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ESSAY in INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
by Emmanuel J Bacud
The Trend of International Relations: Toward A Critical Scrutiny of Liberal Global Conditions (A Reflection Essay for Political Science 6) " The international relations simply reflects the struggle for and use of power among nations "-Hans Morgenthau The 21 st century global political conditions are simulacra of power-struggles among states and individuals which were inevitable. As defined, International relations are networks formed by political and apolitical entities in the international community to pursue various interests through employing but not limited to economic and political means. Holsti defined international relations as formed of interactions among members of the global community in which these interactions can be social, political or economic. International relations can be analyzed as a political process by which various states' policies strategically adjusting within the patterns of power-relationships; thus, international relations structured the mode of international politics that robustly creates political hierarchy penetrating now the foreign policy system among interacting states. Applying historical institutionalist approach, international relations amplifies the doctrine of states' symbiosis. States' symbiosis is referred to an increasing interdependence among states as fueled by liberalist notion on cooperation and collectivism to attain national goals through the participation of other states. Applying Immanuel Wallerstein's World System theory, the modern world is essentially capitalistic in nature that formed very rigid economic hierarchy or economic patterns that classified states to be either the core (hegemonic capitalist states such as USA), the periphery such as Latin America or semi-periphery such as Spain, Singapore, Germany and France. Given these adequate ratiocinations, it can be inferred that this dominant structure of the world had penetrated the fundamental pillars of international relations such as the International Economy, International Politics, International Sociology and the International Political Dynamics. International economy, adopting the view of Robert Cox, is the triumph of neoliberalist ideology that penetrated the global market conditions wherein all resources including natural and man-made were simply treated as commodity and easily commodified. The universal commodification of resources (conversion into merely " dollar payments ") triggered the phenomenon of turbo capitalism as greatly observed in the financialization of the monetary institutions such as the International Monetary Fund, World Bank, Asia Development Bank, etc.. Financialization refers to the reconstruction of finances of businesses, public bodies and citizens to allow them to borrow money and to augment spending; thus, economic progress is the primary indicator of national development. This capitalist logic may be beneficial for the well-established states such as China, USA, France, Japan, United Kingdom, Singapore and Switzerland since they serve as normative standards of global development but this logic is also catastrophic for the least developed countries such as Kenya, Liberia, Cambodia, South Africa, Afghanistan, etc. Since the world is economically hierarchical in nature, there is a great tendency of an accruement of economic marginality in which rich state becomes richer and the poor states becomes poorer. Therefore, tremendous occurrences of poverty cases, social inequality and social injustice are still perceived especially in those countries that are destined to be highly dependent with the global powers such as African states. The states, given this anarchic conditions, aim for national survival therefore stability of both domestic and international relations must be advanced to fulfill the national interests because not all states have identical interests: some are intending to exploit the resources of the other countries for sustenance and some are intending to seek help for other countries to improve the national defense against the opponent state. International politics, therefore, as originated from the scramble of world resources, formed an international society that teaches itself to conflict among its members, tells them when to war, with whom and over what issues! In this sense, commodification became the crucial substance of war particularly war on resources and power to manage the resources. War became not only the actions of states but also the actions of non-states to challenge the government for the resolution og global pandemonium. War, as defined by Clausewitz, is the extension of politics by other means. However, liberalist thinkers who always believe that individuals are rational enough in justifying their actions, induced the idea that the international system could solve the problem by integrating all networks of political and apolitical entities (international sociology); hence, state leaders should devote their attention in creating and maintaining greater social justice in the system by establishing an egalitarian global community to be governed by universal government that could impose common laws among participating states. This notion will now accentuated the presence of international laws that normalize the activities of states by adhering to the liberalist value of democracy to attain international security and justice. Democracy, as the trend of global politics, must be adhered by states or else they will be the enemies of democracy and the enemies of the world! In that point, liberal states became triumphant in locomoting liberties and economic freedoms of citizens. The value of democracy has been magnified through the presence of humanitarian interventions in unstable states to protect the individuals but actually as criticized by the critical realist, humanitarian interventions are just mere justification of one state to intervene with other state so that the intervening state could penetrate the sovereignty of the other influencing now the domestic affairs including economic policies of the adversary. Humanitarian interventions considered the threatening of human liberties as the basis of intervention but usually accompanied by economic motive since according to Hobbes, the nature of states are always brutish, egoistic and chaotic.Hence, Global politics has been shaped to be economically-oriented global community to legitimize economic progression and global developments. Rationality denotes progress according to them. Conversely, critical realists comprehended this global condition as bandwagoning mechanism only of the SUPERPOWERS by proposing the virtue of cooperation and collectivism among states. Moreover, these SUPERPOWERS are the ones that could greatly benefit on it since they could monopolize the power and economy in the global scenario. In addition, global crises such as terrorisms, gender inequality as highlighted by feminist critique, international free trade, poverty and the global commons can be mitigated through the transformation of the world system. Abominate the spirit of " valuism " but empower the morale of " communism " since all individuals are believed to be social beings with respect to the global sphere of publics. The principle of global communism tries to instigate the fact that cooperation and communism among states must be of " cash payments " and states are not subjected into any forms of hierarchical structure. Communism abolish all institutions that fecunded great inequality among human races!
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Festus Penda Asino
International relations is often traced back to the Peace of Westphalia of 1648, where the modern state system was developed. Before this, medieval organisation of political authority was based on a vaguely hierarchical religious order. Westphalia instituted the legal concept of sovereignty, which essentially meant that rulers or the legitimate sovereigns had no internal equals within a defined territory and no external superiors as the ultimate authority within the territory's sovereign borders. What sovereignty meant, and could still mean to others is simply that " I am not allowed to tell you what to do and you are not allowed to tell me what to do ". Greek and Roman authority at times resembled the Westphalia system but both lacked the notion of sovereignty. Westphalia encouraged the rise of the independent nation-state, the institutionalisation of diplomacy and armies. This particular European system was exported to the Americas, Africa and Asia via colonialism and the " standards of civilisation ". The contemporary international system was finally established through decolonisation during the Cold War, though this is a simplistic view of the situation. Definition and Scope of International Relations International Relations represents the study of foreign affairs and global issues among states within the international system, including the roles of states, intergovernmental organisations, non-governmental organisations, international non-governmental organisations and multinational corporations. It is both an academic and public policy field, and can be either positive or normative as it both seeks to analyse as well as formulate the foreign policy of particular states. It is often considered a branch of political science. Some sectors of the academia prefer to treat it as an interdisciplinary field of study. It is the study of the relations among states and other political and economic units in the international system. Particular areas of study within the field of international relations include diplomacy and history, international law, international organisations, international finance and economics, political geography, philosophy, sociology, social work, anthropology and cultural studies. It involves a diverse range of issues including but not limited to globalisation, state sovereignty, ecological sustainability, nuclear proliferation, nationalism, economic development, global finance, terrorism, organised crime, human security, foreign interventionism and human rights.
Ejaz Ahmad Malikzada
2018, TAYYAR ARI
The objectivity of studying social and political sciences has always been questioned on the ground that personal values may interfere. In the same vein, it is a challenge to understand and explain international relations, owing to different world views and approaches. This is mainly because there are many ways of studying international relations. First of all, it requires an interdisciplinary and multilevel analysis to explain international phenomena, which may embody conflict, cooperation or both. IR field began to be recognized as a separate discipline during the period between two world wars and since then debates have continued on “what to study” and “how to study”. These questions paved the way to many ontological and epistemological discussions. The realist-idealist debate of the 1950s and the methodological debate of the 1960s are just two examples that have evolved in the discipline. A realist description of International relations is based on competition among states as major actors to pursue their interests, whereas a liberal description concentrates more on harmonious relations of pluralist actors. Theories have also grown out of the need to seek regularities and reflect the quest for a grand theory to explain all observed phenomena, which has truly been an overarching and ambitious attempt. Theories of IR borrow assumptions of each other so to say, and provide feedback for their reconstruction, through the critiques they make against each other. In this book, you will make an introduction to realism, liberalism and economic structuralism as major traditions in the field, their historical evolution and some theories they have given birth to. Chapter 1 is about contending issues and classification of major theories in the field. Chapter 2 discusses the realist theory of IR and its evolution. Chapter 3 provides a close look to liberal tradition and its reflections in IR. Chapter 4 introduces economic structuralism via the Marxist theory and Chapter 5 familiarizes the readers with International Political Economy. Chapter 6 briefly informs the readers on types of international regime theories reflecting different traditions in IR. Chapter 7, the normative theory on the other hand deals with “what should be” in IR instead of “what is” observed. Lastly, in Chapter 8, the English School of IR which argues to be a via media between realism and liberalism is elaborated. Though cases in IR and different issue-areas demand different theoretical perspectives and methods of inquiry; researchers agree on the need to utilize theoretical frameworks as road maps to explain and foresee the future of events. The theoretical approaches and their basic assumptions may sound unfamiliar and abstract at the beginning, However, they will prove to be the alphabet to conceptualize and interpret international phenomena. As editors of this book, we hope you enjoy reading the book and it guides you in observing international arena and motivates for analytical thinking on international relations. We are grateful to our esteemed authors for their collaboration in preparing this course textbook for the International Relations Program. Editors Prof.Dr. Tayyar ARI Assoc.Prof.Dr. Elif TOPRAK
Bulletin of the Transilvania University of Braşov. Series VII: Social Sciences • Law
The state is that form of organization specific to human society even today, although several thousand years have passed since it was set up in the Ancient Orient. Over time the concept of state has evolved, perhaps even sometimes didn't evolve, on the contrary, it has certainly undergone complex adaptations generated by the challenges that have arisen over different historical periods, as well as by historical, political, social, economic, cultural phenomena, etc. Nowadays, globalization is a phenomenon or even a complex process generated by a multitude of causes, shared, more or less, by human society, but whose existence and effects can neither be ignored nor denied. In this briefly presented context, are witnessing the encounter of two different concepts, perhaps even antagonistic, concepts, namely the state, and globalization. These two concepts and more had to find a way to live together. We ask ourselves, however, whether this coexistence between the state and globalizati...
in the previous section, an essential link between globalization and the nation state is the concept of sovereignty, a term dating back several centuries, well before the nationstate system was established in 1648. Originally intended in reference to the establishment of order within a state, sovereignty has since been interpreted by some as a legal quality that places the state above the authority of all external laws. Yet, whenever a state exercises its sovereign right to sign a treaty, it is also willfully limiting that right by the very act of undertaking an international legal obligation. States are also bound by other rules, such as customary international law. With these formal legal limitations, sovereignty stubbornly persists even in an age of globalization. It is manifested in such functions as the coining of money, the gathering of taxes, the promulgation of domestic law, and the conduct of foreign policy, the regulation of commerce, and the maintenance of domestic order. These are all functions that are reserved exclusively to the state. Nonetheless, it is evident that States over the years have discovered that their interests are better protected and advanced within a broader system of binding rules than without such a system. Rules help to define rights as well as duties, including duties to do and not to do certain things. These rights and obligations depend on a whole complex of circumstances: political, economic, cultural, and technological. Presently, globalization is having a profound effect upon national and international rules i.e. influencing the norms that govern world commerce, transportation and environmental protection etc. Therefore, in western public policy circles in the mid-1980s term "interdependence " was introduced and was generally viewed in an economic context. Globalization simply referred to a largely commercial process involving rapid increase in the exchange of goods, capital and services across national frontiers. It figured particularly in writings about the role of multinational corporations with their global networks of vertically-integrated subsidiaries and affiliates. Expanded flows of commerce across borders accrued many benefits. They provided profits, jobs, efficiencies of scale, lowered unit costs and increased the variety of goods available for everyone to buy. This commerce was facilitated by important technological trends, like the increased speed and declining cost of long-distance transportation (both of passengers and of cargo) and similar developments in the field of telecommunications. In short, it was not just getting easier to do business across national borders, but highly desirable to the growing numbers of potential beneficiaries of this commerce. Some scholars believe that unfettered trade would be the key to world peace. The argument is that states and the large economic interests within them would not like to go to wars to interfere with the cool logic of mutual economic gain. Journalists, social scientists and political leaders joined their economist friends in heralding a new age of interdependence because it promised a more rational way of world's business. Many of the writers were also keenly aware Globalization and the Nations State……14 Proceedings of 3rd International Conference on Business Management (ISBN: 978-969-9368-07-3) of another dimension of interdependence: its potential to make armed conflicts much more devastating. Distinguished observers like Norman Angell, Leonard Wolf, Francis Delaisi, and Ramsey Muir wrote extensively on this theme and questioned the adequacy of the nation state in meeting the economic and security challenges of the new century.
2012, Ekonomski horizonti
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The Liberalist perspective is recognized as a diverse body of thoughts. It overlooks the anarchic realist state in support for a decentralized-state system by shifting focus from ‘high politics’ to ‘low politics’. In other words, this is where the procurement of international state security and power in the former progressively shifts to the domestic framework of freedom, socio-economic and welfare components in the latter. Realism is a body of thoughts that reveal the world of politics as a “struggle for power”. ‘Classical Realists’ explain power as an egotistic nature of human or state behaviour in an aggressive tone; ‘Neo-realists’ understand realism as a structure embedded in anarchic state systems; and ‘Neoclassical Realists’ illustrates realism as a combination of the former-two, provided with variables to accommodate rationalized state interests. These thoughts, for the Realist, are main categories for states to centralize around the “management, possession, and application of power”. Constructivism- not as a theoretical perspective but as an ontological study aims to understand the ‘structures’ of International Relations (IR) through the sociological constructions (history, beliefs, culture, perspectives and norms) made by ‘agents’. The ontology opens for an interactive gap, where the constructs of society were unaccounted for by the Realist and Liberal-institutionalist perspectives. The theory propounds on Marxism and Economic Structuralism. They contest the ideologies and reactions of the realists and liberalists perspectives within capitalist systems. Both theories are assumed critical given their nature to investigate the systemic constructs of beliefs, assumptions and tendencies of the world found today. As a perspective of Marxism, Feminism focuses on the societal formed constructs of human nature. In other words, society themselves have constructed and divided people into two gender classes under several labels- ‘male’ and ‘female’; ‘masculine and feminine; and ‘man’ and ‘woman’.
Alvin AKOKO OTIENO
Antonio Muñoz Sánchez
The relevance of Marxism, as a theory shaping development, has been questioned, especially with the end of the Cold War. But with the emergence of global problems, particularly those related to the vagaries of capitalism and neo-liberalism, there has been renewed interest in the application of the theory in international relations discourse. There appears to be highlights of the increased class struggle in the form of the “new world’ and the “old world”, or, in simple terms, the developed and the developing societies. In an attempt to illuminate on these class struggles at the international level and explaining why events happen the way they do, insights have emerged from contributions by Marx, Lenin, and Neo-Marxists. It is the purpose of this paper to examine the relevance of Marxism in the study of International relations in the contemporary world. This is done in two ways, that is, the review of political-philosophical doctrine of liberation and the examination of the socio-econ...
Krishna Kumar Patel
Muhammad Akram Zaheer
A book is rather like a child: once you give birth to it, it has a life of its own. The book is highly philosophical. The organization of the whole book is such that the reader is captivated and interest remains till the end of the book. Though the use of vocabulary and sentence pattern is a little bit out of the grip of a common reader like me, it still merits high attention owing to the common place illustrations included in the book.
Adnan Q . Limani
Author's intention is creating the possibilities to analyse more general approach in the discussion regarding globalizing. Such approach would enable avoidance from the conceptual and terminological confusion, and to be able to ascertain our critic positioning and stance regarding interconnection, interdependence and perspectives of our society in these processes. Author in particular area handles economic, ideology, culture and technology dimensions and also the causes and consequences of globalism in those particular areas. As a process, globalism changes established political, economic, social and culture relations. Globalism produced also enemies and its opposition. In developing countries in particular with growth of Islam fundamentalism, globalizing was understood as a new particular form of western world. In developed countries anti-global motion encourages and it's directed by different leftist political ideas, anarchism and ecology. At the end author emphasizes that globalism we approach as a universal process which generates interconnection and interdependence between states and societies. Sovereignty today is split between national, international ruling and sometimes also the regional ones. To find where we belong in the modern world first we have to know and understand it. Answer does not lay at isolation but in openness, in cooperation and in adapting. The starting point in this work is to create possibility for general approach regarding discussion about globalism which enables us to avoid conceptual and terminology confusion as well as other confusions and regarding with positions and established classifications to determine our critic positioning and stance about interconnection and interdependence as well as to review considerably possibilities and perspectives of our society in these processes.
Russia in Global Affairs
SUMMARY This chapter introduces the historical and social basis of international relations or IR. The aim of the chapter is to emphasize the practical reality of international relations in our everyday lives and to connect that practical reality with the academic study of international relations. The chapter makes that connection by focusing on the core historical subject-matter of IR: modern sovereign states and the international relations of the state system. Three main topics are discussed: the significance of international relations in everyday life and the main values that states exist to foster, the historical evolution of the state system and world economy in brief outline, and the changing contemporary world of states.
James Michael Walker
International Relations or International Politics is a recent discipline that did emerge at the beginning of the 20th century in order to help understand the nature and causes of wars following the aftermath of the First World War (WWI). However, some studies believed that the International Relations could be traced back to the Peace Treaty of Westphalia of 1968, which defined the concept of sovereign state. Since then, Holsti, K.J. (1998) and Destradi (2016) found that International politics is essentially different from domestic politics and thus deserves its own corpus of academic conceptualization. However, theoretically, they are mainly shaped, structured and supported by Western's Values and Political Theories and Philosophies that did emerge mainly during the period of Renaissance in Europe. They include Empiricism, Rationalism, Realism, Machiavellism, Idealism and Constructivism. Nevertheless, while the Empiricism, Rationalism, Realism and Machiavellism make it easier for the International Relations to be shaped and structured by Negative and/or Zero Sum Game (Destructive Competition), the Idealism and Constructivism lead to Constructive and Positive Competition, Cooperation and Collaboration in International Relations. In fact, regarding the impact of the Realism on International Relations, commitment to the Realism in International Relations could lead to a Zero sum game mainly when the Realism is led by a Security-driven agenda: a phenomenon called Security Dilemma. For example, according to Glaser (1994-1995), structural realists are pessimistic about the prospects for international cooperation; they believe that competition between the major powers in the international system is the normal state of affairs. Furthermore, the structural-realist argument is driven by the implications of international anarchy, that is, the lack of an international authority capable of enforcing agreements. Moreover, responding to the pressures of anarchy, during peacetime countries will be inclined to deal with adversaries by arms racing and gaining allies, rather than by cooperating via arms control or other approaches for realizing common interests. Anarchy then discourages cooperation and the possibility that adversaries will cheat on agreements. In short, the standard structural-realist argument predicts that cooperation between adversaries, while not impossible, will be difficult to achieve and, as a result, will be rare and contribute relatively little to state's wellbeing. Since then, instead of helping build a ' Multidisciplinary and Multidimensional Global Cooperative and Collaborative Framework' that should have helped built a ' Global Governance Globalization' in order to fix the Destructive Effects of Globalization on the one hand and improve its Capitalisation Effects on the second hand, the commitment to the Realism and by extension to the Structural-realism lead to a ' Negative or Zero Sum Game ' . Regarding the impact of the Machiavellism on the International Relations, studies found that at many different levels, the use of Machiavellism in International Relations could allow the use of Manipulation, Callouness and Indifference to Morality in International Relations that unfortunately can stimulate a ' Negative or Zero Sum Game ' like the Realism. However, Machiavel who is a realist and diplomat has suggested a mix of Diplomacy and Realism in order to reverse the course. Meaning to minimize the risk of Negative or Zero Sum Game and at least to have a Zero Sum Game. Regarding the impact of Rationalism on International Relations, emphasis was mainly on the requirements of global cooperation. Accordingly, rational choice explanations for conflict and the lack of cooperation in international politics frequently point to factors such as incomplete information, and a lack of credibility. Furthermore, according to rationalist analyzes, institutions may facilitate cooperation by increasing information, reducing transaction costs, and reducing collective action problems (Keohane, Robert O. And Martin, Lisa L. , 1995). One of the major contribution of the Empiricism to the International Relations has been the introduction of the Game Theory that help the players to act strategically in the international Relations. Doing so, can help minimize the risk of Negative or Zero Sum Game in the International Relations if all the requirements are met. Furthermore, under some requirements, the mix of Realism and Diplomacy ( cf. Machiavellism) and Idealism and Constructivism on the one hand and integration of Prisoner's Dilemma in the Machiavellism, Rationalism, Empiricism and Realism on the second hand can lead to Zero or Positive Sum Game in International Relations. Empirically, during the Westernization of the Globalization since the 15th century, Empiricism, Rationalism, Idealism, Constructivism, Realism and Machiavellism became the pillars of the The International Theory. Furthermore, generally speaking, Elitism and Elites Democracy have always had very important and strategic role into an International Relations. However and by so doing, Empirism, Realism and Elitism have undermined popular participation, egalitarian social change and other traditional pillars of democratic value. Unfortunately, the rise of Destructive Nationalism and Socialism on the one hand and the predominance of Ideology over Realism, Idealism and Constructivism on the second hand has created the conditions of the WWI and WWII. Since then, the Elites and Elites Democracy have been held accountable for the WWI and WWII because they have been unable to anticipate those events. Fortunately, after the WWI and WWII, there has been significant behavioral change that was compatible to the build of Collaborative and Cooperative Framework at the global level. Since then, the Elites have worked hard to create the Bretton Woods Institutions that have been strong enough to contain the commitment to the Realism, Rationalism and Machiavellism in the International Relations. However, recent structural, behavioral, trade and technological change have tended to restore them. Key Words : International Relations; International Politics; Empiricism; Rationalism; Idealism; Constructivism; Realism; Machiavellism; Multidisciplinary and Multidimensional Global Cooperative and Collaborative Framework; Negative or Zero Sum Game; Positive Sum Game; Destructive Nationalism and Socialism; WWI and WWII.
European Scientific Journal, ESJ
In the international relations (IR)’ theoretical and empirical studies, international regime studies emerged as a reaction to inadequacies of the concepts of authority, international order and organization. Over more than half a century, realism has been skeptical of international law. In both classical and neorealist approaches, states are depicted as seeking to maximize power and producing a balance of power. This study examines two paradigms, realism and liberalism, in an attempt to take a closer look at what each of these schools has to offer to the international relations. To be able to carry out such an evaluation each of these paradigms will be analyzed with respect to their positions on the following principles: unit of analysis, key concepts, behavioral dynamics, interstate system, peace and war, and last but not least explanatory power. Discussing the strengths and weaknesses of each of these paradigms will help in determining which of these approaches is the most persuasive.
2019, Fejes, Zsuzsanna; Sulyok, Márton; Szalai, Anikó (eds.): Interstate relations
The growing importance of technological development and mobility of capital and labor are not unprecedented in world economy and political phenomenon. However, the redirection of the use of military power with a dramatic growth of transport and information technology, and a rapid growth of social networks are diminishing the importance of state borders, state hegemony and autocracy. The globalization imperatives of high levels of technological inter-relationships and innovations, high resonance of capital and labor mobility, and lately counterterrorism has led to a pronounced increase of interdependence in the international community, reducing the possibilities of inter-state conflict resolution by military means, especially between the developed countries. The change of courses in the Eastern European countries- countries that emerged from the former Soviet Union and the Third World countries and the recent political trends in the Middle Eastern countries towards the model of a market economy and democratic government brought about new changes with political designations within which economic bonding is pushing back the military factor as a means of resolving inter-state problems in many parts of the world..
This article argues that the discipline of world history, with its interdisciplinary ties to the social sciences and its incorporation of the cultural insights of recent historiography, makes an ideal tool for conveying the complexities of the contemporary world in a “user-friendly” way. It argues further that one particular global structural analysis, from the author’s world history textbook Frameworks of World History, exposes a deep pattern that helps explain many of the central conflicts in contemporary global politics. By highlighting the tension that has existed between individual communities, or hierarchies, and the networks that connected those communities, a tension going back as far as the modern human species, the article exposes the deep roots of the central conflict between today’s global network and its cultural value of capitalism on the one hand, and modern hierarchies and their central value of nationalism on the other. The cultural aspect of this analysis offers a ...
2020, International journal of innovative research and development
2022, International Relations Theory
This textbook shows how to think about international relations and offers insights into its most important theories and issues. Written from beyond the Anglo-US academic environment, with attention to regional nuances, it teaches students to perceive international politics in an organized and theoretical way, thus helping them grasp the complexity of the subject and see simple ways of making sense of it. Providing a thorough introduction to the main theories and approaches to international relations, the book covers the main dilemmas, concepts and methodological issues alongside a number of neglected theoretical paradigms such as institutionalism, Marxism, critical approaches, feminism and power in world politics. It will be of great use as a main textbook as well as a supplementary guide for related courses, including Foreign Policy Analysis, Confict Studies, Security Studies, History of International Relations, International Organizations and Global Governance.
2015, Research in Political Economy
Abstract This introduction to the essays that follow argues that the chief problem with the dominant understanding of world affairs in the disciplines of International Relations and International Political Economy, including their Marxist versions, is an a historical, non-contradictory and economically cosmopolitan conception of capitalism. In their place, geopolitical economy is a new approach which returns to the conception of capitalism embodied in the culmination of classical political economy, Marxism. It was historical in two senses, distinguishing capitalism as a historically specific mode of social production involving by value production and understanding that its contradictions drive forward capitalism’s own history in a central way. This approach must further develop and specify uneven and combined development as the dominant pattern in the unfolding of capitalist international relations, one that is constitutive of its component states themselves. Secondly, it must understand the logic of the actions undertaken by capitalist states as emerging from the struggles involved in the formation of capitalist states and from the contradictions that are set in train once capitalism is established. Finally, it must see in the ways that class and national struggles and resulting state actions have modified the functioning of capitalism the possibilities of replacing the disorder, contestation and war that are the spontaneous result of capitalism for international relations the basis for a cooperative order in relations between states, an order which can also be the means for realising the permanent revolution and solidifying its gains on the international or world plane.
The impact of Globalization on State power has received much attention in social science literature. The effects of Globalization are steadily eroding away the Power of the State as a key actor in the International Arena. There have been substantial power shift in the International System from States actors to Non-State Actors since the birth of Globalization. The rise of Capitalism and autonomous function of International Markets, development of Innovative Technology and Improvement in Information Technology, erosion of national citizenship to Global Citizenship and the emergence and increasing importance of Non-State Actors have led to the changing nature of the international system The nature of the Global Village resulting from globalization requires states to change if they want to remain players in the international system. Thus, globalization required states to build its capacity to adapt and manage globalization in order to capitalize on opportunities and respond to the challenges.
Anthony J Langlois
2000, Les ateliers de l'éthique
Asst. Prof. Dr. Armando Aliu , Dorian Aliu
C. R. Bijoy
This article provides the problem is that the stability of democracy in any country is based in the first place on the faith of citizens in democratic values, the pursuit of personal freedom and respect for the freedom of others, multikulturalism, tolerance for people who do not share their political views, personal enterprise and initiative, etc. It should be recognized that the most important of these conditions is the presence in society of political culture of a democratic type of desire formation of a single world space which lead humanity towards progress and prosperity, the development of modern international relations globalization, defining as the formation of a single world space, not only in the political sphere, but also in the field of economy, science, and so, for what purpose and requires a long period of time during which the society is just about going on the formation of the above-mentioned qualities.
yuk tsam cheung
This article makes a contribution to the third wave of discussions on capitalist imperialism which arose at the beginning of this century. Its aim is to show that Marxism possesses the theoretical tools to become a comprehensive theory of International Relations (IR). While remaining rooted in structural and material forces, the theoretical speculation (change) presented here demonstrates that Marxism can move beyond economic determinism and incorporate elements of IR's political spatiality, such as geopolitical concerns and identity. The article first provides an update on the evolution of the world order since the 2008 global financial crisis, describing the return of geopolitics and national identity. Then I move on to develop a Marxist theory of IR along three analytical levels. The first level identifies the uneven global geography of capitalism as the main pressure constraining state managers to adopt expansionist solutions in order to survive the challenges posed by unrestrained flows of capital. The second level of analysis reasserts the importance of the private economic pressures felt by states, but goes beyond the economic determinism of the classical Marxist theory of imperialism in highlighting the role of political elites in translating these pressures according to their own geopolitical views. The third level of analysis departs from the canonical Marxist understanding of social space. Drawing on Lefebvre's and others' insights on human beings relations with nature, it attempts to build a bridge between the spatiality of Marxism and that of mainstream theories of IR such as realism, classical geopolitics and constructivism.
The first part of this paper will explore the Realist school of IR. Here, it will be discussed how Realism accentuates the sovereign agency of nation-states by bolstering the inherent normativeness of anarchy. Following this, the Liberal theory of IR will be introduced as it entertains the potential of peace within the world of war. For the first time, anarchy will be understood as susceptible to cultural change. The appeasement of anarchy - however - is not sufficient. If anarchy is to be truly overcome, a shared component that transcends the differences between nation-states should be erected. To this end, the classical liberal doctrine of economy will be introduced. The myth of anarchy will - again - undergo a change, in that the free market economy will be understood as a unifying force that binds the nation-states together. The change in anarchy, however, can only come about by way of socio-political responsibility. Here, constructivism will be introduced as it emphasizes the political responsibility of making something out of anarchy. The myth of anarchy will - yet again - undergo a change, in that anarchy will no longer be understood as natural or inherent. This point is crucial, because a true change in anarchy can transpire only if political actors realize that they are responsible for a specific kind of anarchy. Finally, the notion of capitalism will be introduced. That is to say, the accrued knowledge of anarchy will culminate in the analysis of late capitalism. It will be argued that the canon of anarchy often forgets the internal organization of states and dismisses the vertical hierarchies of power that affect the international politics. Capitalism will - therefore - assume a more prominent role. It is the claim of this paper that the understanding of IR in terms of anarchy can be afforded solely to the victors of the new world order. Finally, the intention of this paper is to construct a road map for present-day political action. In the end, the discussion of globalization and neo-Marxist theory will compose exactly that - a map for action.
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- International relations
Our international relations essays span a range of topics, offering analysis and debate, together with discussion on different perceptions on foreign policy and consequential impact. They are a valuable resource for IR students looking for inspiration when preparing their own research and writing on this topic. Find more International Relations essays here .
Human trafficking in the Philippines
Introduction The Dutch minister of foreign affairs, Bert Koenders, had in 2015 a conversation with his Philippine counterpart, Albert del Rosario. The two ministers announced that they are going work more firmly together in the battle against human trafficking. In the news article for the Government of the Netherlands (2015) is stated that Mr. Koender … Read more
Acharya’s model of norm subsidiarity
1. Introduction More and more often, states from the Global South express their dissatisfaction with the way they are being represented in international institutions and organisations (Acharya, 2011). More specifically, they feel that international institutions often do not reflect their interests and identities (Acharya, 2011). It is indeed true that institutions such as the United … Read more
Russia’s Burgeoning Relationship with Venezuela
Russia’s burgeoning relationship with Venezuela demonstrates Vladimir Putin’s global ambition to recruit geographically distant states as allies in creating a new multipolar, anti-American world order. Russia has been a close ally of Venezuela since 2006 when then-President, Hugo Chávez, signed a $2.9 billion arms deal in exchange for Russian fighter aircraft. This agreement allowed Russia … Read more
The Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (ISIS)
Select any terrorist group of interest and explain its origins, development, and objectives: The Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (ISIS) Al-Qaeda, ISIS, the Taliban. Names which thirty years ago had no significance, had no meaning, had no impact on the functionality of everyday life in the United States. Thirty years ago, America was concerned with … Read more
Thailand Fragile States Index
Introduction I am going to analyze and examine Thailand according to security apparatus indicator which is one of the cohesion indicators of the Fragile States Index. Before the beginning I want to explain the Fragile States Index and security apparatus indicator shortly. The Fragile States Index is an annual report published by the Fund for … Read more
Should North Korea be permitted to keep their nuclear weapons?
Countries all over the world have a great threat facing them today especially the United States of America. North Korea is a communist country that will soon have the power to launch a nuclear warhead and hit just about anywhere in the US. The US and the rest of the world is facing a very … Read more
Emigration in Central and Eastern European countries
Analysing policy implementations and the effects of emigration in Central and Eastern European countries, especially focusing on Hungarian re-migration policies. Labour migration (brain drain) is causing serious demographic and labour market problems worldwide in many countries. The enlargements of the European Union in 2004 and 2007 significantly accelerated in this process in the Central and … Read more
The UN’s Human rights agenda
The UN which stands for United Nations is an internationally functioning body. It is responsible for maintaining peace and security within the globe. Human Rights on the other hand, are the fundamental and basic rights and freedoms that belongs to every human being from birth until death. The UNs human rights agenda involves the sustenance … Read more
The challenge of providing global food security
The challenge of providing global food security is clear, the World Food Summit forecasts our world population to exceed 9 billion people by 2020. With 9 billion people to feed, gross food demands are estimated to increase by 60% across all continents. The possible solutions that we propose not only tackle the issue of ending … Read more
Economic, political and cultural globalization
A number of important issues can be noticed especially the important aspects of economic, political and cultural globalization, up to the internal situations (crises) of the nation- state which have made the state open to being undermined by globalization, moreover, if economy and culture are more globalized in a way which undermine the power and … Read more
The concept of human security
To understand the debate about any form of security, a closer analysis need to be taken especially at the inception of United Nation in 1945 at San Francisco, when the US secretary for state was very specific on the aspect of security as “The battle of peace has to be fought on two fronts. The … Read more
Which factors have accounted for U.S foreign policy towards Africa?
INTRODUCTION After the end of the Cold War, changes in global political climate led to a shift in U.S. foreign policy. United States policy makers realized that, there was no longer need to compete with the Soviet Union for influence around the world. New policy arrangements took the place of competition in proxy wars and … Read more
Did the EU replace NATO as a security actor in Europe after the Cold War?
The European Union is a ‘supranational alliance’, first founded in 1957 primarily with economic aims between the six founding member states, however, by 2018 the EU has 28 member states and aims aren’t refined to just economic co-operation and institutions within the EU are only able to act in areas that have been clarified in … Read more
Foreign policy decision making – military, propaganda, economic, intelligence & military
1.0 Introduction Instrument of foreign policy is the forms of pressure and influence available to decision-makers, represent an ascending scale of seriousness in terms of the commitment of resources, the impact on third parties, and the according degree of risk in use. The instruments can be categorized into soft power to hard power. Instrument of … Read more
Shatila refugee camp
Refugee condition and spaces have been analysed and observed through Agamben’s reflection on ‘bare life and the camp’. However, at this present day, there has been escalating critique of Giorgio Agamben’s highly respected totalitarian camp studies as it doesn’t seem to mirror the conditions of refugee camps in this current time. Agamben expressed that a … Read more
How to write an International Relations essay
International relations essays are pieces of academic writing that assess and contextualize important topics in international relations.
Most of these essays employ theoretical analyses to present ideas, arguments and criticisms on matters related to international relations. International relations essays offer analysis and debate, as well as an analysis of different perceptions on foreign policy and consequential impact. International relations essays; thus, require that the writer to reflects a superior ability to think critically and construct rational ideas.
These essays can address issues like foreign affairs, diplomacy, the international political atmosphere, the world economy, and current affairs. A political science student is expected to reflect ample knowledge of each of the aforementioned topics. A final international relations essay should conform to the instructor’s basic provisions like conformity to the topic of study, length and other writing requirements. Learning how to write an international relations essay can be a fun but challenging task. A good essay is one that has a swift flow of thoughts. These thoughts should show a clear connection between an international current affair, local economic, social and political affairs. The essay should be able to offer a comparison between current affairs and their impact with respect to local spheres. A clear relationship between local affairs and international affairs should be determined. Some of the major data sources for international relations essays include large foreign newspapers and national newspapers. These are some of the most trusted sources for information on current affairs. Others include respected journals, periodicals, and books. These can be sourced online, as well as from Google Scholar to determine the present mood and precisely analyze your topic.
The most common formatting styles include Harvard and APA. Most of the provisions of APA formatting style are similar to those of Harvard. For instance, both formatting styles direct that every page of the essay should comprise of a running head positioned at the top left of the paper. The running head is an abridged form of the title, usually in just a few words not exceeding 50 characters. The standard guidelines for international relations essays comprise of a brief introduction, the body that presents the main arguments and ideas, with a concluding paragraph. There should be even margins of one-inch both at the top and bottom, as well as left and right sides of the essay. The font should be double-spaced unless stated otherwise. The essay should have a title page with respect to the stipulated formatting guideline. A complete essay should also have a reference page. This is a separate page at the end of the essay and presents a list of all the sources used in constructing the essay. References should feature in alphabetical order with double spacing between each entry. Before constructing the final piece, you should refer to lecture notes from past lectures. The writer should maintain the flow of thoughts by conforming the introductory ideas to the other paragraphs. The succeeding paragraphs should work to expand the introductory ideas, as well as offer supporting information and detailed arguments with the aim of substantiating the claims made in an international relations essay. The concluding paragraphs should focus on emphasizing each major point presented in the essay. You should provide a concise acknowledgement to every point. This ensures a stable foundation of believability. The final piece of an essay should undergo a thorough proofreading session to eliminate grammatical and typographical errors. Other errors include faulty logic and lack of even transition.
Each paragraph of an international relations essay should have an introductory statement, also known as a topical sentence. The first statement in a paragraph should reflect the strongest point of view, cleverest description, the most significant example, or a clear beginning point. This offers the best way for securing the reader’s attention as they read the essay. The first paragraph; however, should be the main introduction to the essay. The topical statement should comprise of the “reverse hook”. This connects to the transitional hook towards the end of the introductory paragraph.
When learning how to start an essay, it’s important to include the correct information within each paragraph. The introductory paragraph should also comprise of a thesis statement, a type of mini-highlight of the paper. A thesis statement introduces the reader to the main argument of the essay. The last statement of the introductory paragraph should comprise of a transitional “hook”. Its purpose is to move the reader to the main part of the essay.
The strength of main arguments should reflect a descending sequence with respect to the strength of arguments. The strongest arguments should feature first followed by the less strong arguments. This also applies to the most significant examples, the cleverest descriptions, and others. The first sentence of the second paragraph should possess a reverse hook. Its purpose is to connect the transitional hook at the end of the initial paragraph of the main body. The topic of the second paragraph of the main body should feature in the first or second statement (sentence). The topic should reflect a clear relationship to the thesis statement presented in the introductory paragraph. The final sentence in this section should comprise of a transitional concluding hook. Its purpose is to signal the reader that the final major point has been reached. The hook also directs to the last or concluding paragraph.
A complete international relations essay should have a strong concluding paragraph. Although you have finalised the bulk of the essay, and completed the most complex body paragraphs, careful attention should feature while coming up with a favorable conclusion. A strong conclusion works to substantiate the main arguments in the essay. On the other hand, a weak conclusion works to weaken the arguments presented in your essay. An ample conclusion reinforces the main argument. As well as briefly encapsulates the mode of proofing your validity. New information should not be introduced at the concluding paragraph. One way of achieving this is through offering potential directions with respect to future research. Another way is through suggesting how the arguments forwarded in the essay opens up a completely new point of view about the specified topic. Nevertheless, care should be taken not to introduce completely new information in support of the thesis statement. If this information was important enough to the essay, it would have featured in the preceding arguments as well. Making it available in the concluding paragraph simply diverts the attention of the readers. This also detracts from the general impact of previously focused arguments.
The concluding paragraph is vital as it contains the summary of the whole essay. A brief summary of the main points in the preceding paragraphs is crucial. This presents the best way of reminding your readers of the effectiveness employed in discussing various evidences in the essay. The points do not need to be arguments, as this will be a repetition. The points simply require a reiteration to illustrate how they directly support and address the thesis statement. The conclusion offers the last impression of the essay that the reader receives. Careful attention should be observed in providing a link between the thesis statement and the main body. The thesis should be reiterated and conformed to the thesis statement provided in the introductory paragraph. Moreover, you should not merely copy the thesis statement from the introductory paragraph. In its place, the thesis should be paraphrased to reflect the progress achieved in the main body of the international relations essay.
The above guidelines are standard operating procedures when trying to understand how to write an international relations essay . This is an analysis of the main features of an international relations essay, including a connection of current affairs to theoretical frameworks, the need for strong introductory paragraphing, and topical sentences. Other main features include the main body, which should reflect a swift flow and ample conformity to the thesis statement.
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