## Tutorial Playlist

Statistics tutorial, everything you need to know about the probability density function in statistics, the best guide to understand central limit theorem, an in-depth guide to measures of central tendency : mean, median and mode, the ultimate guide to understand conditional probability.

A Comprehensive Look at Percentile in Statistics

## The Best Guide to Understand Bayes Theorem

Everything you need to know about the normal distribution, an in-depth explanation of cumulative distribution function, a complete guide to chi-square test, a complete guide on hypothesis testing in statistics, understanding the fundamentals of arithmetic and geometric progression, the definitive guide to understand spearman’s rank correlation, a comprehensive guide to understand mean squared error, all you need to know about the empirical rule in statistics, the complete guide to skewness and kurtosis, a holistic look at bernoulli distribution, all you need to know about bias in statistics, a complete guide to get a grasp of time series analysis.

The Key Differences Between Z-Test Vs. T-Test

## The Complete Guide to Understand Pearson's Correlation

A complete guide on the types of statistical studies, everything you need to know about poisson distribution, your best guide to understand correlation vs. regression, the most comprehensive guide for beginners on what is correlation, what is hypothesis testing in statistics types and examples.

Lesson 10 of 24 By Avijeet Biswal

## Table of Contents

In today’s data-driven world , decisions are based on data all the time. Hypothesis plays a crucial role in that process, whether it may be making business decisions, in the health sector, academia, or in quality improvement. Without hypothesis & hypothesis tests, you risk drawing the wrong conclusions and making bad decisions. In this tutorial, you will look at Hypothesis Testing in Statistics.

## What Is Hypothesis Testing in Statistics?

Hypothesis Testing is a type of statistical analysis in which you put your assumptions about a population parameter to the test. It is used to estimate the relationship between 2 statistical variables.

Let's discuss few examples of statistical hypothesis from real-life -

- A teacher assumes that 60% of his college's students come from lower-middle-class families.
- A doctor believes that 3D (Diet, Dose, and Discipline) is 90% effective for diabetic patients.

Now that you know about hypothesis testing, look at the two types of hypothesis testing in statistics.

## Hypothesis Testing Formula

Z = ( x̅ – μ0 ) / (σ /√n)

- Here, x̅ is the sample mean,
- μ0 is the population mean,
- σ is the standard deviation,
- n is the sample size.

## How Hypothesis Testing Works?

An analyst performs hypothesis testing on a statistical sample to present evidence of the plausibility of the null hypothesis. Measurements and analyses are conducted on a random sample of the population to test a theory. Analysts use a random population sample to test two hypotheses: the null and alternative hypotheses.

The null hypothesis is typically an equality hypothesis between population parameters; for example, a null hypothesis may claim that the population means return equals zero. The alternate hypothesis is essentially the inverse of the null hypothesis (e.g., the population means the return is not equal to zero). As a result, they are mutually exclusive, and only one can be correct. One of the two possibilities, however, will always be correct.

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## Null Hypothesis and Alternate Hypothesis

The Null Hypothesis is the assumption that the event will not occur. A null hypothesis has no bearing on the study's outcome unless it is rejected.

H0 is the symbol for it, and it is pronounced H-naught.

The Alternate Hypothesis is the logical opposite of the null hypothesis. The acceptance of the alternative hypothesis follows the rejection of the null hypothesis. H1 is the symbol for it.

Let's understand this with an example.

A sanitizer manufacturer claims that its product kills 95 percent of germs on average.

To put this company's claim to the test, create a null and alternate hypothesis.

H0 (Null Hypothesis): Average = 95%.

Alternative Hypothesis (H1): The average is less than 95%.

Another straightforward example to understand this concept is determining whether or not a coin is fair and balanced. The null hypothesis states that the probability of a show of heads is equal to the likelihood of a show of tails. In contrast, the alternate theory states that the probability of a show of heads and tails would be very different.

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## Hypothesis Testing Calculation With Examples

Let's consider a hypothesis test for the average height of women in the United States. Suppose our null hypothesis is that the average height is 5'4". We gather a sample of 100 women and determine that their average height is 5'5". The standard deviation of population is 2.

To calculate the z-score, we would use the following formula:

z = ( x̅ – μ0 ) / (σ /√n)

z = (5'5" - 5'4") / (2" / √100)

z = 0.5 / (0.045)

We will reject the null hypothesis as the z-score of 11.11 is very large and conclude that there is evidence to suggest that the average height of women in the US is greater than 5'4".

## Steps of Hypothesis Testing

Step 1: specify your null and alternate hypotheses.

It is critical to rephrase your original research hypothesis (the prediction that you wish to study) as a null (Ho) and alternative (Ha) hypothesis so that you can test it quantitatively. Your first hypothesis, which predicts a link between variables, is generally your alternate hypothesis. The null hypothesis predicts no link between the variables of interest.

## Step 2: Gather Data

For a statistical test to be legitimate, sampling and data collection must be done in a way that is meant to test your hypothesis. You cannot draw statistical conclusions about the population you are interested in if your data is not representative.

## Step 3: Conduct a Statistical Test

Other statistical tests are available, but they all compare within-group variance (how to spread out the data inside a category) against between-group variance (how different the categories are from one another). If the between-group variation is big enough that there is little or no overlap between groups, your statistical test will display a low p-value to represent this. This suggests that the disparities between these groups are unlikely to have occurred by accident. Alternatively, if there is a large within-group variance and a low between-group variance, your statistical test will show a high p-value. Any difference you find across groups is most likely attributable to chance. The variety of variables and the level of measurement of your obtained data will influence your statistical test selection.

## Step 4: Determine Rejection Of Your Null Hypothesis

Your statistical test results must determine whether your null hypothesis should be rejected or not. In most circumstances, you will base your judgment on the p-value provided by the statistical test. In most circumstances, your preset level of significance for rejecting the null hypothesis will be 0.05 - that is, when there is less than a 5% likelihood that these data would be seen if the null hypothesis were true. In other circumstances, researchers use a lower level of significance, such as 0.01 (1%). This reduces the possibility of wrongly rejecting the null hypothesis.

## Step 5: Present Your Results

The findings of hypothesis testing will be discussed in the results and discussion portions of your research paper, dissertation, or thesis. You should include a concise overview of the data and a summary of the findings of your statistical test in the results section. You can talk about whether your results confirmed your initial hypothesis or not in the conversation. Rejecting or failing to reject the null hypothesis is a formal term used in hypothesis testing. This is likely a must for your statistics assignments.

## Types of Hypothesis Testing

To determine whether a discovery or relationship is statistically significant, hypothesis testing uses a z-test. It usually checks to see if two means are the same (the null hypothesis). Only when the population standard deviation is known and the sample size is 30 data points or more, can a z-test be applied.

A statistical test called a t-test is employed to compare the means of two groups. To determine whether two groups differ or if a procedure or treatment affects the population of interest, it is frequently used in hypothesis testing.

## Chi-Square

You utilize a Chi-square test for hypothesis testing concerning whether your data is as predicted. To determine if the expected and observed results are well-fitted, the Chi-square test analyzes the differences between categorical variables from a random sample. The test's fundamental premise is that the observed values in your data should be compared to the predicted values that would be present if the null hypothesis were true.

## Hypothesis Testing and Confidence Intervals

Both confidence intervals and hypothesis tests are inferential techniques that depend on approximating the sample distribution. Data from a sample is used to estimate a population parameter using confidence intervals. Data from a sample is used in hypothesis testing to examine a given hypothesis. We must have a postulated parameter to conduct hypothesis testing.

Bootstrap distributions and randomization distributions are created using comparable simulation techniques. The observed sample statistic is the focal point of a bootstrap distribution, whereas the null hypothesis value is the focal point of a randomization distribution.

A variety of feasible population parameter estimates are included in confidence ranges. In this lesson, we created just two-tailed confidence intervals. There is a direct connection between these two-tail confidence intervals and these two-tail hypothesis tests. The results of a two-tailed hypothesis test and two-tailed confidence intervals typically provide the same results. In other words, a hypothesis test at the 0.05 level will virtually always fail to reject the null hypothesis if the 95% confidence interval contains the predicted value. A hypothesis test at the 0.05 level will nearly certainly reject the null hypothesis if the 95% confidence interval does not include the hypothesized parameter.

## Simple and Composite Hypothesis Testing

Depending on the population distribution, you can classify the statistical hypothesis into two types.

Simple Hypothesis: A simple hypothesis specifies an exact value for the parameter.

Composite Hypothesis: A composite hypothesis specifies a range of values.

A company is claiming that their average sales for this quarter are 1000 units. This is an example of a simple hypothesis.

Suppose the company claims that the sales are in the range of 900 to 1000 units. Then this is a case of a composite hypothesis.

## One-Tailed and Two-Tailed Hypothesis Testing

The One-Tailed test, also called a directional test, considers a critical region of data that would result in the null hypothesis being rejected if the test sample falls into it, inevitably meaning the acceptance of the alternate hypothesis.

In a one-tailed test, the critical distribution area is one-sided, meaning the test sample is either greater or lesser than a specific value.

In two tails, the test sample is checked to be greater or less than a range of values in a Two-Tailed test, implying that the critical distribution area is two-sided.

If the sample falls within this range, the alternate hypothesis will be accepted, and the null hypothesis will be rejected.

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## Right Tailed Hypothesis Testing

If the larger than (>) sign appears in your hypothesis statement, you are using a right-tailed test, also known as an upper test. Or, to put it another way, the disparity is to the right. For instance, you can contrast the battery life before and after a change in production. Your hypothesis statements can be the following if you want to know if the battery life is longer than the original (let's say 90 hours):

- The null hypothesis is (H0 <= 90) or less change.
- A possibility is that battery life has risen (H1) > 90.

The crucial point in this situation is that the alternate hypothesis (H1), not the null hypothesis, decides whether you get a right-tailed test.

## Left Tailed Hypothesis Testing

Alternative hypotheses that assert the true value of a parameter is lower than the null hypothesis are tested with a left-tailed test; they are indicated by the asterisk "<".

Suppose H0: mean = 50 and H1: mean not equal to 50

According to the H1, the mean can be greater than or less than 50. This is an example of a Two-tailed test.

In a similar manner, if H0: mean >=50, then H1: mean <50

Here the mean is less than 50. It is called a One-tailed test.

## Type 1 and Type 2 Error

A hypothesis test can result in two types of errors.

Type 1 Error: A Type-I error occurs when sample results reject the null hypothesis despite being true.

Type 2 Error: A Type-II error occurs when the null hypothesis is not rejected when it is false, unlike a Type-I error.

Suppose a teacher evaluates the examination paper to decide whether a student passes or fails.

H0: Student has passed

H1: Student has failed

Type I error will be the teacher failing the student [rejects H0] although the student scored the passing marks [H0 was true].

Type II error will be the case where the teacher passes the student [do not reject H0] although the student did not score the passing marks [H1 is true].

## Level of Significance

The alpha value is a criterion for determining whether a test statistic is statistically significant. In a statistical test, Alpha represents an acceptable probability of a Type I error. Because alpha is a probability, it can be anywhere between 0 and 1. In practice, the most commonly used alpha values are 0.01, 0.05, and 0.1, which represent a 1%, 5%, and 10% chance of a Type I error, respectively (i.e. rejecting the null hypothesis when it is in fact correct).

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A p-value is a metric that expresses the likelihood that an observed difference could have occurred by chance. As the p-value decreases the statistical significance of the observed difference increases. If the p-value is too low, you reject the null hypothesis.

Here you have taken an example in which you are trying to test whether the new advertising campaign has increased the product's sales. The p-value is the likelihood that the null hypothesis, which states that there is no change in the sales due to the new advertising campaign, is true. If the p-value is .30, then there is a 30% chance that there is no increase or decrease in the product's sales. If the p-value is 0.03, then there is a 3% probability that there is no increase or decrease in the sales value due to the new advertising campaign. As you can see, the lower the p-value, the chances of the alternate hypothesis being true increases, which means that the new advertising campaign causes an increase or decrease in sales.

## Why is Hypothesis Testing Important in Research Methodology?

Hypothesis testing is crucial in research methodology for several reasons:

- Provides evidence-based conclusions: It allows researchers to make objective conclusions based on empirical data, providing evidence to support or refute their research hypotheses.
- Supports decision-making: It helps make informed decisions, such as accepting or rejecting a new treatment, implementing policy changes, or adopting new practices.
- Adds rigor and validity: It adds scientific rigor to research using statistical methods to analyze data, ensuring that conclusions are based on sound statistical evidence.
- Contributes to the advancement of knowledge: By testing hypotheses, researchers contribute to the growth of knowledge in their respective fields by confirming existing theories or discovering new patterns and relationships.

## Limitations of Hypothesis Testing

Hypothesis testing has some limitations that researchers should be aware of:

- It cannot prove or establish the truth: Hypothesis testing provides evidence to support or reject a hypothesis, but it cannot confirm the absolute truth of the research question.
- Results are sample-specific: Hypothesis testing is based on analyzing a sample from a population, and the conclusions drawn are specific to that particular sample.
- Possible errors: During hypothesis testing, there is a chance of committing type I error (rejecting a true null hypothesis) or type II error (failing to reject a false null hypothesis).
- Assumptions and requirements: Different tests have specific assumptions and requirements that must be met to accurately interpret results.

After reading this tutorial, you would have a much better understanding of hypothesis testing, one of the most important concepts in the field of Data Science . The majority of hypotheses are based on speculation about observed behavior, natural phenomena, or established theories.

If you are interested in statistics of data science and skills needed for such a career, you ought to explore Simplilearn’s Post Graduate Program in Data Science.

If you have any questions regarding this ‘Hypothesis Testing In Statistics’ tutorial, do share them in the comment section. Our subject matter expert will respond to your queries. Happy learning!

## 1. What is hypothesis testing in statistics with example?

Hypothesis testing is a statistical method used to determine if there is enough evidence in a sample data to draw conclusions about a population. It involves formulating two competing hypotheses, the null hypothesis (H0) and the alternative hypothesis (Ha), and then collecting data to assess the evidence. An example: testing if a new drug improves patient recovery (Ha) compared to the standard treatment (H0) based on collected patient data.

## 2. What is hypothesis testing and its types?

Hypothesis testing is a statistical method used to make inferences about a population based on sample data. It involves formulating two hypotheses: the null hypothesis (H0), which represents the default assumption, and the alternative hypothesis (Ha), which contradicts H0. The goal is to assess the evidence and determine whether there is enough statistical significance to reject the null hypothesis in favor of the alternative hypothesis.

Types of hypothesis testing:

- One-sample test: Used to compare a sample to a known value or a hypothesized value.
- Two-sample test: Compares two independent samples to assess if there is a significant difference between their means or distributions.
- Paired-sample test: Compares two related samples, such as pre-test and post-test data, to evaluate changes within the same subjects over time or under different conditions.
- Chi-square test: Used to analyze categorical data and determine if there is a significant association between variables.
- ANOVA (Analysis of Variance): Compares means across multiple groups to check if there is a significant difference between them.

## 3. What are the steps of hypothesis testing?

The steps of hypothesis testing are as follows:

- Formulate the hypotheses: State the null hypothesis (H0) and the alternative hypothesis (Ha) based on the research question.
- Set the significance level: Determine the acceptable level of error (alpha) for making a decision.
- Collect and analyze data: Gather and process the sample data.
- Compute test statistic: Calculate the appropriate statistical test to assess the evidence.
- Make a decision: Compare the test statistic with critical values or p-values and determine whether to reject H0 in favor of Ha or not.
- Draw conclusions: Interpret the results and communicate the findings in the context of the research question.

## 4. What are the 2 types of hypothesis testing?

- One-tailed (or one-sided) test: Tests for the significance of an effect in only one direction, either positive or negative.
- Two-tailed (or two-sided) test: Tests for the significance of an effect in both directions, allowing for the possibility of a positive or negative effect.

The choice between one-tailed and two-tailed tests depends on the specific research question and the directionality of the expected effect.

## 5. What are the 3 major types of hypothesis?

The three major types of hypotheses are:

- Null Hypothesis (H0): Represents the default assumption, stating that there is no significant effect or relationship in the data.
- Alternative Hypothesis (Ha): Contradicts the null hypothesis and proposes a specific effect or relationship that researchers want to investigate.
- Nondirectional Hypothesis: An alternative hypothesis that doesn't specify the direction of the effect, leaving it open for both positive and negative possibilities.

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About the author.

Avijeet is a Senior Research Analyst at Simplilearn. Passionate about Data Analytics, Machine Learning, and Deep Learning, Avijeet is also interested in politics, cricket, and football.

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## Hypothesis Testing | A Step-by-Step Guide with Easy Examples

Published on November 8, 2019 by Rebecca Bevans . Revised on June 22, 2023.

Hypothesis testing is a formal procedure for investigating our ideas about the world using statistics . It is most often used by scientists to test specific predictions, called hypotheses, that arise from theories.

There are 5 main steps in hypothesis testing:

- State your research hypothesis as a null hypothesis and alternate hypothesis (H o ) and (H a or H 1 ).
- Collect data in a way designed to test the hypothesis.
- Perform an appropriate statistical test .
- Decide whether to reject or fail to reject your null hypothesis.
- Present the findings in your results and discussion section.

Though the specific details might vary, the procedure you will use when testing a hypothesis will always follow some version of these steps.

## Table of contents

Step 1: state your null and alternate hypothesis, step 2: collect data, step 3: perform a statistical test, step 4: decide whether to reject or fail to reject your null hypothesis, step 5: present your findings, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about hypothesis testing.

After developing your initial research hypothesis (the prediction that you want to investigate), it is important to restate it as a null (H o ) and alternate (H a ) hypothesis so that you can test it mathematically.

The alternate hypothesis is usually your initial hypothesis that predicts a relationship between variables. The null hypothesis is a prediction of no relationship between the variables you are interested in.

- H 0 : Men are, on average, not taller than women. H a : Men are, on average, taller than women.

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For a statistical test to be valid , it is important to perform sampling and collect data in a way that is designed to test your hypothesis. If your data are not representative, then you cannot make statistical inferences about the population you are interested in.

There are a variety of statistical tests available, but they are all based on the comparison of within-group variance (how spread out the data is within a category) versus between-group variance (how different the categories are from one another).

If the between-group variance is large enough that there is little or no overlap between groups, then your statistical test will reflect that by showing a low p -value . This means it is unlikely that the differences between these groups came about by chance.

Alternatively, if there is high within-group variance and low between-group variance, then your statistical test will reflect that with a high p -value. This means it is likely that any difference you measure between groups is due to chance.

Your choice of statistical test will be based on the type of variables and the level of measurement of your collected data .

- an estimate of the difference in average height between the two groups.
- a p -value showing how likely you are to see this difference if the null hypothesis of no difference is true.

Based on the outcome of your statistical test, you will have to decide whether to reject or fail to reject your null hypothesis.

In most cases you will use the p -value generated by your statistical test to guide your decision. And in most cases, your predetermined level of significance for rejecting the null hypothesis will be 0.05 – that is, when there is a less than 5% chance that you would see these results if the null hypothesis were true.

In some cases, researchers choose a more conservative level of significance, such as 0.01 (1%). This minimizes the risk of incorrectly rejecting the null hypothesis ( Type I error ).

The results of hypothesis testing will be presented in the results and discussion sections of your research paper , dissertation or thesis .

In the results section you should give a brief summary of the data and a summary of the results of your statistical test (for example, the estimated difference between group means and associated p -value). In the discussion , you can discuss whether your initial hypothesis was supported by your results or not.

In the formal language of hypothesis testing, we talk about rejecting or failing to reject the null hypothesis. You will probably be asked to do this in your statistics assignments.

However, when presenting research results in academic papers we rarely talk this way. Instead, we go back to our alternate hypothesis (in this case, the hypothesis that men are on average taller than women) and state whether the result of our test did or did not support the alternate hypothesis.

If your null hypothesis was rejected, this result is interpreted as “supported the alternate hypothesis.”

These are superficial differences; you can see that they mean the same thing.

You might notice that we don’t say that we reject or fail to reject the alternate hypothesis . This is because hypothesis testing is not designed to prove or disprove anything. It is only designed to test whether a pattern we measure could have arisen spuriously, or by chance.

If we reject the null hypothesis based on our research (i.e., we find that it is unlikely that the pattern arose by chance), then we can say our test lends support to our hypothesis . But if the pattern does not pass our decision rule, meaning that it could have arisen by chance, then we say the test is inconsistent with our hypothesis .

If you want to know more about statistics , methodology , or research bias , make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples.

- Normal distribution
- Descriptive statistics
- Measures of central tendency
- Correlation coefficient

Methodology

- Cluster sampling
- Stratified sampling
- Types of interviews
- Cohort study
- Thematic analysis

Research bias

- Implicit bias
- Cognitive bias
- Survivorship bias
- Availability heuristic
- Nonresponse bias
- Regression to the mean

Hypothesis testing is a formal procedure for investigating our ideas about the world using statistics. It is used by scientists to test specific predictions, called hypotheses , by calculating how likely it is that a pattern or relationship between variables could have arisen by chance.

A hypothesis states your predictions about what your research will find. It is a tentative answer to your research question that has not yet been tested. For some research projects, you might have to write several hypotheses that address different aspects of your research question.

A hypothesis is not just a guess — it should be based on existing theories and knowledge. It also has to be testable, which means you can support or refute it through scientific research methods (such as experiments, observations and statistical analysis of data).

Null and alternative hypotheses are used in statistical hypothesis testing . The null hypothesis of a test always predicts no effect or no relationship between variables, while the alternative hypothesis states your research prediction of an effect or relationship.

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## Keyboard Shortcuts

S.3.3 hypothesis testing examples.

- Example: Right-Tailed Test
- Example: Left-Tailed Test
- Example: Two-Tailed Test

## Brinell Hardness Scores

An engineer measured the Brinell hardness of 25 pieces of ductile iron that were subcritically annealed. The resulting data were:

The engineer hypothesized that the mean Brinell hardness of all such ductile iron pieces is greater than 170. Therefore, he was interested in testing the hypotheses:

H 0 : μ = 170 H A : μ > 170

The engineer entered his data into Minitab and requested that the "one-sample t -test" be conducted for the above hypotheses. He obtained the following output:

## Descriptive Statistics

$\mu$: mean of Brinelli

Null hypothesis H₀: $\mu$ = 170 Alternative hypothesis H₁: $\mu$ > 170

The output tells us that the average Brinell hardness of the n = 25 pieces of ductile iron was 172.52 with a standard deviation of 10.31. (The standard error of the mean "SE Mean", calculated by dividing the standard deviation 10.31 by the square root of n = 25, is 2.06). The test statistic t * is 1.22, and the P -value is 0.117.

If the engineer set his significance level α at 0.05 and used the critical value approach to conduct his hypothesis test, he would reject the null hypothesis if his test statistic t * were greater than 1.7109 (determined using statistical software or a t -table):

Since the engineer's test statistic, t * = 1.22, is not greater than 1.7109, the engineer fails to reject the null hypothesis. That is, the test statistic does not fall in the "critical region." There is insufficient evidence, at the \(\alpha\) = 0.05 level, to conclude that the mean Brinell hardness of all such ductile iron pieces is greater than 170.

If the engineer used the P -value approach to conduct his hypothesis test, he would determine the area under a t n - 1 = t 24 curve and to the right of the test statistic t * = 1.22:

In the output above, Minitab reports that the P -value is 0.117. Since the P -value, 0.117, is greater than \(\alpha\) = 0.05, the engineer fails to reject the null hypothesis. There is insufficient evidence, at the \(\alpha\) = 0.05 level, to conclude that the mean Brinell hardness of all such ductile iron pieces is greater than 170.

Note that the engineer obtains the same scientific conclusion regardless of the approach used. This will always be the case.

## Height of Sunflowers

A biologist was interested in determining whether sunflower seedlings treated with an extract from Vinca minor roots resulted in a lower average height of sunflower seedlings than the standard height of 15.7 cm. The biologist treated a random sample of n = 33 seedlings with the extract and subsequently obtained the following heights:

The biologist's hypotheses are:

H 0 : μ = 15.7 H A : μ < 15.7

The biologist entered her data into Minitab and requested that the "one-sample t -test" be conducted for the above hypotheses. She obtained the following output:

$\mu$: mean of Height

Null hypothesis H₀: $\mu$ = 15.7 Alternative hypothesis H₁: $\mu$ < 15.7

The output tells us that the average height of the n = 33 sunflower seedlings was 13.664 with a standard deviation of 2.544. (The standard error of the mean "SE Mean", calculated by dividing the standard deviation 13.664 by the square root of n = 33, is 0.443). The test statistic t * is -4.60, and the P -value, 0.000, is to three decimal places.

Minitab Note. Minitab will always report P -values to only 3 decimal places. If Minitab reports the P -value as 0.000, it really means that the P -value is 0.000....something. Throughout this course (and your future research!), when you see that Minitab reports the P -value as 0.000, you should report the P -value as being "< 0.001."

If the biologist set her significance level \(\alpha\) at 0.05 and used the critical value approach to conduct her hypothesis test, she would reject the null hypothesis if her test statistic t * were less than -1.6939 (determined using statistical software or a t -table):s-3-3

Since the biologist's test statistic, t * = -4.60, is less than -1.6939, the biologist rejects the null hypothesis. That is, the test statistic falls in the "critical region." There is sufficient evidence, at the α = 0.05 level, to conclude that the mean height of all such sunflower seedlings is less than 15.7 cm.

If the biologist used the P -value approach to conduct her hypothesis test, she would determine the area under a t n - 1 = t 32 curve and to the left of the test statistic t * = -4.60:

In the output above, Minitab reports that the P -value is 0.000, which we take to mean < 0.001. Since the P -value is less than 0.001, it is clearly less than \(\alpha\) = 0.05, and the biologist rejects the null hypothesis. There is sufficient evidence, at the \(\alpha\) = 0.05 level, to conclude that the mean height of all such sunflower seedlings is less than 15.7 cm.

Note again that the biologist obtains the same scientific conclusion regardless of the approach used. This will always be the case.

## Gum Thickness

A manufacturer claims that the thickness of the spearmint gum it produces is 7.5 one-hundredths of an inch. A quality control specialist regularly checks this claim. On one production run, he took a random sample of n = 10 pieces of gum and measured their thickness. He obtained:

The quality control specialist's hypotheses are:

H 0 : μ = 7.5 H A : μ ≠ 7.5

The quality control specialist entered his data into Minitab and requested that the "one-sample t -test" be conducted for the above hypotheses. He obtained the following output:

$\mu$: mean of Thickness

Null hypothesis H₀: $\mu$ = 7.5 Alternative hypothesis H₁: $\mu \ne$ 7.5

The output tells us that the average thickness of the n = 10 pieces of gums was 7.55 one-hundredths of an inch with a standard deviation of 0.1027. (The standard error of the mean "SE Mean", calculated by dividing the standard deviation 0.1027 by the square root of n = 10, is 0.0325). The test statistic t * is 1.54, and the P -value is 0.158.

If the quality control specialist sets his significance level \(\alpha\) at 0.05 and used the critical value approach to conduct his hypothesis test, he would reject the null hypothesis if his test statistic t * were less than -2.2616 or greater than 2.2616 (determined using statistical software or a t -table):

Since the quality control specialist's test statistic, t * = 1.54, is not less than -2.2616 nor greater than 2.2616, the quality control specialist fails to reject the null hypothesis. That is, the test statistic does not fall in the "critical region." There is insufficient evidence, at the \(\alpha\) = 0.05 level, to conclude that the mean thickness of all of the manufacturer's spearmint gum differs from 7.5 one-hundredths of an inch.

If the quality control specialist used the P -value approach to conduct his hypothesis test, he would determine the area under a t n - 1 = t 9 curve, to the right of 1.54 and to the left of -1.54:

In the output above, Minitab reports that the P -value is 0.158. Since the P -value, 0.158, is greater than \(\alpha\) = 0.05, the quality control specialist fails to reject the null hypothesis. There is insufficient evidence, at the \(\alpha\) = 0.05 level, to conclude that the mean thickness of all pieces of spearmint gum differs from 7.5 one-hundredths of an inch.

Note that the quality control specialist obtains the same scientific conclusion regardless of the approach used. This will always be the case.

In our review of hypothesis tests, we have focused on just one particular hypothesis test, namely that concerning the population mean \(\mu\). The important thing to recognize is that the topics discussed here — the general idea of hypothesis tests, errors in hypothesis testing, the critical value approach, and the P -value approach — generally extend to all of the hypothesis tests you will encounter.

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- Fundamental Analysis

## Hypothesis to Be Tested: Definition and 4 Steps for Testing with Example

## What Is Hypothesis Testing?

Hypothesis testing, sometimes called significance testing, is an act in statistics whereby an analyst tests an assumption regarding a population parameter. The methodology employed by the analyst depends on the nature of the data used and the reason for the analysis.

Hypothesis testing is used to assess the plausibility of a hypothesis by using sample data. Such data may come from a larger population, or from a data-generating process. The word "population" will be used for both of these cases in the following descriptions.

## Key Takeaways

- Hypothesis testing is used to assess the plausibility of a hypothesis by using sample data.
- The test provides evidence concerning the plausibility of the hypothesis, given the data.
- Statistical analysts test a hypothesis by measuring and examining a random sample of the population being analyzed.
- The four steps of hypothesis testing include stating the hypotheses, formulating an analysis plan, analyzing the sample data, and analyzing the result.

## How Hypothesis Testing Works

In hypothesis testing, an analyst tests a statistical sample, with the goal of providing evidence on the plausibility of the null hypothesis.

Statistical analysts test a hypothesis by measuring and examining a random sample of the population being analyzed. All analysts use a random population sample to test two different hypotheses: the null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis.

The null hypothesis is usually a hypothesis of equality between population parameters; e.g., a null hypothesis may state that the population mean return is equal to zero. The alternative hypothesis is effectively the opposite of a null hypothesis (e.g., the population mean return is not equal to zero). Thus, they are mutually exclusive , and only one can be true. However, one of the two hypotheses will always be true.

The null hypothesis is a statement about a population parameter, such as the population mean, that is assumed to be true.

## 4 Steps of Hypothesis Testing

All hypotheses are tested using a four-step process:

- The first step is for the analyst to state the hypotheses.
- The second step is to formulate an analysis plan, which outlines how the data will be evaluated.
- The third step is to carry out the plan and analyze the sample data.
- The final step is to analyze the results and either reject the null hypothesis, or state that the null hypothesis is plausible, given the data.

## Real-World Example of Hypothesis Testing

If, for example, a person wants to test that a penny has exactly a 50% chance of landing on heads, the null hypothesis would be that 50% is correct, and the alternative hypothesis would be that 50% is not correct.

Mathematically, the null hypothesis would be represented as Ho: P = 0.5. The alternative hypothesis would be denoted as "Ha" and be identical to the null hypothesis, except with the equal sign struck-through, meaning that it does not equal 50%.

A random sample of 100 coin flips is taken, and the null hypothesis is then tested. If it is found that the 100 coin flips were distributed as 40 heads and 60 tails, the analyst would assume that a penny does not have a 50% chance of landing on heads and would reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternative hypothesis.

If, on the other hand, there were 48 heads and 52 tails, then it is plausible that the coin could be fair and still produce such a result. In cases such as this where the null hypothesis is "accepted," the analyst states that the difference between the expected results (50 heads and 50 tails) and the observed results (48 heads and 52 tails) is "explainable by chance alone."

Some staticians attribute the first hypothesis tests to satirical writer John Arbuthnot in 1710, who studied male and female births in England after observing that in nearly every year, male births exceeded female births by a slight proportion. Arbuthnot calculated that the probability of this happening by chance was small, and therefore it was due to “divine providence.”

## What is Hypothesis Testing?

Hypothesis testing refers to a process used by analysts to assess the plausibility of a hypothesis by using sample data. In hypothesis testing, statisticians formulate two hypotheses: the null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis. A null hypothesis determines there is no difference between two groups or conditions, while the alternative hypothesis determines that there is a difference. Researchers evaluate the statistical significance of the test based on the probability that the null hypothesis is true.

## What are the Four Key Steps Involved in Hypothesis Testing?

Hypothesis testing begins with an analyst stating two hypotheses, with only one that can be right. The analyst then formulates an analysis plan, which outlines how the data will be evaluated. Next, they move to the testing phase and analyze the sample data. Finally, the analyst analyzes the results and either rejects the null hypothesis or states that the null hypothesis is plausible, given the data.

## What are the Benefits of Hypothesis Testing?

Hypothesis testing helps assess the accuracy of new ideas or theories by testing them against data. This allows researchers to determine whether the evidence supports their hypothesis, helping to avoid false claims and conclusions. Hypothesis testing also provides a framework for decision-making based on data rather than personal opinions or biases. By relying on statistical analysis, hypothesis testing helps to reduce the effects of chance and confounding variables, providing a robust framework for making informed conclusions.

## What are the Limitations of Hypothesis Testing?

Hypothesis testing relies exclusively on data and doesn’t provide a comprehensive understanding of the subject being studied. Additionally, the accuracy of the results depends on the quality of the available data and the statistical methods used. Inaccurate data or inappropriate hypothesis formulation may lead to incorrect conclusions or failed tests. Hypothesis testing can also lead to errors, such as analysts either accepting or rejecting a null hypothesis when they shouldn’t have. These errors may result in false conclusions or missed opportunities to identify significant patterns or relationships in the data.

## The Bottom Line

Hypothesis testing refers to a statistical process that helps researchers and/or analysts determine the reliability of a study. By using a well-formulated hypothesis and set of statistical tests, individuals or businesses can make inferences about the population that they are studying and draw conclusions based on the data presented. There are different types of hypothesis testing, each with their own set of rules and procedures. However, all hypothesis testing methods have the same four step process, which includes stating the hypotheses, formulating an analysis plan, analyzing the sample data, and analyzing the result. Hypothesis testing plays a vital part of the scientific process, helping to test assumptions and make better data-based decisions.

Sage. " Introduction to Hypothesis Testing. " Page 4.

Elder Research. " Who Invented the Null Hypothesis? "

Formplus. " Hypothesis Testing: Definition, Uses, Limitations and Examples. "

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## Introduction to Hypothesis Testing and Confidence Intervals (Animal Science)

Contents Toggle Main Menu 1 The Outline for an Experiment 2 What is a Hypothesis test? 3 The Structure of a Hypothesis Test 3.1 Summary of Steps for a Hypothesis Test 4 How to Report your Findings 5 Parametric and Non-Parametric Hypothesis Tests 6 One- and two- tailed tests 7 Type I and Type II Errors 8 Confidence Intervals 9 Test Yourself 10 See Also

## The Outline for an Experiment

Before carrying out an experiment or trial the following steps must be carried out.

- Come up a hypothesis (see below).
- Collect data and carry out a hypothesis test .
- Decide whether you have statistically significant results, i.e. have you got sufficient evidence to support your hypothesis?
- Report your findings.

## What is a Hypothesis test?

A statistical hypothesis is an unproven statement which can be tested. A hypothesis test is used to test whether this statement is true.

## The Structure of a Hypothesis Test

- The first step of a hypothesis test is to state the null hypothesis $H_0$ and the alternative hypothesis $H_1$ . The null hypothesis is the statement or claim being made (which we are trying to disprove) and the alternative hypothesis is the hypothesis that we are trying to prove and which is accepted if we have sufficient evidence to reject the null hypothesis.

For example, consider a person in court who is charged with murder. The jury needs to decide whether the person in innocent (the null hypothesis) or guilty (the alternative hypothesis). As usual, we assume the person is innocent unless the jury can provide sufficient evidence that the person is guilty. Similarly, we assume that $H_0$ is true unless we can provide sufficient evidence that it is false and that $H_1$ is true, in which case we reject $H_0$ and accept $H_1$.

To decide if we have sufficient evidence against the null hypothesis to reject it (in favour of the alternative hypothesis), we must first decide upon a significance level . The significance level is the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis when it the null hypothesis is true and is denoted by $\alpha$. The $5\%$ significance level is a common choice for statistical test.

The next step is to collect data and calculate the test statistic and associated $p$-value using the data. Assuming that the null hypothesis is true, the $p$-value is the probability of obtaining a sample statistic equal to or more extreme than the observed test statistic.

Next we must compare the $p$-value with the chosen significance level. If $p \lt \alpha$ then we reject $H_0$ and accept $H_1$. The lower $p$, the more evidence we have against $H_0$ and so the more confidence we can have that $H_0$ is false. If $p \geq \alpha$ then we do not have sufficient evidence to reject the $H_0$ and so must accept it.

Alternatively, we can compare our test statistic with the appropriate critical value for the chosen significance level. We can look up critical values in distribution tables (see worked examples below). If our test statistic is:

- positive and greater than the critical value, then we have sufficient evidence to reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternative hypothesis.
- positive and lower than or equal to the critical value, we must accept the null hypothesis.
- negative and lower than the critical value, then we have sufficient evidence to reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternative hypothesis.
- negative and greater than or equal to the critical value, we must accept the null hypothesis.

For either method:

Significant difference found: Reject the null hypothesis No significant difference found: Accept the null hypothesis

Finally, we must interpret our results and come to a conclusion. Returning to the example of the person in court, if the result of our hypothesis test indicated that we should accept $H_1$ and reject $H_0$, our conclusion would be that the jury should declare the person guilty of murder.

## Summary of Steps for a Hypothesis Test

- Specify the null and the alternative hypothesis
- Decide upon the significance level.
- Comparing the $p$-value to the significance level $\alpha$, or
- Comparing the test statistic to the critical value.
- Interpret your results and draw a conclusion

## How to Report your Findings

If you were writing about findings of a hypothesis test in a report/project, you would do so in the following way:

- You would state what the results mean in context of your experiment.
- Immediately after the statement, in brackets, you would include what test you used, the test statistic and the P value it yielded.
- It is not just at undergraduate level in which findings are reported in this way, published papers use this method too.

## Parametric and Non-Parametric Hypothesis Tests

There are parametric and non-parametric hypothesis tests.

- A parametric hypothesis assumes that the data follows a Normal probability distribution (with equal variances if we are working with more than one set of data) . A parametric hypothesis test is a statement about the parameters of this distribution (typically the mean).
- A non-parametric test assumes that the data does not follow any distribution and usually bases its calculations on the median . Note that although we assume the data does not follow a particular distribution it may do anyway. We do not cover non-parametric hypothesis tests in detail on the Animal Science area of the wiki, however if you would like to find out more about them you can look at the Psychology section .

## One- and two- tailed tests

Whether a test is One-tailed or Two-tailed is appropriate depends upon the alternative hypothesis $H_1$.

- One-tailed tests are used when the alternative hypothesis states that the parameter of interest is either bigger or smaller than the value stated in the null hypothesis. For example, the null hypothesis might state that the average weight of chocolate bars produced by a chocolate factory in Slough is 35g (as is printed on the wrapper), while the alternative hypothesis might state that the average weight of the chocolate bars is in fact lower than 35g.
- Two-tailed tests are used when the hypothesis states that the parameter of interest differs from the null hypothesis but does not specify in which direction. In the above example, a Two-tailed alternative hypothesis would be that the average weight of the chocolate bars is not equal to 35g.

## Type I and Type II Errors

- A Type I error is made if we reject the null hypothesis when it is true (so should have been accepted). Returning to the example of the person in court, a Type I error would be made if the jury declared the person guilty when they are in fact innocent. The probability of making a Type I error is equal to the significance level $\alpha$.
- A Type II error is made if we accept the null hypothesis when it is false i.e. we should have rejected the null hypothesis and accepted the alternative hypothesis. This would occur if the jury declared the person innocent when they are in fact guilty.

## Confidence Intervals

A confidence interval describes our uncertainty about where the population mean of a measurement lies, based on a sample. It's calculated using the of the mean. We first choose the confidence level of the interval; usually we choose the level to be 95%. This would mean that if we were to repeat our experiment 100 times and compute 100 corresponding confidence intervals, approximately 95 of the confidence intervals would contain the population mean.

A confidence interval consists of an upper and lower bound, calculated using the sample mean and sample standard deviation , and a t -value corresponding to the chosen significance level and the degrees of freedom in the sample.

\begin{align} \text{Upper bound} &= \bar{x} + (t\times\text{ Sample standard deviation}) \\ \text{Lower bound} &= \bar{x} - (t\times\text{ Sample standard deviation}) \end{align}

Minitab or R can calculate this range for you

## Test Yourself

Try our Numbas test on hypothesis testing: Practising confidence intervals and hypothesis tests .

To develop these ideas further see the other sections of Hypothesis Tests (Animal Science) .

For additional information on topics covered in this section see the main site's page on hypothesis testing .

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## VIDEO

## COMMENTS

Strong hypotheses are most often written in the, “If A occurs, then B will occur” format and are presented as statements, not questions. Good hypotheses also are clear and keep variables in mind, defining them in easy-to-measure terms.

A good hypothesis is a statement that helps to explain the occurrence of a specified group of observable phenomena. A scientist begins with a question she wishes to answer. The scientist turns that question into a statement.

A falsifiable hypothesis is a proposed explanation for an event or occurrence that can be proven false. The falsifiability of a hypothesis requires that the statement can be refuted based on a scientific and observable investigation.

Hypothesis testing is a statistical method used to determine if there is enough evidence in a sample data to draw conclusions about a population

The first step in conducting a hypothesis test is to write the hypothesis statements that are going to be tested.

Statistical hypothesis: A statement about the nature of a population. It is often stated in terms of a population parameter. Null hypothesis: A statistical

What is a Hypothesis Statement? · If I (decrease the amount of water given to herbs) then (the herbs will increase in size). · If I (give patients counseling in

A statistical hypothesis test compares a test statistic (z or t for examples) to a threshold. The test statistic (the formula found in the table below) is based

Hypothesis testing is a form of statistical inference that uses data from a sample to draw conclusions about a population parameter or a population

Step 1: State your null and alternate hypothesis · Step 2: Collect data · Step 3: Perform a statistical test · Step 4: Decide whether to reject or

Descriptive Statistics. N, Mean, StDev, SE Mean, 95% Lower Bound. 25, 172.52, 10.31

The null hypothesis is a statement about a population parameter, such

A hypothesis test evaluates two mutually exclusive statements about a population to determine which statement is best supported by the sample data.

A statistical hypothesis is an unproven statement which can be tested. A hypothesis test is used to test whether this statement is true. The Structure of a