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by Emmanuel J Bacud

The Trend of International Relations: Toward A Critical Scrutiny of Liberal Global Conditions (A Reflection Essay for Political Science 6) " The international relations simply reflects the struggle for and use of power among nations "-Hans Morgenthau The 21 st century global political conditions are simulacra of power-struggles among states and individuals which were inevitable. As defined, International relations are networks formed by political and apolitical entities in the international community to pursue various interests through employing but not limited to economic and political means. Holsti defined international relations as formed of interactions among members of the global community in which these interactions can be social, political or economic. International relations can be analyzed as a political process by which various states' policies strategically adjusting within the patterns of power-relationships; thus, international relations structured the mode of international politics that robustly creates political hierarchy penetrating now the foreign policy system among interacting states. Applying historical institutionalist approach, international relations amplifies the doctrine of states' symbiosis. States' symbiosis is referred to an increasing interdependence among states as fueled by liberalist notion on cooperation and collectivism to attain national goals through the participation of other states. Applying Immanuel Wallerstein's World System theory, the modern world is essentially capitalistic in nature that formed very rigid economic hierarchy or economic patterns that classified states to be either the core (hegemonic capitalist states such as USA), the periphery such as Latin America or semi-periphery such as Spain, Singapore, Germany and France. Given these adequate ratiocinations, it can be inferred that this dominant structure of the world had penetrated the fundamental pillars of international relations such as the International Economy, International Politics, International Sociology and the International Political Dynamics. International economy, adopting the view of Robert Cox, is the triumph of neoliberalist ideology that penetrated the global market conditions wherein all resources including natural and man-made were simply treated as commodity and easily commodified. The universal commodification of resources (conversion into merely " dollar payments ") triggered the phenomenon of turbo capitalism as greatly observed in the financialization of the monetary institutions such as the International Monetary Fund, World Bank, Asia Development Bank, etc.. Financialization refers to the reconstruction of finances of businesses, public bodies and citizens to allow them to borrow money and to augment spending; thus, economic progress is the primary indicator of national development. This capitalist logic may be beneficial for the well-established states such as China, USA, France, Japan, United Kingdom, Singapore and Switzerland since they serve as normative standards of global development but this logic is also catastrophic for the least developed countries such as Kenya, Liberia, Cambodia, South Africa, Afghanistan, etc. Since the world is economically hierarchical in nature, there is a great tendency of an accruement of economic marginality in which rich state becomes richer and the poor states becomes poorer. Therefore, tremendous occurrences of poverty cases, social inequality and social injustice are still perceived especially in those countries that are destined to be highly dependent with the global powers such as African states. The states, given this anarchic conditions, aim for national survival therefore stability of both domestic and international relations must be advanced to fulfill the national interests because not all states have identical interests: some are intending to exploit the resources of the other countries for sustenance and some are intending to seek help for other countries to improve the national defense against the opponent state. International politics, therefore, as originated from the scramble of world resources, formed an international society that teaches itself to conflict among its members, tells them when to war, with whom and over what issues! In this sense, commodification became the crucial substance of war particularly war on resources and power to manage the resources. War became not only the actions of states but also the actions of non-states to challenge the government for the resolution og global pandemonium. War, as defined by Clausewitz, is the extension of politics by other means. However, liberalist thinkers who always believe that individuals are rational enough in justifying their actions, induced the idea that the international system could solve the problem by integrating all networks of political and apolitical entities (international sociology); hence, state leaders should devote their attention in creating and maintaining greater social justice in the system by establishing an egalitarian global community to be governed by universal government that could impose common laws among participating states. This notion will now accentuated the presence of international laws that normalize the activities of states by adhering to the liberalist value of democracy to attain international security and justice. Democracy, as the trend of global politics, must be adhered by states or else they will be the enemies of democracy and the enemies of the world! In that point, liberal states became triumphant in locomoting liberties and economic freedoms of citizens. The value of democracy has been magnified through the presence of humanitarian interventions in unstable states to protect the individuals but actually as criticized by the critical realist, humanitarian interventions are just mere justification of one state to intervene with other state so that the intervening state could penetrate the sovereignty of the other influencing now the domestic affairs including economic policies of the adversary. Humanitarian interventions considered the threatening of human liberties as the basis of intervention but usually accompanied by economic motive since according to Hobbes, the nature of states are always brutish, egoistic and chaotic.Hence, Global politics has been shaped to be economically-oriented global community to legitimize economic progression and global developments. Rationality denotes progress according to them. Conversely, critical realists comprehended this global condition as bandwagoning mechanism only of the SUPERPOWERS by proposing the virtue of cooperation and collectivism among states. Moreover, these SUPERPOWERS are the ones that could greatly benefit on it since they could monopolize the power and economy in the global scenario. In addition, global crises such as terrorisms, gender inequality as highlighted by feminist critique, international free trade, poverty and the global commons can be mitigated through the transformation of the world system. Abominate the spirit of " valuism " but empower the morale of " communism " since all individuals are believed to be social beings with respect to the global sphere of publics. The principle of global communism tries to instigate the fact that cooperation and communism among states must be of " cash payments " and states are not subjected into any forms of hierarchical structure. Communism abolish all institutions that fecunded great inequality among human races!

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Since then, instead of helping build a ' Multidisciplinary and Multidimensional Global Cooperative and Collaborative Framework' that should have helped built a ' Global Governance Globalization' in order to fix the Destructive Effects of Globalization on the one hand and improve its Capitalisation Effects on the second hand, the commitment to the Realism and by extension to the Structural-realism lead to a ' Negative or Zero Sum Game ' . Regarding the impact of the Machiavellism on the International Relations, studies found that at many different levels, the use of Machiavellism in International Relations could allow the use of Manipulation, Callouness and Indifference to Morality in International Relations that unfortunately can stimulate a ' Negative or Zero Sum Game ' like the Realism. However, Machiavel who is a realist and diplomat has suggested a mix of Diplomacy and Realism in order to reverse the course. Meaning to minimize the risk of Negative or Zero Sum Game and at least to have a Zero Sum Game. Regarding the impact of Rationalism on International Relations, emphasis was mainly on the requirements of global cooperation. Accordingly, rational choice explanations for conflict and the lack of cooperation in international politics frequently point to factors such as incomplete information, and a lack of credibility. Furthermore, according to rationalist analyzes, institutions may facilitate cooperation by increasing information, reducing transaction costs, and reducing collective action problems (Keohane, Robert O. And Martin, Lisa L. , 1995). One of the major contribution of the Empiricism to the International Relations has been the introduction of the Game Theory that help the players to act strategically in the international Relations. Doing so, can help minimize the risk of Negative or Zero Sum Game in the International Relations if all the requirements are met. Furthermore, under some requirements, the mix of Realism and Diplomacy ( cf. Machiavellism) and Idealism and Constructivism on the one hand and integration of Prisoner's Dilemma in the Machiavellism, Rationalism, Empiricism and Realism on the second hand can lead to Zero or Positive Sum Game in International Relations. Empirically, during the Westernization of the Globalization since the 15th century, Empiricism, Rationalism, Idealism, Constructivism, Realism and Machiavellism became the pillars of the The International Theory. Furthermore, generally speaking, Elitism and Elites Democracy have always had very important and strategic role into an International Relations. However and by so doing, Empirism, Realism and Elitism have undermined popular participation, egalitarian social change and other traditional pillars of democratic value. Unfortunately, the rise of Destructive Nationalism and Socialism on the one hand and the predominance of Ideology over Realism, Idealism and Constructivism on the second hand has created the conditions of the WWI and WWII. Since then, the Elites and Elites Democracy have been held accountable for the WWI and WWII because they have been unable to anticipate those events. Fortunately, after the WWI and WWII, there has been significant behavioral change that was compatible to the build of Collaborative and Cooperative Framework at the global level. Since then, the Elites have worked hard to create the Bretton Woods Institutions that have been strong enough to contain the commitment to the Realism, Rationalism and Machiavellism in the International Relations. However, recent structural, behavioral, trade and technological change have tended to restore them. Key Words : International Relations; International Politics; Empiricism; Rationalism; Idealism; Constructivism; Realism; Machiavellism; Multidisciplinary and Multidimensional Global Cooperative and Collaborative Framework; Negative or Zero Sum Game; Positive Sum Game; Destructive Nationalism and Socialism; WWI and WWII.

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This textbook shows how to think about international relations and offers insights into its most important theories and issues. Written from beyond the Anglo-US academic environment, with attention to regional nuances, it teaches students to perceive international politics in an organized and theoretical way, thus helping them grasp the complexity of the subject and see simple ways of making sense of it. Providing a thorough introduction to the main theories and approaches to international relations, the book covers the main dilemmas, concepts and methodological issues alongside a number of neglected theoretical paradigms such as institutionalism, Marxism, critical approaches, feminism and power in world politics. It will be of great use as a main textbook as well as a supplementary guide for related courses, including Foreign Policy Analysis, Confict Studies, Security Studies, History of International Relations, International Organizations and Global Governance.

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Editorial Department

This article provides the problem is that the stability of democracy in any country is based in the first place on the faith of citizens in democratic values, the pursuit of personal freedom and respect for the freedom of others, multikulturalism, tolerance for people who do not share their political views, personal enterprise and initiative, etc. It should be recognized that the most important of these conditions is the presence in society of political culture of a democratic type of desire formation of a single world space which lead humanity towards progress and prosperity, the development of modern international relations globalization, defining as the formation of a single world space, not only in the political sphere, but also in the field of economy, science, and so, for what purpose and requires a long period of time during which the society is just about going on the formation of the above-mentioned qualities.

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yuk tsam cheung

international relation a very short introduction - Paul Wilkinson

This article makes a contribution to the third wave of discussions on capitalist imperialism which arose at the beginning of this century. Its aim is to show that Marxism possesses the theoretical tools to become a comprehensive theory of International Relations (IR). While remaining rooted in structural and material forces, the theoretical speculation (change) presented here demonstrates that Marxism can move beyond economic determinism and incorporate elements of IR's political spatiality, such as geopolitical concerns and identity. The article first provides an update on the evolution of the world order since the 2008 global financial crisis, describing the return of geopolitics and national identity. Then I move on to develop a Marxist theory of IR along three analytical levels. The first level identifies the uneven global geography of capitalism as the main pressure constraining state managers to adopt expansionist solutions in order to survive the challenges posed by unrestrained flows of capital. The second level of analysis reasserts the importance of the private economic pressures felt by states, but goes beyond the economic determinism of the classical Marxist theory of imperialism in highlighting the role of political elites in translating these pressures according to their own geopolitical views. The third level of analysis departs from the canonical Marxist understanding of social space. Drawing on Lefebvre's and others' insights on human beings relations with nature, it attempts to build a bridge between the spatiality of Marxism and that of mainstream theories of IR such as realism, classical geopolitics and constructivism.

A materialist theory of international politics

Tadas Vinokur

The first part of this paper will explore the Realist school of IR. Here, it will be discussed how Realism accentuates the sovereign agency of nation-states by bolstering the inherent normativeness of anarchy. Following this, the Liberal theory of IR will be introduced as it entertains the potential of peace within the world of war. For the first time, anarchy will be understood as susceptible to cultural change. The appeasement of anarchy - however - is not sufficient. If anarchy is to be truly overcome, a shared component that transcends the differences between nation-states should be erected. To this end, the classical liberal doctrine of economy will be introduced. The myth of anarchy will - again - undergo a change, in that the free market economy will be understood as a unifying force that binds the nation-states together. The change in anarchy, however, can only come about by way of socio-political responsibility. Here, constructivism will be introduced as it emphasizes the political responsibility of making something out of anarchy. The myth of anarchy will - yet again - undergo a change, in that anarchy will no longer be understood as natural or inherent. This point is crucial, because a true change in anarchy can transpire only if political actors realize that they are responsible for a specific kind of anarchy. Finally, the notion of capitalism will be introduced. That is to say, the accrued knowledge of anarchy will culminate in the analysis of late capitalism. It will be argued that the canon of anarchy often forgets the internal organization of states and dismisses the vertical hierarchies of power that affect the international politics. Capitalism will - therefore - assume a more prominent role. It is the claim of this paper that the understanding of IR in terms of anarchy can be afforded solely to the victors of the new world order. Finally, the intention of this paper is to construct a road map for present-day political action. In the end, the discussion of globalization and neo-Marxist theory will compose exactly that - a map for action.

Capitalism and Anarchy in the context of International Relations


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Our international relations essays span a range of topics, offering analysis and debate, together with discussion on different perceptions on foreign policy and consequential impact. They are a valuable resource for IR students looking for inspiration when preparing their own research and writing on this topic. Find more International Relations essays here .

Human trafficking in the Philippines

Introduction The Dutch minister of foreign affairs, Bert Koenders, had in 2015 a conversation with his Philippine counterpart, Albert del Rosario. The two ministers announced that they are going work more firmly together in the battle against human trafficking. In the news article for the Government of the Netherlands (2015) is stated that Mr. Koender … Read more

Acharya’s model of norm subsidiarity

1. Introduction More and more often, states from the Global South express their dissatisfaction with the way they are being represented in international institutions and organisations (Acharya, 2011). More specifically, they feel that international institutions often do not reflect their interests and identities (Acharya, 2011). It is indeed true that institutions such as the United … Read more

Russia’s Burgeoning Relationship with Venezuela

Russia’s burgeoning relationship with Venezuela demonstrates Vladimir Putin’s global ambition to recruit geographically distant states as allies in creating a new multipolar, anti-American world order. Russia has been a close ally of Venezuela since 2006 when then-President, Hugo Chávez, signed a $2.9 billion arms deal in exchange for Russian fighter aircraft. This agreement allowed Russia … Read more

The Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (ISIS)

Select any terrorist group of interest and explain its origins, development, and objectives: The Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (ISIS) Al-Qaeda, ISIS, the Taliban. Names which thirty years ago had no significance, had no meaning, had no impact on the functionality of everyday life in the United States. Thirty years ago, America was concerned with … Read more

Thailand Fragile States Index

Introduction I am going to analyze and examine Thailand according to security apparatus indicator which is one of the cohesion indicators of the Fragile States Index. Before the beginning I want to explain the Fragile States Index and security apparatus indicator shortly. The Fragile States Index is an annual report published by the Fund for … Read more

Should North Korea be permitted to keep their nuclear weapons?

Countries all over the world have a great threat facing them today especially the United States of America. North Korea is a communist country that will soon have the power to launch a nuclear warhead and hit just about anywhere in the US. The US and the rest of the world is facing a very … Read more

Emigration in Central and Eastern European countries

Analysing policy implementations and the effects of emigration in Central and Eastern European countries, especially focusing on Hungarian re-migration policies. Labour migration (brain drain) is causing serious demographic and labour market problems worldwide in many countries. The enlargements of the European Union in 2004 and 2007 significantly accelerated in this process in the Central and … Read more

The UN’s Human rights agenda

The UN which stands for United Nations is an internationally functioning body. It is responsible for maintaining peace and security within the globe. Human Rights on the other hand, are the fundamental and basic rights and freedoms that belongs to every human being from birth until death. The UNs human rights agenda involves the sustenance … Read more

The challenge of providing global food security

The challenge of providing global food security is clear, the World Food Summit forecasts our world population to exceed 9 billion people by 2020. With 9 billion people to feed, gross food demands are estimated to increase by 60% across all continents. The possible solutions that we propose not only tackle the issue of ending … Read more

Economic, political and cultural globalization

A number of important issues can be noticed especially the important aspects of economic, political and cultural globalization, up to the internal situations (crises) of the nation- state which have made the state open to being undermined by globalization, moreover, if economy and culture are more globalized in a way which undermine the power and … Read more

The concept of human security

To understand the debate about any form of security, a closer analysis need to be taken especially at the inception of United Nation in 1945 at San Francisco, when the US secretary for state was very specific on the aspect of security as “The battle of peace has to be fought on two fronts. The … Read more

Which factors have accounted for U.S foreign policy towards Africa?

INTRODUCTION After the end of the Cold War, changes in global political climate led to a shift in U.S. foreign policy. United States policy makers realized that, there was no longer need to compete with the Soviet Union for influence around the world. New policy arrangements took the place of competition in proxy wars and … Read more

Did the EU replace NATO as a security actor in Europe after the Cold War?

The European Union is a ‘supranational alliance’, first founded in 1957 primarily with economic aims between the six founding member states, however, by 2018 the EU has 28 member states and aims aren’t refined to just economic co-operation and institutions within the EU are only able to act in areas that have been clarified in … Read more

Foreign policy decision making – military, propaganda, economic, intelligence & military

1.0 Introduction Instrument of foreign policy is the forms of pressure and influence available to decision-makers, represent an ascending scale of seriousness in terms of the commitment of resources, the impact on third parties, and the according degree of risk in use. The instruments can be categorized into soft power to hard power. Instrument of … Read more

Shatila refugee camp

Refugee condition and spaces have been analysed and observed through Agamben’s reflection on ‘bare life and the camp’. However, at this present day, there has been escalating critique of Giorgio Agamben’s highly respected totalitarian camp studies as it doesn’t seem to mirror the conditions of refugee camps in this current time. Agamben expressed that a … Read more

How to write an International Relations essay

International relations essays are pieces of academic writing that assess and contextualize important topics in international relations.

Most of these essays employ theoretical analyses to present ideas, arguments and criticisms on matters related to international relations. International relations essays offer analysis and debate, as well as an analysis of different perceptions on foreign policy and consequential impact. International relations essays; thus, require that the writer to reflects a superior ability to think critically and construct rational ideas.

These essays can address issues like foreign affairs, diplomacy, the international political atmosphere, the world economy, and current affairs. A political science student is expected to reflect ample knowledge of each of the aforementioned topics. A final international relations essay should conform to the instructor’s basic provisions like conformity to the topic of study, length and other writing requirements. Learning how to write an international relations essay can be a fun but challenging task. A good essay is one that has a swift flow of thoughts. These thoughts should show a clear connection between an international current affair, local economic, social and political affairs. The essay should be able to offer a comparison between current affairs and their impact with respect to local spheres. A clear relationship between local affairs and international affairs should be determined. Some of the major data sources for international relations essays include large foreign newspapers and national newspapers. These are some of the most trusted sources for information on current affairs. Others include respected journals, periodicals, and books. These can be sourced online, as well as from Google Scholar to determine the present mood and precisely analyze your topic.

The most common formatting styles include Harvard and APA. Most of the provisions of APA formatting style are similar to those of Harvard. For instance, both formatting styles direct that every page of the essay should comprise of a running head positioned at the top left of the paper. The running head is an abridged form of the title, usually in just a few words not exceeding 50 characters. The standard guidelines for international relations essays comprise of a brief introduction, the body that presents the main arguments and ideas, with a concluding paragraph. There should be even margins of one-inch both at the top and bottom, as well as left and right sides of the essay. The font should be double-spaced unless stated otherwise. The essay should have a title page with respect to the stipulated formatting guideline. A complete essay should also have a reference page. This is a separate page at the end of the essay and presents a list of all the sources used in constructing the essay. References should feature in alphabetical order with double spacing between each entry. Before constructing the final piece, you should refer to lecture notes from past lectures. The writer should maintain the flow of thoughts by conforming the introductory ideas to the other paragraphs. The succeeding paragraphs should work to expand the introductory ideas, as well as offer supporting information and detailed arguments with the aim of substantiating the claims made in an international relations essay. The concluding paragraphs should focus on emphasizing each major point presented in the essay. You should provide a concise acknowledgement to every point. This ensures a stable foundation of believability. The final piece of an essay should undergo a thorough proofreading session to eliminate grammatical and typographical errors. Other errors include faulty logic and lack of even transition.

Each paragraph of an international relations essay should have an introductory statement, also known as a topical sentence. The first statement in a paragraph should reflect the strongest point of view, cleverest description, the most significant example, or a clear beginning point. This offers the best way for securing the reader’s attention as they read the essay. The first paragraph; however, should be the main introduction to the essay. The topical statement should comprise of the “reverse hook”. This connects to the transitional hook towards the end of the introductory paragraph.

When learning how to start an essay, it’s important to include the correct information within each paragraph. The introductory paragraph should also comprise of a thesis statement, a type of mini-highlight of the paper. A thesis statement introduces the reader to the main argument of the essay. The last statement of the introductory paragraph should comprise of a transitional “hook”. Its purpose is to move the reader to the main part of the essay.

The strength of main arguments should reflect a descending sequence with respect to the strength of arguments. The strongest arguments should feature first followed by the less strong arguments. This also applies to the most significant examples, the cleverest descriptions, and others. The first sentence of the second paragraph should possess a reverse hook. Its purpose is to connect the transitional hook at the end of the initial paragraph of the main body. The topic of the second paragraph of the main body should feature in the first or second statement (sentence). The topic should reflect a clear relationship to the thesis statement presented in the introductory paragraph. The final sentence in this section should comprise of a transitional concluding hook. Its purpose is to signal the reader that the final major point has been reached. The hook also directs to the last or concluding paragraph.

A complete international relations essay should have a strong concluding paragraph. Although you have finalised the bulk of the essay, and completed the most complex body paragraphs, careful attention should feature while coming up with a favorable conclusion. A strong conclusion works to substantiate the main arguments in the essay. On the other hand, a weak conclusion works to weaken the arguments presented in your essay. An ample conclusion reinforces the main argument. As well as briefly encapsulates the mode of proofing your validity. New information should not be introduced at the concluding paragraph. One way of achieving this is through offering potential directions with respect to future research. Another way is through suggesting how the arguments forwarded in the essay opens up a completely new point of view about the specified topic. Nevertheless, care should be taken not to introduce completely new information in support of the thesis statement. If this information was important enough to the essay, it would have featured in the preceding arguments as well. Making it available in the concluding paragraph simply diverts the attention of the readers. This also detracts from the general impact of previously focused arguments.

The concluding paragraph is vital as it contains the summary of the whole essay. A brief summary of the main points in the preceding paragraphs is crucial. This presents the best way of reminding your readers of the effectiveness employed in discussing various evidences in the essay. The points do not need to be arguments, as this will be a repetition. The points simply require a reiteration to illustrate how they directly support and address the thesis statement. The conclusion offers the last impression of the essay that the reader receives. Careful attention should be observed in providing a link between the thesis statement and the main body. The thesis should be reiterated and conformed to the thesis statement provided in the introductory paragraph. Moreover, you should not merely copy the thesis statement from the introductory paragraph. In its place, the thesis should be paraphrased to reflect the progress achieved in the main body of the international relations essay.

The above guidelines are standard operating procedures when trying to understand  how to write an international relations essay . This is an analysis of the main features of an international relations essay, including a connection of current affairs to theoretical frameworks, the need for strong introductory paragraphing, and topical sentences. Other main features include the main body, which should reflect a swift flow and ample conformity to the thesis statement.

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