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Argumentative essay notes for 9th grade English.
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- 1. The Argumentative Essay
- 2. What is an Argumentative Essay? The purpose of an argumentative essay is to persuade the reader to accept—or seriously consider--your opinion on a controversial issue Has five parts: Thesis (Claim), Reasons, Evidence, Counterclaim, Rebuttal (plus Introduction and Conclusion)
- 3. Consider your Audience Whom are you trying to reach? What do they already know about your topic? What is your relationship with your audience and how does it impact your word choice and tone?
- 4. THESIS/CLAIM Your opinion or position on an issue Must be supported with reasons and evidence Evidence can include quotes, facts, and data Evidence MUST be explained
- 5. REASONS Your reasons support the thesis and form argument with your evidence. Typical supporting paragraph structure goes like this: topic sentence (A reason why your thesis is correct), then evidence/support of that reason. Finally, include an explanation of the evidence. Be sure to repeat a similar structure with every body paragraph
- 6. COUNTER CLAIM Consider the opposite side Argues against your claim Turn against your argument to challenge it Then turn back to reaffirm your position
- 7. REBUTTAL Turn back to your original position Responds to and refutes* issues presented by the counterclaim *Refute-prove (a statement or theory) to be wrong or false; disprove.
- 8. The Opposing Side Ask these questions: 1. Who might disagree with my position? Why? 2. What reasons do people have for disagreeing with me? 3. What evidence would support an opposing argument?
- 9. Counter Claim Key phrases to use: One might object that... It might seem that... It's true that... Admittedly... Of course...
- 10. EXAMPLE CLAIM: “More Americans are choosing low-carb diets because the media promotes low-carb diets as the new way to a skinnier body.” COUNTER CLAIM: “Some Americans don't watch television commercials because they own a DVR or Tivo, but most Americans are exposed to other forms of advertisement in magazines, newspapers, and highway billboards.
- 11. Where to put it? Introduction w/Thesis Reason 1 w/Evidence Reason 2 w/Evidence Counter Claim/Rebuttal Conclusion w/Restated Thesis Each of these will be one paragraph!
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Writing an Argumentative Essay
Published by Cordelia Ellis Modified over 7 years ago
Presentation on theme: "Writing an Argumentative Essay"— Presentation transcript:
Persuasive Essay Writing The art of persuading someone to think like you!
Writing an Argumentative Paragraph
How to write a THESIS STATEMENT A thesis statement answers the question asked of you. (Is Ms. Harper amazing?) A thesis statement is a claim (has to have.
Paragraphs A good paragraph has the following key elements: A main idea expressed in a topic sentence (your reasons) Details supporting the main idea (your.
Essay Outline Poetry Unit.
The Three Parts of an Essay
The “How and Why” of Writing
Let’s Review Some Things, Class Days ‘til KPREP: 19.
Writing the 5 Paragraph Essay. Introduction Three Parts Attention Grabber Claim/Argument 3 Reasons your argument is true.
A how-to guide. Introduction: Start with an attention getter. For literary analysis, this should be some background information related to the piece of.
Body Paragraphs Writing body paragraphs is always a T.R.E.A.T. T= Transition R= Reason/point from thesis/claim E= Evidence (quote from the text) A= Answer.
The Argumentative Essay. This just won’t cut it...
Argumentative Essay Standard: ELAGSE6W1
Invention and Arrangement
TODAY WE ARE GOING TO LEARN... HOW TO WRITE AN EXPOSITORY ESSAY !!!!!!
Take out a piece of paper and take notes…
Argumentative Essay Standard: ELACC6W1. What is it? An essay that is used to state and support claims written with clear reasons and relevant evidence.
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ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY POWERPOINT (1)
Proceedings of the 5th …
Journal of Educational Psychology
This study examined a new prewriting tool, argumentation vee diagrams (AVDs), which are used to write reflective opinion essays. AVDs are based on the theoretical concept of argument– counterargument integration, which involves evaluating and integrating both sides of an issue before developing a final conclusion on a controversial question. In a test of the effectiveness of AVDs, 45 undergraduates at a large, southwestern university were randomly assigned to an experimental or control group. Both groups wrote 4 opinion essays over a 4-week period. The experimental group also received training on using the AVDs, including instruction on criteria for weighing arguments. Results indicated that AVD training was effective in enhancing argument– counterargument integration. Furthermore, examination of integration strategies used by participants revealed a new strategy, minimization, which was not previously part of E. M. Nussbaum and G. Schraw’s (2007) argument– counterargument integration framework. Minimization involves curtailing the importance or extensiveness of a problem or advantage as a heuristic shortcut for weighing advantages and disadvantages. The role of critical questions and argumentation schemata in argument-counterargument integration is discussed.
Contemporary Educational Psychology
This study examines the effect of goal instructions on students’ reasoning and argumentation in an interactive context (discussing a topic on-line). Goal instructions specify the goal of a discussion. General goals (to persuade or explore) were crossed with speciWc goals (to generate reasons or counterarguments/rebuttals) in a 3x3 randomized design using 224 undergraduates. The design also controlled for need for cognition, which measures dispositions to think. The goal instruction to “generate as many reasons as possible” resulted in deeper, more contingent arguments, closer to Mercer’s (1996) notion of exploratory talk, whereas the persuade goal resulted in arguments that were more adversarial and somewhat better supported. The other goals had less dramatic effects. Need for cognition also predicted total argument claims and depth. These Wndings have important implications for building richer interactive discussions that promote the integration of ideas.
The authors investigated ways of encouraging students to consider more counterarguments when writing argumentative texts. One hundred eighty-four undergraduates wrote essays on TV violence. In Experiment 1, students given specific goals generated more counterarguments and rebuttals than controls. In Experiment 2, some participants were provided with a text outlining arguments/counterarguments; some were also asked to write a persuasive letter. Prior attitudes toward the topic were also measured. Persuasion instructions negatively affected and text (without persuasion instructions) positively affected counterargumentation and the overall quality of arguments. Text was only effective, however, for students with less extreme prior attitudes. The danger of using persuasion goals and the advantages of using more specific goals (with text) are discussed.
Journal of Experimental Education
It is important, when writing opinion essays, for students to consider and integrate both arguments and counterarguments to develop a final conclusion. In this article, the authors explored the effect of criteria instruction and a graphic organizer to promote integration of arguments and counterarguments. The researchers randomly assigned 84 participants from an undergraduate educational psychology course to 1 of 4 conditions: training only, organizer only, combined, and control. The graphic organizer resulted in more refutations of counterarguments. However, criteria instruction resulted in better integration of argument and counterargument (with stronger rebuttals and more balanced reasoning). The authors discussed how the 2 interventions may have activated somewhat different argumentation schema in students.
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ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY. ARGUMENTATION. The aim of writing argumentative essays is to convince or persuade the reader. One attempts to change the reader's mind
Based on Purdue Owl's “Argumentative Essays”. Writing an Argumentative Essay. What is an Argumentative Essay? The argumentative essay is a genre of writing
Brought to you in cooperation with the Purdue Online Writing Lab. What is an Argument? An argument involves the process of… establishing a claim and then
Who might disagree with my. Counter Claim Key phrases to use: One might object that... EXAMPLE CLAIM: “More Americans are choosing low-
Decide on a controversial topic (debatable and interesting). Write an argumentative thesis statement. Generate ideas (free writing or brainstorming). When
An Argument = A Conversation! The act of arguing in academic writing is the act of entering a conversation (Graff and Birkenstein ix). In any conversation, you
Develop your essay by providing evidence from both passages. Manage your time carefully so that you can plan your argument and do some pre-writing. Be sure to:.
What is an Argumentative Essay? Goal Your Argumentative Essay will: The goal of an argumentative essay is to change the reader's point of view
Generate ideas (free writing or brainstorming THE ARGUMENTATIVE THESIS STATEMENT The thesis statement should define the scope of the argument and make an
All about writing persuasively... So You Think You Can ... An argument in writing is silent! ... You're going to need. ARGUMENTATIVE. WRITING!