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thesis about reading intervention in the philippines

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thesis about reading intervention in the philippines

Top 20 Financial App Development Companies in the Philippines

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Looking for a top finance mobile app agency in the Philippines?

The best feature of financial apps is tracking spending and transactions. Understanding how much you spend and in what categories like dining, groceries, or gas can help you save money.  Read more + Other popular finance app features include budget builders and trackers, financial goals, and accounts aggregation. For example, personal finance app Mint allows multiple users to sync their accounts so all wealth, transactions, and spending is aggregated in one place. This feature is helpful for families with separate accounts. If these finance app features seem like a good fit for your users, consider hiring a mobile application development company with experience developing finance apps. We have a complete list for you here!

To assist you in your search for a partner, we’ve compiled this list of the top financial app development companies in Philippines. Browse descriptions, feedback, and awards to find which can best suit your company’s needs.

List of the Best Philippines Finance Mobile App Developers

(8 Reviews)

  • Min. Project Size "> $50,000+
  • Company Size "> 50 - 249 employees
  • Location "> Cebu City, Philippines

Chromedia is a custom software development firm based in Lakewood, Calif. Founded in 1996, their team of 30 serves clients in the healthcare, finance, and business services sectors. Services include iOS/Android, Symfony, and Ruby on Rails development.

  • Spoke Health
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  • GPS, Navigation & GIS " >
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Chromedia provided app design and development for a cross-platform solution available on web and mobile. They also offered business consulting regarding increasing the user-base.

"It feels like we’re one team. I’m very comfortable with them."

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KODA Kollectiv

(19 Reviews)

  • Min. Project Size "> $5,000+
  • Location "> Mandaue City, Philippines

KODA Kollectiv is a mobile app development firm. They are in Mandaue City, Philippines and have a small team that focuses on mobile app development, custom software development, web development, e-commerce development, and more. The agency was established in 2013.

  • eCommerce " >
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KODA Kollectiv has created a 6-sided Pinterest board and an app for a healthcare company. They've built an AR and VR app that allows users to connect to avatars and track their emotional quotient with games.

"KODA Kollectiv never gave up on it."

LANEX Corporation

(10 Reviews)

  • Min. Project Size "> $25,000+

LANEXUS is a full-cycle software development company based in South Riding, Md., with an office in Cebu City, Philippines. The company, founded in 1997, has more than 100 engineers and designers who provide custom software development, IT staff augmentation, web development, and mobile app development services to small and larger-sized companies in the business services, medical, financial services, and e-commerce industries.

  • LANEX Corporation has deployed over 1200 successful projects across different countries and has worked with more than 150 satisfied clients from startups
  • small-and-medium-sized businesses
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  • we already have deployed about 50 projects as of the closing of 2019.

LANEXUS developed a mobile app for a dating site. They were tasked with creating an administration portal that allows administrators to manage the app users. 

"LANEXUS resources' technical knowledge was outstanding."

Ingenuity Global Consulting, Inc.

(4 Reviews)

  • Min. Project Size "> $10,000+
  • Location "> Davao City, Philippines

Ingenuity Global Consulting, Inc. is a software company based in Davao City, Philippines. Established in 2010, their team now consists of 27 employees. They offer mobile app development, web development, UX/UI design, and IT staff augmentation services. The majority of their clients are small businesses in the IT industry.

  • The Inspiration Company
  • Consumer products & services " >
  • Government " >
  • Manufacturing " >

Ingenuity augments UI/UX design, web and mobile development, and QA teams to lower costs and enhance quality. They assist with each stage of the development process. 

"Ingenuity has exceeded our expectations, enabling us to grow and adapt to new requirements."

Apt Software

  • Company Size "> 2 - 9 employees

Application development firm Apt Software was established in 2020. The small Edinburg, Texas-based team provides mobile app development, web development, and blockchain.

  • MIT Media Lab - Scaling Science Group
  • Blueprint Leadership
  • Infocore, Inc.
  • Proximity Point City

An AI team hired Apt Software for their web app development services. The team utilized Heroku, JavaScript, and D3.js as their primary development tools.

"The timelines and primary objectives were all met on time, which I consider a success."

Sytian Productions

Worked with Sytian Productions?

  • Min. Project Size "> $1,000+
  • Company Size "> 10 - 49 employees
  • Location "> Quezon City, Philippines

Founded in 2006, Sytian Productions is a web design agency. Their small team is located in Quezon City, Philippines. Their team provides web design, web development, graphic design, search engine optimization, and more.

  • Advertising & marketing " >
  • Hospitality & leisure " >

Cambria Software

(6 Reviews)

  • Location "> Makati, Philippines

Custom software development company Cambria Corporation was founded in 1984. The firm provides custom software development, mobile app development, web design, and web development and has a small team. The firm is headquartered in Menlo Park, California and Makati, Philippines.

  • Energy & natural resources " >
  • Non-profit " >

Cambria Corporation provides ongoing custom software development support for an IT company. Their main task is to build, enhance, and manage applications for third-party clients using C#, JavaScript, and .NET.

“They’re always there when I need them, and they get things done when I need to get them done.”



AISI Decode Technologies

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  • Location "> Lungsod Quezon, Philippines
  • Automotive " >
  • Telecommunications " >


(1 Reviews)

FreelancersPH is a Makati, Philippines-based web development company. They provide web development, application testing, custom software development, mobile app development, and more and were established in 2022.

  • Software Testing

FreelancersPH has provided manual and automated testing for a mobile app development company. Following a discovery session, they have investigated the app for any bugs and offered ISTQB Certified QA testing.

"The team is so dedicated and they stick to the deadline of the project."

Worked with Symph?

  • Real estate " >

Worked with Adaca?

  • Location "> Taguig, Philippines
  • Utilities " >

HYBrain Development Corporation

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  • Location "> Bacolod, Philippines

Citrus.ph - We Build Brands, Websites And Online Marketing Strategies That Get Results

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(12 Reviews)

  • Company Size "> 10,000+ employees
  • Location "> Pasig, Philippines

Datamatics (formerly TechJini, Inc) is a mobile app development company based in Bangalore, India with an additional office in Princeton, N.J. The company was founded in 2005 and has grown since then to a team of about 300. They provide mobile app and web development, UX/UI design, and IT strategy consulting.

  • Envestnet Yodlee
  • Schneider Electric
  • Arts, entertainment & music " >

Datamatics (formerly TechJini, Inc) provided 1-4 full-time, dedicated resources who were primarily tasked with Objective-C development.

"The people were knowledgeable and they worked extra hours to meet our deadlines and deliver our project on time."

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thesis about reading intervention in the philippines


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thesis about reading intervention in the philippines


thesis about reading intervention in the philippines

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Education for all means no one should be left behind; thus, teachers should provide effective strategies for struggling readers. The “one-size fits all strategy” further divides the gap between the slow and advanced learners. This study used a quantitative observational research design to determine the reading ability of 30 struggling readers in terms of word recognition, reading comprehension, and reading speed using reading stories, Dolch's basic sight words and the Phil-IRI Manual 2018. The study develops strategic reading intervention materials to support teachers and students during the remedial programs. The pre-tests revealed that the reading ability of the struggling readers was at a frustration level. Furthermore, the develop strategic intervention reading materials used in remedial programs were composed of 4 parts: learning content, learning task guide, assessment guide, and enhancement guide. The post-tests show that the participants reading ability progressed to instruction and independent level after the remedial program. It was concluded that determining the student’s present ability is beneficial to develop effective intervention materials. It was suggested that the school leaders and program specialists should develop faculty and student support programs ideally to uplift the student’s literacy.

Akemoglu, Y., Hinton, V., Laroue, D., & Jefferson, V. (2021). A parent-implemented shared reading intervention via telepractice. Journal of Early Intervention, 44(2). https://doi.org/10.1177/10538151211032211

Anagün, S. S. (2018). Teachers' perceptions about the relationship between 21st century skills and managing constructivist learning environments. International Journal of Instruction, 11(4), 825-840. https://doi.org/10.12973/iji.2018.11452a

Biggs, J. (1996). Enhancing teaching through constructive alignment. Higher education, 32(3), 347-364. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00138871

Brooks, G., Clenton, J., & Fraser, S. (2021). Exploring the importance of vocabulary for English as an additional language learners' reading comprehension. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 11(3), 351-376. http://dx.doi.org/10.14746/ssllt.2021.11.3.3

Collins, A., Brown, J. S., & Newman, S. E. (2018). Cognitive apprenticeship: Teaching the crafts of reading, writing, and mathematics. In Knowing, learning, and instruction (pp. 453-494). New York: Routledge.

Education, D. O. (2018). The Philippine informal reading inventory manual 2018. TEACHERPH. Pasig City: Department of Education. https://drive.google.com/file/d/1iiNxsoU1ridsB-yctWTRO5bpgy0okc9z/view

DepEd. (2019). Statement on the Philippines’ ranking in the 2018 PISA results. Retrieved from https://www.deped.gov.ph/2019/12/04/statement-on-the-philippines-ranking-in-the-2018-pisa-results/

Dolch, E. W. (1936). A basic sight vocabulary. The Elementary School Journal, 36(6), 456-460. https://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/epdf/10.1086/457353

Durban, J. M., & Catalan, R. D. (2012). Issues and concerns of Philippine education through the years. Asian Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities, 1(2), 61-69.

Ferguson, T., & Roofe, C. G. (2020). SDG 4 in higher education: Challenges and opportunities. International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, 21(5), 959-975.

Finnegan, E., & Mazin, A. L. (2016). Strategies for increasing reading comprehension skills in students with autism spectrum disorder: A review of the literature. Education and Treatment of Children, 39(2), 187-219. https://www.jstor.org/stable/44684103

Galang, A. D. (2021). Teachers’ critical reflections on the new normal Philippine education issues: Inputs on curriculum and instruction development. International Journal of Social Learning (IJSL), 1(3), 236-249.

Glazzard, J., & Stokoe, J. (2017). Teaching systematic synthetic phonics and early English. London: Critical publishing.

Graham, J., & Kelly, S. (2018). How effective are early grade reading interventions? -A review of the evidence: A Review of the Evidence. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper no 8292. Retrieved from https://ssrn.com/abstract=3096288

Hazelkorn, E. (2014). Reflections on a decade of global rankings: What we've learned and outstanding issues. European journal of education, 49(1), 12-28.

Heinze, G., Wallisch, C., & Dunkler, D. (2018). Variable selection–a review and recommendations for the practicing statistician. Biometrical journal, 60(3), 431-449.


Jenkner, M. E., & Hillman, M. A. L. (2004). Educating children in poor countries. International Monetary Fund.

Mohajan, H. K. (2020). Quantitative research: A successful investigation in natural and social sciences. Journal of Economic Development, Environment and People, 9(4), 50-79.

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Orbe, J. R., Espinosa, A. A., & Datukan, J. T. (2018). Teaching chemistry in a spiral progression approach: Lessons from science teachers in the Philippines. Australian Journal of Teacher Education (Online), 43(4), 17-30.

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Yang, Y., Li, J., Wu, X., Wang, J., Li, W., Zhu, Y. I., ... & Lin, H. (2019). Factors influencing subspecialty choice among medical students: A systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ open, 9(3), e022097.

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This mixed method research study was conducted to investigate the English and Filipino reading profile of learners, challenges, difficulties and lessons, the schools’ agenda and initiatives for the enrichment of reading programs to eliminate these reading challenges and difficulties; and stakeholders’ support and commitment. A total 4056 Filipino reading profiles and 4216 English reading profiles of Grade 1 to Grade 7 students and responses from the interviews done with school heads and teachers were described using descriptive measures and analyzed using thematic analysis. Results showed that majority of the learners were at the frustration level. Also, the perceived causes, origins and attendant variables of the students’ reading level were non-mastery of the elements of reading, presence of learners-at-risk, and no culture of reading. The suggested reading programs and activities may form part in the creation of contextualized reading curricula and be used as reading literacy initiatives in the schools. These initiatives are categorized as Literacy Program, Individual Reading Recovery Program and Enrichment/Enhancement Program.

Reading Skills , Reading Intervention , Reading Programs , Perceived Challenges in Reading

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1. Introduction

The quality of a person’s life can be enhanced by the literacy level as the latter is directly related to his/her working life (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development [OECD], 2008) . There is a direct relationship between literacy and academic achievement. Hence, training individuals with good literacy who can comprehend and question what they read is one of the most important goals for today’s education (Grove & Hauptfleisch, 1982; Moreillan, 2007) .

Individuals who are regarded as smart as their peers but having poor reading abilities cannot improve it as much as their peers. As per record, all students pass elementary education. Corollary, even those who have poor reading ability pass their classes. They cannot perform reading at the level expected of their grade, resulting in anxiety and depression throughout their schooling. They are usually stereotyped as unsuccessful throughout their formal education. Such results in adoption problems in their classes (Bender, 2012) .

Reading is a complex process as it involves “sensation, perception, comprehension, application and integration”. It is the process of making and getting meaning from printed words and symbols. Reading as a whole, is a means of communication and of information and ideas. Aracelo (1994) as cited by Panerio (2008) reported that “85% of the things that people do involve reading”. Individuals read street signs, advertisements, menus in restaurants and recipes from cook books, dosage of medicine and others. Moreover, reading is the foundation of academic success and life learning. One article from Philippine Star (2010) states that: “The undeniable fact remains that majority of Filipino students do not possess the ability and motivation to read. Due to the fast-evolving world and changing technology, it cannot be denied that sometimes reading is taken for granted”.

Reading also plays a vital role in ones’ success in school. It is one of the most important skills an individual learner must need to master. It is a prerequisite of all learning areas. It serves as a gateway for every learner to learn the different subjects because when a learner has a difficulty in reading, he/she may encounter also difficulties in all subject areas. Researches have shown that there are many reasons in the difference in the achievement level of the students. Luz (2007) stresses that many Filipino learners do not have the reading habit required in learning. As she noted, “The problem of non-reading lies at the heart of why the Philippines is so uncompetitive in the world economy and why so many of our people continue to live in poverty or barely escape it”.

As Claessen et al. (2020) coined, reading difficulties are present in the world. The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) Results from PISA 2018 revealed that reading is among the areas that fifteen-year-old students in the Philippines scored lower than those in majority of the countries and economies that participated in PISA 2018. The country’s average reading score was 340 score points, on a par with that of the Dominican Republic. No country scored lower than the Philippines and the Dominican Republic. In mathematics and science, students in the Philippines scored 353 and 357 points, respectively, on a par with performance in Panama. The Philippines outperformed the Dominican Republic in mathematics and science.

The Philippines shared a significant rate of low performers among all PISA-participating countries and economies. That is, 80% of the Filipino students did not reach the minimum level of proficiency in reading. Their poor scores in English, Mathematics, and Science are attributed to the students’ lack of ability in basic reading and comprehension. This being the case, the Department of Education (DepEd) has launched the Hamon : Bawat Bata Bumabasa (3 Bs Initiatives ), in order to intensify the advocacy for reading and by pledging commitment to make every learner a reader at his/her grade level.

In response to this DepEd’s 3Bs Initiatives, the Schools Division of Aurora has started its reading administration to elementary and junior high schools to assess the level of reading ability of the learners and determine their reading profile. It has a great hope that these learners who have reading difficulties can still be relieved of their reading problems by means of a suitable reading environment, teaching program and family support. The indispensable issue to be addressed here is the form the environment, program and support that should be undertaken. The reading environments must be designed to eliminate the reading difficulties of students to make them feel relaxed and willing to express themselves. In addition to this, students’ learning must be supplemented with materials in consonance to their interests and abilities coupled with support from the teacher and students’ family members. The research proves the “effectiveness of informing students about the difficulties they experience and strategy-based programs conducted with the cooperation of the teacher and family” (Baydık, 2011; Torgesen, 2000; Westwood, 2008) .

The students’ experienced difficulties in reading and learning could serve as a basis for a strategy-based program to be designed for them to have better reading skills. Hence, this study was conducted to assess the students’ reading profile and perceived challenges in reading to serve as a basis for schools’ agenda and initiatives for the enrichment of reading programs.

The study employed a mixed method of research. The quantitative method was used to determine the reading level of the students. The qualitative data was used to assess the perceived challenges of students in learning.

The study included all grades 1 to 7 learners in the Schools Division of Aurora. Twenty (20) supervisors were assigned to ten (10) schools districts to conduct and evaluate oral reading skills among sample learners of all schools. The sample learners were selected randomly with five (5) per class for each language.

The administration of reading among schools in Aurora is one form of reading assessment that defined the felt needs, problems and other key issues challenging the schools in terms of learning reading ability. It also explored their perceived causes, origins and attendant variables; and their actual effects/impacts to the quality of teaching and learning in schools. Hence, the Schools District Profile, Challenges, and Issues (SDPCI) clarified and validated a clear and accurate picture of the actual state, dynamic and impact of reading programs and interventions drawn from all schools in Aurora. In addition, the Schools Agenda for Improving Reading Skills (SAIRS) of all schools districts were collected.

In the process, the reading skill of the learners was determined through the oral reading assessment tools in Filipino and English for Grades 1 to 7. A total of 4056 Filipino reading profiles and 4216 English reading profiles of learners across the seven (7) grade levels were considered for description and analysis. Observations were also made as the learners read the texts/passages. The reading difficulties were recorded, tabulated and analyzed thematically.

The chief supervisor met all the supervisors to collectively discuss, examine and synthesize the SDPCI and schools agenda for improving reading skills (SAIRS) through group sharing and clarification processes. They harnessed the lessons learned to formulate proposed measure to improve approaches/paradigms, structures, systems, processes, resources and other organizational elements in order to develop reading skills among learners.

This section provides the percentages of learners for the reading levels in Filipino and English reading skill. Both aggregated and disaggregated summary statistics showing the percentages of learners are presented in this section. These statistics are taken from Grades 1 to 7 learners of 10 schools districts of the Schools Division of Aurora.

3.1. Reading Level of Learners and Challenges in Filipino and English

The predominant challenge conveyed by the school heads and teachers and revealed in the study is how to improve the reading ability among learners. The challenge is felt across all schools in the Schools Division of Aurora regardless of the size of schools. Elementary and secondary schools acknowledge the need to improve the reading ability of learners in order to increase the learners’ academic performance and attain the culture of reading.

In total, the percentage of Grade 1 learners in Aurora who belong to frustration level is 64.31%. Furthermore, 9.04% Grade 1 learners are in instructional level. Only about 13.10% Grade 1 learners are in independent level. About 13.55% are nonreaders. The total percentage distribution of Grade 2 learners for the reading levels in Filipino reading ability is shown in Figure 2 .

As shown in Figures 1-4, majority of Grade 2 learners (57.19%) are at frustration level. Furthermore, 24.44% and 14.21% Grade 2 learners are in independent level and instructional level, respectively, and only 4.16% are nonreaders.

Figure 1 . Learners’ percentage distribution in Filipino reading ability per grade level. Note : Percentages of learners are shown for the reading levels of learners such as independent, instructional, frustration and nonreaders in every grade level for a total of 4056.

Figure 2 . Percentage distribution of grades 1 - 7 learners in Filipino reading ability.

Figure 3 . Learners’ percentage distribution in English reading ability per grade level. Note: Total number of learners tested is 4216.

Figure 4 . Percentage distribution of grades 1 - 7 learners in English reading ability.

Teachers show lack of commitment to reading as they don’t have clear reading plan, reading materials and tools.

3.2. Perceived Causes of Poor Reading Skills

Analyzing the qualitative data gathered from the school heads and teachers, and based on the schools reading profile and other learners’ data, there are three underlying issues that affect the poor reading skills of learners in Aurora, to wit: 1) Non-mastery of the elements of reading; 2) Presence of learners-at-risk; and 3) No culture of reading.

The perceived causes for each of these issues are discussed below:

3.2.1. Non-Mastery of the Elements of Reading (the Data and Other Information for Each Cause Shall Be Included Based on the Schools’ Records and Learners’ Reading Profile)

The perceived causes of non-mastery of the elements of reading are: no phonological awareness, non-mastery of alphabet knowledge, non-mastery of phonics, poor word recognition and vocabulary, poor fluency skills, and lack of comprehension.

1) No phonological awareness was observed

The Grade 1 learners in Filipino experienced difficulties on sound blending. They did not know the strategy that by putting up phonemes together they will be able to read a word. For instance, one of the learners was told to put the speech sound /m/ add /a/, then add /s/, that is, (/m/ + /a/ + /s/). Instead of blending /m/ + /a/ + /s/ correctly, he pronounced it differently. His transcription /mas/ was different from the intended.

2) Non-mastery of alphabet knowledge

Also, as per observations, there was a clear confusion among grade one learners between the letter name and letter sound. The learners’ difficulty to distinguish letters from one another was very evident. They added vowels to every consonant, e.g. letter m is read as ma .

3) Non-mastery of phonics

Reversals like ya for ay in Filipino, insertions ( pinirito to prito ), deletion (say for says)/addition of letters ( nanay to nanaya ) were some of the common errors in the informal reading analysis or running records done.

It is expected that Grade one learners in Filipino were taught about the letter-sound relationships of a number of the vowel phonemes. Then consonants were introduced. But as per general observation among Grade 1 learners, of their difficulty in blending the various sounds or phonemes of a word together in proper order to arrive at a pronunciation.

4) Poor word recognition and vocabulary

Most of the tested Grade 1 learners have a very limited bank of sight words as shown in their Dolch Basic Sight Word Test Results in English. Most of them can only read cvc words. This shows that the teachers do not integrate basic sight words for the grade level in oracy lessons. Learners have limited vocabulary as well.

5) Poor fluency skills

Learners who find difficulty in learning the skill in decoding words tend to refuse to read. No continuous opportunities were provided by the teachers in the content that the learners are more comfortable. Children learn to read more easily when this instruction is based on strengths and resources they already possess.

6) Lack of comprehension

It is very evident from the results that few learners got perfect scores in reading comprehension in Filipino. Though the reading material was written in their Mother Tongue, still they can hardly answer the questions. There were Grades 1 and 2 learners who can read fluently in Filipino but without comprehension. This can be attributed to the focus of the teachers in reading instruction which is decoding. Learners have limited vocabulary as well.

3.2.2. Presence of Learners-at-Risk

The causes of presence of learners-at-risk are presence of nonreaders, learner’s poor health condition, presence of LSENs in regular class, lack of interest in reading, lack of orientation and training to teach reading, and frequent absenteeism of learners.

1) Presence of nonreaders

For the Grade 1 nonreaders, they could not even identify the letter name and letter sound. I asked two learners to write all the letters they knew but unfortunately one learner was able to write two letters only and he didn’t even know the name of the letters he wrote. The other one was able to write 3 letters. Most of the cases in Grades 1 and 2 had difficulty in reading words with -ng in Filipino (beginning, middle, ending).

2) Learner’s poor health condition

The poor health condition of some learners affects their ability to assimilate instruction and building their self-confidence.

3) Presence of LSENs in regular class

Learners with special needs were included in some schools. There was no specific assessment utilized for the LSENs. Some teachers use the assessment materials for the regular learners which affect the class performance in reading.

4) Lack of interest in reading

Low self-concepts among struggling readers interfere with progress in overcoming reading problems. Convinced that the learners cannot succeed, such learners only fall farther and farther behind. Many poor readers refuse to cooperate with those who would help them due to negative reinforcement.

5) Lack of orientation and training to teach reading

As per observation, most of the Grade 1 teachers with the most number of nonreaders or struggling readers were handled by new teachers. They do not have any training in beginning reading. According to the principals they were assigned to handle the Grade 1 class because they were the last to in in the school.

6) Frequent absenteeism of learners

This can be attributed to the low socio-economic status of parents. Sometimes the learners help at home in running errands and taking care of their younger siblings. Some learners opt to be absent in classes because of their inability to read.

3.2.3. No Culture of Reading

Under no culture of reading, the perceived causes are no opportunity for independent reading, lack of reading materials, failure to give learners sufficient guidance for reading, absence of parents teachers and learners reading partnership; lack of teacher’s commitments and confidence to teach reading; improper implementation of reading program; and no monitoring of learner’s progress during intervention.

1) No opportunity for independent reading

There was no balanced reading program in the schools. Some of the fast readers assisted the struggling readers instead of doing independent reading activities. Enhancement of reading performance is not a regular activity in reading. The schools do not have graded reading materials with answer key so that learners can check their work anytime and monitor their reading and comprehension progress independently.

2) Lack of reading materials

Many schools especially from the far-flung areas do not have varied story books which are appropriate for the grade level of the learners. No picture books are available for beginning readers/nonreaders. The picture books will allow them to be creative in composing their own story even in the mother tongue only. There were story books developed by the LRMDS but these materials were not yet reproduced for maximum utilization.

3) Failure to give learners sufficient guidance for reading

Reading teachers were new and they do not have any orientation regarding the teaching of beginning reading. Some teachers were more comfortable in the strategies that they used instead of the suggested approaches or strategies.

4) Absence of parents, teachers and learners reading partnership

Some teachers do not look upon the parents as people who can help diagnose and correct the child’s learning difficulties. Parents seem to be resistant because they were not trained on how to teach phonics among beginning readers.

5) Lack of teacher’s commitment & confidence to teach reading

Lack of commitment was manifested through in adequacy of teaching devices displayed in the classroom and in the result of oral reading test results. When teachers were asked why they have many nonreaders, e.g. 6/24, or 9/27 they tend to be defensive about their shortcomings. They blamed parents for not doing follow-up at home.

6) Improper implementation of reading program

Although reading teachers were taught on the different approaches in teaching reading, they implement it in the classroom the short cut way. They teach right away the alphabet knowledge even without teaching reading readiness first. And they combine two approaches at a time as manifested by the finger counting of the Grades 1 and 2 learners, for example, Anggulo Approach (ba, ka, da) and Marungko Approach (phonics approach). A learner read mas as masa in Filipino. Remediation activities were not documented. Some teachers forgot that testing and measurement are essential in a reading program, while others did not properly document the reading intervention programs in schools.

7) No monitoring of learner’s progress during intervention

Observing individual progress will help a reading teacher provide appropriate activities to overcome learners’ difficulties. It is informative to look back at the cumulative records of the changes that have occurred. Grades 1 and 2 teachers claimed that they do reading remediation but undocumented. Because according to them they do not know some assessment tools to monitor the progress of the learners. Consequently, they do not follow up the reading interventions at home.

4. School’s Initiatives in Reding Literacy

From the school reading evaluation tool in the previous section, the study team was able to determine that the main problem affecting the reading difficulty among learners is poor reading ability mainly due to non-mastery of the elements of reading, presence of learners-at-risk, and no culture of reading in schools.

The School Reading Program to Eliminate Reading Difficulties

Reading skills is part of the instinctive skill of every individual as such starts at birth. However, prior experiences and knowledge brought by students upon entry to basic education determine their entry reading level. Some of the most regarded contributors of this process are the developed reading skills-related attitudes and behaviors, the manner their reading-related cognitive development is supported, the type of opportunities provided for them and what kind of guidance they are offered. Thus, the establishment of an enrichment learning environment suitable for the language acquisition and cognitive development of the child is important.

The basic requirements needed for the acquisition of effective reading skills and healthy reading are correct perception, sound recognition, word recognition, word discrimination, semantics, syntax, linguistic processes and comprehension. The establishment of reading environments based on reading requirements may be effective in overcoming reading difficulties. In addition, the use of appropriate methods and teaching as well as considering individual differences in individuals are contributory to the elimination of these difficulties. Also, the early diagnosis of students with reading difficulties and the integration of intervention programs for reading difficulties in their curriculum are of great importance ( Figure 5 ).

Figure 5 . Reading intervention program in Aurora.

The following suggested reading programs and activities shall form part in the creation of contextualized reading curricula and be used as reading literacy initiatives in the schools. These initiatives are categorized as Literacy Program, Individual Reading Recovery Program and Enrichment/Enhancement Program.

4.1. Literacy Program

Reading is a form learning for decoding texts and making meaning from texts.

The Literacy Program (LP) has the following elements called “The Big Six”. For the learners to be effective readers, they should be able to combine the six elements. Therefore, an integrated approach to explicit reading instruction is important in providing relevant interconnected learning experiences. While teachers may emphasize individual component at various instances, they are not a set of isolated skills and needs to be integrated throughout reading opportunities across the day. So, for instance, while the systematic teaching of phonics is an important component, the same is insufficient in itself for learning to read. DepEd Memorandum No. 173, s. 2019 presented some conceptual considerations in reading program and discussed the following:

Oral Language

Having a very limited vocabulary and unfamiliarity with language structures renders impossibility of understanding the written form of a language. The vocabulary and familiarity could be developed before a child enters a school (Reese, Sparks, & Leyva, 2010; Skeat et al., 2010) . Therefore, oral language provides the prerequisite skills to reading and is directly linked to overall reading achievement. When children are by and included in increasingly complex conversations, they:

• expand their vocabulary;

• increase the complexity of the language structures they use;

• become language risk-takers;

• develop confidence in the way they communicate;

• clarify their thinking and deepen their understanding of their world; and

• tune into the sounds of standard language.

Phonological awareness

Phonological awareness refers to the ability to focus on the sound of speech. It connotes an awareness of rhythm, rhyme, sounds, and syllables. Awareness often commences with rhythm, for instances, children clapping to the beats of their name. The second step is rhyming: producing rhyming patterns like king, wing and sing. This exhibits early phonemic awareness which is the most important subset of phonological awareness in the development of reading and spelling.

In addition, phonological awareness enables children to focus on the separate sounds in words called phonemes. The children at this step learn to divide syllables into separate sounds and manipulate them to form different words. Letter-sound relationships can then be introduced and children can be taught phonemic and phonics skills simultaneously from this point.

Phonics recognizes the relationship between letters and sounds, sometimes called the “alphabetic principle”. Teaching beginning and struggling readers using a synthetic approach to phonics are supported by the current empirical evidence (Johnston & Watson, 2003; Rose, 2006) . This approach emphasizes teaching single letters and common letter combinations in a discrete, systematic and explicit way. The manner in which they are arranged to be taught facilitates their blending into simple words so that children can immediately practice their new skills, building automaticity, and confidence. The research also recommends that these new skills be practiced as early as possible by having children listen to high quality texts and read connected text themselves.

Explicit phonetics instruction is material for most beginning and all struggling readers. However, it must be implemented alongside many elements of an effective reading program, such as “rich oral language instruction, and modelled and guided reading” (Konza, 2011) .

Phonics instruction is not appropriate to help children understand irregular “sight” words such as said, was, and saw. These words must be learned by recognizing the words until the point of automaticity. Hence, sight words must be taught based on an explicit system, rather than being addressed only when children encounter these words in text. Proving plenty of practice to use newly-learned sight words in context can support comprehension. That is, immediate recognition of some words accurately can allow learners to concentrate on new or less familiar words and focus on giving them meaning, rather than just decoding.

Knowing the meaning of a word implies the likelihood of the ability to read it and interpret it contextually. There is a need to continually expand the range of words that can be understood and used in context. “Vocabulary development” as an outcome of comprehension and a precursor of the same, has word meanings making up as much as 70% - 90% of the comprehension (Bromley, 2007) .

Vocabulary is, for the most part, can be enhanced by encountering new words repeatedly in conversations, story listening, reading, and through different media (Sénéchal, 1997) . Encountering words in meaningful situations makes meanings clear. Also, children can then easily add them to their word bank. This type of indirect vocabulary acquisition is particularly effective for children who have been exposed to a wide and rich vocabulary even before entering the school. For other children who have a more limited vocabulary and have less access to the vocabulary resources, the explicit teaching vocabulary is important (Beck & McKeown, 2007) .

Fluency does not amount to reading quickly. It is the ability to make reading sound like spoken language. Also, it is reading with appropriate phrasing, expression, and pace. Someone who is fluent can understand and make meaning of the text as they read. Its core components include accuracy, pace and expression, and volume. Fluency is correlated with comprehension.

Familiarity with words contributes to fluency. There is a need for texts at the independent reading level. Hence, beginning and struggling readers need simple texts at their independent level to build speed and confidence. Children who are sent home with the books they can ready, they can develop appropriate expression, practice chunking and pausing, and most importantly, build their confidence.

Reading quickly without attending to punctuation, expression, and comprehension is not fluency. Reading rates should not be at the expense of comprehension.


What makes reading effective is the understanding of the purpose of the reding itself and adjust the behaviors according to that purpose. These behaviors include skimming, scanning, or reading closely for details. The texts may appear to look different in terms of unidentified purpose, context, and audience. The understating of the different features of texts can contribute to interpretation.

Proficient readers keep track of their understanding as they read, by integrating new information with existing knowledge and experience. They focus on appropriate parts of the text to distinguish salient content from minor detail. They create and track predictions and assess content as they read. For this to happen, there is a need for the learners to learn how to adjust their reading strategies, pace and vocabulary knowledge, as well as their strategies, for decoding and chunking to read the unfamiliar.

Comprehension is made up of a toolkit of strategies that should explicitly be taught, namely:

These strategies are often intertwined but some are more suited to specific reading tasks than others.

4.2. Individual Reading Recovery Program

The Individual Reading Recovery Program (IRRP) is patterned with Catch Them Early (CTE) program by Santos (2001) , which can be a good means of such an intervention. This program includes individual tutoring, daily 30 - 45 minute sessions, informal diagnosis and daily/weekly monitoring of progress, reading aloud three books daily supported by a variety of picture books and storybooks, and a tentative support in learning to read.

Individual Tutoring

The IRRP involves individual tutoring. Wasik and Slavin (1993) recommend the one-on-one arrangement as the most powerful form of intervention instruction. It enables the tutor to plan an individual program for the learner; to closely observe his daily reading and writing behaviors to monitor his progress; and give him full attention. Sitting beside the learner is more reassuring.

If there are other learners in the program, they may get together for story reading by the tutor once a week, either on first day or last day of the week. This allows them to interact with peers who are also experiencing some difficulties in learning to read, and listen together to good reading modeled by the teacher/tutor.

Daily 30- 45 Minute Sessions

The IRRP tutorial session is held daily for 30 - 45 minutes. Clay’s (1990) work with Reading Recovery has shown that briefly daily one-on-one instruction increases the power of intervention. Rowan & Guthrie (1989) confirmed that there is no sufficient research evidence to show that longer intervention sessions held two or three times a week would result in better progress.

Informal Diagnosis and Daily/Weekly Monitoring of Progress

The IRRP uses informal assessment tools to diagnose the learner’s reading status, results of which are the basis for designing an intervention plan for the child. These are as follows:

• Book and Print Orientation Record

• Test on Mastery of the Alphabet

• Test on Phonetic Awareness

• Textual Read-Aloud Inventory

• Story Writing

The following assessment tools are administered regularly and recorded systematically:

• Weekly Phonemic Awareness Check

• Daily Textual Read-Aloud Inventory

• Best of the Week in Story Writing

The Weekly Phonemic Awareness Check is given at the end of each week to assess the learner’s progress in writing down sounds he/she hears in words.

The Daily Textual Read-Aloud Inventory records the learner’s miscues and fix-up strategies he/she uses to correct his/her miscues as he/she reads aloud. The teacher takes note of difficulties for which the learner does not have fix-up strategies and take these up in the Word Identification Phase of the tutorial session. This is done daily.

The Best of the learner’s daily story writing is collected weekly and analyzed to monitor his progress in graphically representing his/her own ideas, the quality of the message of his/her stories, and his/her knowledge of print conventions. These are filed in the learner’s portfolio.

Supported by a Variety of Picture Books and Storybooks

The learner reads aloud at least three books daily. Thus, the program should be supported by a variety of picture books and storybooks with the following features:

• Use of natural language

• Uncontrolled vocabulary

• Predictable language

• Patterned text

• Rich illustrations

• Large print for easy reading

• Simple storyline

Pictureless versions of popular storybooks may be used to present increasing levels of challenge to the learner and give him/her the chance to use the word identification skills and strategies he/she has gained.

Tentative Support in Learning to Read

The IRRP is not a permanent program. Its duration depends on the learner’s progress. Some learners may need 10 - 12 weeks to catch up with their peers in learning to read. Others may need more time. The learner should be continuously monitored by his/her teacher until he/she shows the ability to read as well as his/her classmates who are doing average performance. The learner is not expected to read as well as the best reader in his/her class, but he/she can work towards it.

The IRRP program may not be able to help the learners with speech and hearing difficulties or other disabilities that have to do with learning to read. Such learners should be referred to Specialist.

4.3. Reading Enrichment/Enhancement Program

The enrichment reading program includes, but not limited to the following:

• Profiling of learners.

• Creation of contextualized reading curricula.

• Establishment of reading center/clinic.

• Readathon.

• Drop Everything and Read.

○ This can be done by setting aside a 10-minute time every day to read any chosen materials

• Gate password.

• Preparation/development of appropriate, contextualized interesting reading materials read by teachers and learners together (20 minutes).

• Development of supplementary reading materials (print and non-print) for use during classroom reading instruction or intervention.

• Capacity-building of reading teachers in teaching reading.

• Recognizing most effective reading teacher and reading intervention.

5. Conclusion and Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, it can be concluded that majority of the learners were at the frustration level, hence, a need for improvement of the reading level must be considered in devising development plans for the learners. Also, the perceived causes, origins and attendant variables of the students’ reading level were non-mastery of the elements of reading, presence of learners-at-risk, and no culture of reading. The suggested reading programs and activities may form part in the creation of contextualized reading curricula and be used as reading literacy initiatives in the schools. These initiatives are categorized as Literacy Program, Individual Reading Recovery Program and Enrichment/Enhancement Program. These initiatives may be considered by the schools in developing the reading ability of the students. Also, it is recommended that the same study be conducted in our schools divisions to serve as basis of their contextualized reading initiatives.


We thank the following supervisors who helped the authors in data gathering: Eduardo P. Ducha, Esmeralda S. Escobar PhD, Rosanna P. Querijero, Emelita T. Angara, Rosalind P. de Mesa, Normita M. Ocampo, Rolando A. Bernardo, Milagros F. Bautista, Charlaw G. Quiben PhD, Estrella D. Neri, Metta DL. Alviarari, Teresita G. Edrada, Jocabet V. Amatorio, Karen M. Garcia, Ernesto R. dela Torre, Domingo R. Uera, Consolacion R. Mercado, Libay A. Lapsot, Raymundo R. David Jr., and Beatrice L. del Campo.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest regarding the publication of this paper.

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Puissant (a multidisciplinary journal in education)

Strategic Reading Intervention for Struggling Readers

  • Ma. Lani L. Magollado Dinapa Elementary School, Philippines

Education for all means no one should be left behind; thus, teachers should provide effective strategies for struggling readers. The “one-size fits all strategy” further divides the gap between the slow and advanced learners. This study used a quantitative observational research design to determine the reading ability of 30 struggling readers in terms of word recognition, reading comprehension, and reading speed using reading stories, Dolch's basic sight words and the Phil-IRI Manual 2018. The study develops strategic reading intervention materials to support teachers and students during the remedial programs. The pre-tests revealed that the reading ability of the struggling readers was at a frustration level. Furthermore, the develop strategic intervention reading materials used in remedial programs were composed of 4 parts: learning content, learning task guide, assessment guide, and enhancement guide. The post-tests show that the participants reading ability progressed to instruction and independent level after the remedial program. It was concluded that determining the student’s present ability is beneficial to develop effective intervention materials. It was suggested that the school leaders and program specialists should develop faculty and student support programs ideally to uplift the student’s literacy.

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thesis about reading intervention in the philippines

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Basa Pilipinas: Transforming Reading Instruction to Boost Student Learning Outcomes

Basa Pilipinas: Transforming Reading Instruction to Boost Student Learning Outcomes

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In this midterm evaluation of the Basa Pilipinas project in the Philippines, EDC tracked and measured changes in student reading performance. The evaluation was conducted over a period of years and followed a cross-sectional design that examined student reading data on Filipino and English Early Grade Reading Assessment (EGRA) as well as data on school environment obtained through student interviews.

 Key Findings

  • Classrooms receiving the full Basa intervention showed significant improvements in student reading skills in Filipino, particularly on fluency and reading comprehension.
  • With Basa assistance, grade 2 students achieved substantial gains in reading comprehension in Filipino, by as much as 24 percent at endline.
  • Basa’s intervention significantly helped teachers improve their classroom management by ensuring more equitable participation of learners, more accessibility of classroom materials, and more effective management of reading and writing instruction.
  • The most improvement was seen in the domain of language and literacy instruction, particularly in providing opportunities for students to develop oral language, reading fluency, and comprehension.

Resource Details

Related resources.

The USAID/Philippines, through its Basa Pilipinas program has reached over 1.8 million students from kindergarten to Grade 3, trained over 19,000 teachers and school heads, and provided over 10 mil

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2018, MAED-ELT

ABSTRACT Keywords: READING PROFICIENCY, LEAST MASTERED READING SKILLS, SCHOOL-BASED READING INTERVENTION PROGRAM The study sought to determine the reading proficiency of 296 Junior High School students of Calaitan National High School in relation to the following profiles: ethnicity, first language spoken, exposure to print and non-print reading materials, and grade level. The least mastered reading skills were determined through the validated Reading Proficiency Test that includes the skills on using phonetic analysis, using contextual clues, using idioms, getting the main idea and identifying facts and opinions, predicting outcomes, drawing conclusions, following directions, using parts of the book, and using dictionaries, encyclopedia and other reference materials and using the internet. Descriptive-developmental survey method was used in the study. The instrument used in the study has two parts: the first part determines the profile of the respondents; and the second part was the 50-item reading test of the thirteen skills being tested. The following statistical treatment were used in the study: (1) percentage and frequency to describe the profile of the respondents and (2) mean and mean percentage score (MPS) to determine the least mastered reading skills (below 60 % MPS) of the respondents. The study revealed that out of thirteen (13) reading skills, identifying facts and opinions fall under beginning level with a mean percentage score of 27.75% and the rest of the skills are under developing level. Their profiles particularly exposure to print and non-print reading materials and grade level influence their reading proficiency level. The results of the study were considered in the development of the reading intervention program and the reading materials that will be used in the conduct of the intervention. It is recommended that the school administrator adopt the proposed reading intervention to aid the least mastered reading skills of the junior high school students. Researchers are encouraged to validate the content and usability of the reading materials as well as to conduct an action research on the proposed intervention program.

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The issues and concerns regarding the reading competency of the majority of elementary school students have long been a source of contention in public schools. In order to meet the Department of Education's reading competency target for all primary grades, teachers have faced significant obstacles in implementing the innumerable strategies that have been developed. As evidenced by the large number of studies that demonstrate a link between reading competency and other findings such as academic achievement, literacy, and other factors, developing reading skills is perilous for learners' cognitive education. It is the teacher's instinctive strength in dealing with these problems in the broad sense of learners' reading competency and its relationship with their academic performance that is taken into consideration, including things like word reading, reading comprehension, and academic performance in English. This study investigated the levels of word reading and reading comprehension of Grade IV students as measured by the Phil-IRI assessments, and the relationship between these levels and their academic performance. This research was conducted among 201 Grade 4 students enrolled in schools in the Northern District of Nueva Vizcaya, who were identified using the G*power calculator as being from the study's target population. The data came from the Phil-IRI assessment tools, which focused on the students' word reading and reading comprehension skills, together with the students' overall academic performance in English, which was collected through interviews. Independent, instructional, and frustration reading levels were identified in the students' reading abilities. The researcher used descriptive and inferential approaches to examine the data, which included weighted mean, frequency, and percentage. In order to show the students' levels of word reading and reading comprehension, as well as their academic performance in English, descriptive approaches were chosen. The correlational methods were used to investigate the relationships between the factor variables. The findings revealed that the majority of students chose to read independently and comprehend the texts they were given. Only a few of them experienced feelings of frustration. The vast majority of them performed admirably. Furthermore, there were statistically significant positive relationships between the variables. Given the fact that the variables were positively related to one another, an intervention program to close the gap was proposed.

Manit Bacate

Reading performance has been the problem of most schools affecting the students’ academic achievement results. Using the non-equivalent pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design, this study was conducted in order to determine the effects of the remedial reading program on the oral and silent reading skills of Grade VII students by comparing the progress of the experimental group using the Science Research Associates (SRA) materials and the control group using the Developing Reading Comprehension Skills materials, donated books of Former Senator Letecia Ramos Shahani. The students’ profile in terms of age, sex, general point average in Grade VI, and the grade in English were used as intervening variables to determine the significant relationship between reading performance of the experimental and control groups in the silent reading and oral reading skills. To determine the significant relationship and difference between the performance of the experimental and control groups in the oral and silent reading, this study utilized the pretest and posttest mean scores of the silent and oral reading tests. The posttest results exhibited an increase in the mean scores of the oral and silent reading tests. Decoding accuracy and automaticity showed a significant relationship between the pretest and the posttest results in the grade point average in Grade VI, which suggests that the students’ performance is closely related to their grade in Grade VI. All the skills in oral reading are found to have high significant difference except for the experimental group’s comprehension which is significant. The results suggest further that the study skills lag behind other skills in silent reading such as vocabulary and comprehension, implying that students with learning and behavior problems have difficulty in learning these skills. Therefore, appropriate research on study skills should be conducted to help augment the learning skills of students. Both the SRA and Developing Reading Comprehension Skills materials were effective in the development of the reading skills of the students.

Cypriot Journal of Educational Sciences

CJES Journal

The purpose of this study was to compare the reading skills of the fourth graders who were poor readers in different text genres (story and informative text). Fifty-six fourth-grade students who were poor readers participated in this study. Reading rates, reading errors and reading prosody characteristics of the students were examined in the study. It was concluded that although reading rates of students were higher when reading the informative text, they had also produced a higher number of errors for this text genre. This finding revealed that the informative text was completed in a shorter amount of time, but more errors occurred than when reading the story text. The findings of this study make it abundantly clear that all stakeholders should continue to work diligently in organising reading instruction and reading interventions that support reading fluency among all readers and for all text genres.


This study aims at finding out how: (1) amount of input, (2) amount of vocabulary, (3) learner's motivation, (4) amount of input, amount of vocabulary, and learner's motivation affect the English reading literacy; (5) amount of input affects amount of vocabulary, (6) amount of vocabulary affects learner's motivation, and (7) amount of input affects learner's motivation. This study was an ex-post facto. The population comprised year VII students of SMP's in Bantul District in the second semester of the academic year of 2013/2014. A sample of 384 students was established using the proportional sampling technique. The data were collected through a close-ended questionnaire and test. The close-ended questionnaire was used to collect the data related to students' learning input and motivation. The test was used to find out the students' knowledge on vocabulary and reading comprehension. The data were analyzed by employing the linear regression analysis for the linear variables, continued by the multiple regression analysis for the whole variables, and then followed by partial correlation. The findings showed that there is a significant effect of: (1) amount of input; (2) amount of vocabulary; (3) amount of inputs, the learner's motivation, and amount of vocabulary; (4) amount of inputs and learner's motivation; (5) learner's motivation and amount of vocabulary; and (6) amount of inputs and amount of vocabulary on the English reading literacy of SMP students in Bantul District. Meanwhile, there is no significant effect of learner's motivation on the English reading literacy of SMP students in Bantul District. Keywords: the amount of inputs, the amount of vocabulary, learner's motivation, English reading literacy

International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education

hayati akyol , Hayriye Gül Kuruyer


Justice Agyei Ampofo

Psychology and Education , Christian Hector G. Misanes

Hayriye Gül Kuruyer

Bahasa dan Seni: Jurnal Bahasa, Sastra, Seni, dan Pengajarannya

Nida Husna HR

M.Safdar Bhatti

norly calamaya

European Journal of Educational Research

hayati akyol

Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Education Social Sciences and Humanities (ICESSHum 2019)

Arif Taboer

Ratna Rintaningrum Scopus Author ID 35772946400

Malik Ajmal Gulzar

Psychology and Education , Caren Catuiran

Jonathan Magalong


Journal of modern education review

Emmanuel Uminya Ikwen

Eshetu Mandefro

edna albaran

Lambert Academic Publishing

Research Paper Published in ERIC sponsored by US Department of Education

Dr. Neena Dash

Aideen Cassidy

Henry Levin

Open Journal of Social Sciences

Erleo Villaros

Aysha Sharif

Indonesian Journal of Primary Education

Nadia Fitri Jeni

ayo olowookun

Nidhomul Haq

RELC Journal

Abdul Rashid Mohamed

ruth luciano

Journal of Educational Psychology

Sharon Vaughn

JournEEL (Journal of English Education and Literature)

Roudhotul Hildayani

Mya Thandar

Maria Victoria Takiang

International Journal For Research


مجلة البحث التربوي

Andrew Johnson


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