to create custom themes to be used by the platform.

Another variable is the version of the platform you’re using. Even though the Ghost.org team thoroughly tests and then releases a version, upgrading to the newer versions could cause regression. So, one should have test cases in place to prevent this from happening.

So, as we can see, the moving parts over which we have control are quite small. Hence the scope of testing is also minimal. The relevant aspects to be tested could be as follows:

Unit Testing

GScan Testing

GScan is the authorized tool for scanning Ghost themes. It checks for errors and feature support. 

GScan works on a set of rules. Each rule has a way of checking whether it has failed or passed and also gives a descriptive solution on how to resolve that. There are three error levels associated with each rule, which are as follows:

In addition, an error can be marked as fatal. It means that if it is left unchecked, a Ghost publication would throw 500 errors on certain pages because of the detected out-of-date or erroneous code.

Unit Test is performed to test the different “units” in a source code, to ensure that every single unit is functioning properly.

There are several JavaScript Testing frameworks to choose from, such as Jest, Mocha, and Jasmine. Any one of these can be used to define the test cases, which can then be run on your custom Ghost Themes.

One way to test and streamline your unit tests is to use a testing tool like Testsigma . The tool helps in the easy creation, execution, and management of your test cases, saving effort and time while improving your code’s quality.

One can write test cases in simple English language , which means that anyone can contribute to testing. Besides, the platform reduces or even eliminates the complex setup processes, and the learning curve to use the tool is also not steep.

Browser Testing

Browser Testing is done to check whether the published website is rendering according to the expectations or not in a Web Browser. All the different aspects of the website’s UI (User Interface) can be tested through this test. Also, the test is not just limited to one Web Browser. Users all around the world use different browsers to access content on the internet. Some of the popular web browsers are Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, Safari, and Opera.

Conducting Cross-Browser Testing will ensure that every user consuming the content will have the same experience, without any surprises.

Also, one can test how a website would look and function on different devices like Desktops, Tablets, Mobiles, TVs, etc, to ensure multiple device support.

It is very important to know your user base and the kind of devices you want your website to function properly on.

While conducting Browser Testing, one has to make a list of devices and browsers they want to target for running their website seamlessly. This can be a time taking, manual and tedious task to complete. 

But by using a tool like Testsigma, we can run all the tests parallelly and complete all the tests in a short period.

Mobile-Friendly Testing

As mobile phones and tablets have become more powerful and prominent in today’s world, in most cases the traffic generated on websites is from these devices. 

So, it is wise to test if your websites are mobile responsive, and whether all the features and functionalities are accessible from these devices, and offer the same experience as on other devices.

Testsigma can be used here as well. As it helps you in delivering an amazing mobile experience to your clients and users of the website. Since it is a no-code tool, anyone without any kind of coding expertise can run the tests.

Visual UI Testing

Your Website’s UI must look according to the expected requirements. Hence, all the visually identifiable aspects should be checked for and asserted properly. For instance:

Use Testsigma to run visual UI tests as well. It takes snapshots of the UI, which you can use to compare before and after scenarios and catch visual bugs. 

Try out Testsigma open source for your test automation needs here.

Millions of websites are published using the Ghost platform, as it is user-friendly and quick to publish. If your website is one of those millions, I hope you have a better understanding of what to test and how to test when building a Ghost website.

We saw what Ghost is and what services they provide. Following that, we dived into the internals and the moving parts of a Ghost website, which are the factors we have control over. Then we learned about all the aspects of software testing, and what all tests are required to ensure the proper functioning of the website or application.

As it is evident, Testsigma allows us to test all these aspects and provides us with all the features required for testing a Ghost Website.

I hope I left you with something new to learn!

Jaidev Singh

Jaidev Singh Bhui is a Software Engineer, with 2+ years of experience. Loves creating user-friendly applications always while listening to some music, currently building and maintaining an open-source Design System (@banyan_cloud/roots) at Banyan Cloud, while also contributing to the product.

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A Complete Guide to Selenium Grid 4: Architecture and Configuration

Dipan Saha

Quickly deploy a Docker Image (created from a simple python code) on GKE

Below are the steps you can follow to deploy a docker image on gke.


Step 1: Create a simple python code and test it locally.

Below is a sample python code to generate 200 random numbers between 1 and 100.

Note! After generating each number, the code will pause for 2 seconds. This will ensure that your code runs for at least 5+ minutes on GKE (So that you get time to pull the logs using kubectl).

Create a new working directory and save the above code as app.py . Feel free to test this code locally.

Step 2: Create a Dockerfile.

Save the following file as Dockerfile in your working directory.

Create an empty text file and save it in your working directory as requirements.txt .

Note! If you later decide to modify the above python code and add external dependencies (libraries), you can add those dependencies to this requirements.txt file.

Step 3: Create a deployment yaml which will be used to deploy the docker image to the GKE cluster

Save the following file as deployment.yaml in current working directory.

Note! Make sure to replace “copper-eye-378909” with your Google Cloud project ID.

Step 4: Create a PowerShell script which will execute all the remaining steps at once.

Save the following script as $Deploy_Docker_Image_On_GKE.ps1 in your current working directory and execute it

Now using the pod name from the last PowerShell command ( kubectl get pods ), you should be able to retrieve the logs which will show you the output of your python program:

Step 5: Clean up — Once done with your testing, please make sure to clean up all your resources to avoid charges to your GCP account.

Congratulations! Now you know how to quickly create and upload docker images to Google Artifact Registry and to deploy those to GKE.

Hope this article helped you!

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  4. How to Write a Conclusion for an Essay

    Here are some strategies for ending your essay in a savvy and thought-provoking way: Ask yourself: "So what?" At some point in your life, a teacher has probably told you that the end of an essay should answer the question "So what?" or "Why does it matter?" This advice holds true.

  5. How to Write a Conclusion: 9 Steps (with Pictures)

    Writing a conclusion can feel difficult, but it's easier if you plan ahead. First, format your conclusion by revisiting your thesis, summarizing your arguments, and making a final statement. Then, re-read and revise your conclusion to make it effective. Template and Sample Conclusion Conclusion Template Sample Conclusion for History Paper Part 1

  6. How to Write a Conclusion Paragraph (in Three Easy Steps!)

    Rephrasing your main point to establish your conclusion and tie all your arguments together is an effective way to kick off the paragraph and begin to bring your thought process full circle for your reader. Step 2: Prove It Every good lawyer's closing argument is presented with intent and persuasion.

  7. How to Write a Conclusion (With Examples and Tips)

    The best way to write a conclusion is to follow an outline to ensure that you hit the important aspects and cover what you need. Here are the basic parts of a conclusion: 1. Topic sentence A topic sentence is where you repeat your thesis statement.

  8. How to Write an Essay about Your Culture

    The conclusion, or the concluding paragraph. Here's a simple way to distribute 300 words across the five paragraphs in your essay about your culture: You'll get 300 when you add up these numbers. That's all you need to write an essay about your culture — an introduction, three concise body paragraphs, and a conclusion. Step 2.

  9. Simple Ways to Write a Short Essay

    Step 1: Choosing a Topic. No matter what kind of essay you are writing, understanding the prompt is the first step. You might have the option to choose your topic for your assignment, or you might have to respond to a specific question. Don't just start writing about the first thing that comes to mind.

  10. How to Write a Personal Statement (with Tips and Examples)

    A personal statement is a short essay that shows an application committee who you are. Start with a strong hook that pulls the reader in. Tell a story to engage the reader. Write in your own voice, not in a formal tone. Good luck, and happy writing! Good writing = better grades.

  11. How to Write a Conclusion

    Your conclusion is the last thing your audience reads. It should relate back to your argument and leave your reader with something to think about. Your conclusion may include: A "so what" that explains why your argument is important. A call to action related to your claim. A restatement of your thesis or claim.

  12. The Beginner's Guide to Writing an Essay

    Come up with a thesis. Create an essay outline. Write the introduction. Write the main body, organized into paragraphs. Write the conclusion. Evaluate the overall organization. Revise the content of each paragraph. Proofread your essay or use a Grammar Checker for language errors. Use a plagiarism checker.

  13. How to Write a Conclusion for an Essay

    How to Write a Conclusion in 3 Easy Steps Step 1: Restate Your Thesis Claim and Evidence The conclusion's primary role is to convince the reader that your argument is valid. Whereas the introduction paragraph says, "Here's what I'll prove and how," the conclusion paragraph says, "Here's what I proved and how."

  14. How To Write a Conclusion In 3 Simple Steps

    How to Write a Conclusion in Three Steps Step 1: Restate your thesis. Your thesis statement is an essential part of your essay, so it's important to reinforce that thesis in your conclusion. The first thing you'll do is restate your idea by using different phrasing. Let's take a straightforward thesis and rephrase it for a concluding paragraph.

  15. How to Write a Conclusion for Your Next Writing Project

    Include a topic sentence. Conclusions should always begin with a topic sentence. Restating the thesis from your introductory paragraph in the first sentence of your conclusion is an effective way to remind the reader of the main argument. 2. Use your introductory paragraph as a guide.

  16. How to Write a Conclusion: Full Writing Guide with Examples

    Here are the core goals a good conclusion should complete: "Wrap up" the entire paper; Demonstrate to readers that the author accomplished what he/she set out to do; Show how you the author has proved their thesis statement; Give a sense of completeness and closure on the topic; Leave something extra for your reader to think about;

  17. How to Write a Conclusion Easy and Quick Guide With Samples

    The purpose of a conclusion is to tie up all the information discussed in the paper. Therefore, a conclusion ensures to bring everything to a satisfying close. So, writing a well-crafted conclusion is essential for leaving readers with a lasting impression of your writing skills. And provide them with insight into the topic at hand.

  18. How to write a book conclusion in three stupidly simple steps

    Three Stupidly Simple Steps to Write a Book Conclusion Step 1. Remember the point of all this? Remind the reader of the point of this book —which is usually that they want to move from where they're currently at to a solution. Refer to the I Get It and The Solution sections of your introduction and recall some of those details here.

  19. How to write a conclusion to an essay

    A conclusion should link back to the essay question and briefly restate your main points drawing all your thoughts and ideas together so that they make sense and create a strong final impression....

  20. How to Write an Effective Essay Conclusion (6 Techniques)

    Six Essay Conclusion Writing Techniques. Technique 1. Restate your main and supporting points. This conclusion writing technique is foundational. Teachers and graders expect it most commonly, and you'll use it most often. It is easy to write, and it satisfies most graders, including those who grade tests and exams.

  21. Know How to Write a Conclusion with the Help of Examples

    Tips for Writing a Great Conclusion Many students struggle to find the perfect ending for their essays. The conclusion is just as important to an essay's success as the introduction. Without it, you will have failed in your goal of captivating and compelling readers from beginning through the end.

  22. Essay Writing: How to Write an Outstanding Essay

    Rather, it's more of a recap. For more specific tips, read about how to write a conclusion for an essay here. Five-paragraph essay. For quick and simple essays, you don't need to get too technical with your essay structure. The five-paragraph essay structure works well in a pinch. This contains: One introduction paragraph; Three body paragraphs

  23. Dissertation Conclusion Chapter: 6 Simple Steps

    Learn how to write an A-grade conclusion for your dissertation, thesis or research project in 6 simple steps. Emma explains what exactly the conclusion chapt...

  24. An Easy Guide On How To Write A Query Letter

    How To Write a Query Letter. Put in mind that the query letter should be written as formal letter, not informal letter. Don't make the mistake of being friendly or asking questions that doesn't involve the offense you're addressing. At most your query letter should be between 3-5 paragraphs.

  25. How to Write a Criminal Law Dissertation? The Simple Guide

    Crafting and learning a criminal law dissertation is daunting for students. Mainly, when writing a dissertation in criminal law, students need to examine all facts found during the research before framing the answer. This process mostly takes time, and a scholar has to have perfect knowledge of legal terms to use them in writing a project.

  26. How to Write a Personal Statement for a Job? 4 Easy Steps to Write a

    1.2.1 Create an Outline or a Structure. In order to write a good personal statement, you must create the outline or structure of your personal statement. For this, you need to watch out for the word range asked of you in the job advert. It is always important to carefully read the job description and prepare the outline, accordingly to the ...

  27. How Students Can Use ChatGPT To Improve Productivity

    The following steps show how students can use ChatGPT to prepare for exams. Try It Free. Step 1 Open the target large PDF file with PDFelement. When the PDF file opens, click the ChatGPT icon at the bottom left of the window. Alternatively, you can search for a business plan template from PDFelement Template Mall.

  28. A beginner's guide to testing your websites built with the Ghost platform

    One can write test cases in simple English language, which means that anyone can contribute to testing. Besides, the platform reduces or even eliminates the complex setup processes, and the learning curve to use the tool is also not steep. ... Conclusion. Millions of websites are published using the Ghost platform, as it is user-friendly and ...

  29. Quickly deploy a Docker Image (created from a simple python code) on

    Below are the steps you can follow to deploy a docker image on GKE. Create a simple python code (app.py) and test it locally.Create a Dockerfile (This will be used to create our image).; Create a ...