The Writing Center • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Conclusions

What this handout is about.

This handout will explain the functions of conclusions, offer strategies for writing effective ones, help you evaluate conclusions you’ve drafted, and suggest approaches to avoid.

About conclusions

Introductions and conclusions can be difficult to write, but they’re worth investing time in. They can have a significant influence on a reader’s experience of your paper.

Just as your introduction acts as a bridge that transports your readers from their own lives into the “place” of your analysis, your conclusion can provide a bridge to help your readers make the transition back to their daily lives. Such a conclusion will help them see why all your analysis and information should matter to them after they put the paper down.

Your conclusion is your chance to have the last word on the subject. The conclusion allows you to have the final say on the issues you have raised in your paper, to synthesize your thoughts, to demonstrate the importance of your ideas, and to propel your reader to a new view of the subject. It is also your opportunity to make a good final impression and to end on a positive note.

Your conclusion can go beyond the confines of the assignment. The conclusion pushes beyond the boundaries of the prompt and allows you to consider broader issues, make new connections, and elaborate on the significance of your findings.

Your conclusion should make your readers glad they read your paper. Your conclusion gives your reader something to take away that will help them see things differently or appreciate your topic in personally relevant ways. It can suggest broader implications that will not only interest your reader, but also enrich your reader’s life in some way. It is your gift to the reader.

Strategies for writing an effective conclusion

One or more of the following strategies may help you write an effective conclusion:

  • Play the “So What” Game. If you’re stuck and feel like your conclusion isn’t saying anything new or interesting, ask a friend to read it with you. Whenever you make a statement from your conclusion, ask the friend to say, “So what?” or “Why should anybody care?” Then ponder that question and answer it. Here’s how it might go: You: Basically, I’m just saying that education was important to Douglass. Friend: So what? You: Well, it was important because it was a key to him feeling like a free and equal citizen. Friend: Why should anybody care? You: That’s important because plantation owners tried to keep slaves from being educated so that they could maintain control. When Douglass obtained an education, he undermined that control personally. You can also use this strategy on your own, asking yourself “So What?” as you develop your ideas or your draft.
  • Return to the theme or themes in the introduction. This strategy brings the reader full circle. For example, if you begin by describing a scenario, you can end with the same scenario as proof that your essay is helpful in creating a new understanding. You may also refer to the introductory paragraph by using key words or parallel concepts and images that you also used in the introduction.
  • Synthesize, don’t summarize. Include a brief summary of the paper’s main points, but don’t simply repeat things that were in your paper. Instead, show your reader how the points you made and the support and examples you used fit together. Pull it all together.
  • Include a provocative insight or quotation from the research or reading you did for your paper.
  • Propose a course of action, a solution to an issue, or questions for further study. This can redirect your reader’s thought process and help her to apply your info and ideas to her own life or to see the broader implications.
  • Point to broader implications. For example, if your paper examines the Greensboro sit-ins or another event in the Civil Rights Movement, you could point out its impact on the Civil Rights Movement as a whole. A paper about the style of writer Virginia Woolf could point to her influence on other writers or on later feminists.

Strategies to avoid

  • Beginning with an unnecessary, overused phrase such as “in conclusion,” “in summary,” or “in closing.” Although these phrases can work in speeches, they come across as wooden and trite in writing.
  • Stating the thesis for the very first time in the conclusion.
  • Introducing a new idea or subtopic in your conclusion.
  • Ending with a rephrased thesis statement without any substantive changes.
  • Making sentimental, emotional appeals that are out of character with the rest of an analytical paper.
  • Including evidence (quotations, statistics, etc.) that should be in the body of the paper.

Four kinds of ineffective conclusions

  • The “That’s My Story and I’m Sticking to It” Conclusion. This conclusion just restates the thesis and is usually painfully short. It does not push the ideas forward. People write this kind of conclusion when they can’t think of anything else to say. Example: In conclusion, Frederick Douglass was, as we have seen, a pioneer in American education, proving that education was a major force for social change with regard to slavery.
  • The “Sherlock Holmes” Conclusion. Sometimes writers will state the thesis for the very first time in the conclusion. You might be tempted to use this strategy if you don’t want to give everything away too early in your paper. You may think it would be more dramatic to keep the reader in the dark until the end and then “wow” him with your main idea, as in a Sherlock Holmes mystery. The reader, however, does not expect a mystery, but an analytical discussion of your topic in an academic style, with the main argument (thesis) stated up front. Example: (After a paper that lists numerous incidents from the book but never says what these incidents reveal about Douglass and his views on education): So, as the evidence above demonstrates, Douglass saw education as a way to undermine the slaveholders’ power and also an important step toward freedom.
  • The “America the Beautiful”/”I Am Woman”/”We Shall Overcome” Conclusion. This kind of conclusion usually draws on emotion to make its appeal, but while this emotion and even sentimentality may be very heartfelt, it is usually out of character with the rest of an analytical paper. A more sophisticated commentary, rather than emotional praise, would be a more fitting tribute to the topic. Example: Because of the efforts of fine Americans like Frederick Douglass, countless others have seen the shining beacon of light that is education. His example was a torch that lit the way for others. Frederick Douglass was truly an American hero.
  • The “Grab Bag” Conclusion. This kind of conclusion includes extra information that the writer found or thought of but couldn’t integrate into the main paper. You may find it hard to leave out details that you discovered after hours of research and thought, but adding random facts and bits of evidence at the end of an otherwise-well-organized essay can just create confusion. Example: In addition to being an educational pioneer, Frederick Douglass provides an interesting case study for masculinity in the American South. He also offers historians an interesting glimpse into slave resistance when he confronts Covey, the overseer. His relationships with female relatives reveal the importance of family in the slave community.

Works consulted

We consulted these works while writing this handout. This is not a comprehensive list of resources on the handout’s topic, and we encourage you to do your own research to find additional publications. Please do not use this list as a model for the format of your own reference list, as it may not match the citation style you are using. For guidance on formatting citations, please see the UNC Libraries citation tutorial . We revise these tips periodically and welcome feedback.

Douglass, Frederick. 1995. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave, Written by Himself. New York: Dover.

Hamilton College. n.d. “Conclusions.” Writing Center. Accessed June 14, 2019. https://www.hamilton.edu//academics/centers/writing/writing-resources/conclusions .

Holewa, Randa. 2004. “Strategies for Writing a Conclusion.” LEO: Literacy Education Online. Last updated February 19, 2004. https://leo.stcloudstate.edu/acadwrite/conclude.html.

You may reproduce it for non-commercial use if you use the entire handout and attribute the source: The Writing Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

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This resource outlines the generally accepted structure for introductions, body paragraphs, and conclusions in an academic argument paper. Keep in mind that this resource contains guidelines and not strict rules about organization. Your structure needs to be flexible enough to meet the requirements of your purpose and audience.

Conclusions wrap up what you have been discussing in your paper. After moving from general to specific information in the introduction and body paragraphs, your conclusion should begin pulling back into more general information that restates the main points of your argument. Conclusions may also call for action or overview future possible research. The following outline may help you conclude your paper:

In a general way,

  • Restate your topic and why it is important,
  • Restate your thesis/claim,
  • Address opposing viewpoints and explain why readers should align with your position,
  • Call for action or overview future research possibilities.

Remember that once you accomplish these tasks, unless otherwise directed by your instructor, you are finished. Done. Complete. Don't try to bring in new points or end with a whiz bang(!) conclusion or try to solve world hunger in the final sentence of your conclusion. Simplicity is best for a clear, convincing message.

The preacher's maxim is one of the most effective formulas to follow for argument papers:

Tell what you're going to tell them (introduction).

Tell them (body).

Tell them what you told them (conclusion).

Reference management. Clean and simple.

How to write an excellent thesis conclusion [with examples]

Tips for writing thesis conclusion

Restate the thesis

Review or reiterate key points of your work, explain why your work is relevant, a take-away for the reader, more resources on writing thesis conclusions, frequently asked questions about writing an excellent thesis conclusion, related articles.

At this point in your writing, you have most likely finished your introduction and the body of your thesis, dissertation, or research paper . While this is a reason to celebrate, you should not underestimate the importance of your conclusion. The conclusion is the last thing that your reader will see, so it should be memorable.

A good conclusion will review the key points of the thesis and explain to the reader why the information is relevant, applicable, or related to the world as a whole. Make sure to dedicate enough of your writing time to the conclusion and do not put it off until the very last minute.

This article provides an effective technique for writing a conclusion adapted from Erika Eby’s The College Student's Guide to Writing a Good Research Paper: 101 Easy Tips & Tricks to Make Your Work Stand Out .

While the thesis introduction starts out with broad statements about the topic, and then narrows it down to the thesis statement , a thesis conclusion does the same in the opposite order.

  • Restate the thesis.
  • Review or reiterate key points of your work.
  • Explain why your work is relevant.
  • Include a core take-away message for the reader.

Tip: Don’t just copy and paste your thesis into your conclusion. Restate it in different words.

The best way to start a conclusion is simply by restating the thesis statement. That does not mean just copying and pasting it from the introduction, but putting it into different words.

You will need to change the structure and wording of it to avoid sounding repetitive. Also, be firm in your conclusion just as you were in the introduction. Try to avoid sounding apologetic by using phrases like "This paper has tried to show..."

The conclusion should address all the same parts as the thesis while making it clear that the reader has reached the end. You are telling the reader that your research is finished and what your findings are.

I have argued throughout this work that the point of critical mass for biopolitical immunity occurred during the Romantic period because of that era's unique combination of post-revolutionary politics and innovations in smallpox prevention. In particular, I demonstrated that the French Revolution and the discovery of vaccination in the 1790s triggered a reconsideration of the relationship between bodies and the state.

Tip: Try to reiterate points from your introduction in your thesis conclusion.

The next step is to review the main points of the thesis as a whole. Look back at the body of of your project and make a note of the key ideas. You can reword these ideas the same way you reworded your thesis statement and then incorporate that into the conclusion.

You can also repeat striking quotations or statistics, but do not use more than two. As the conclusion represents your own closing thoughts on the topic , it should mainly consist of your own words.

In addition, conclusions can contain recommendations to the reader or relevant questions that further the thesis. You should ask yourself:

  • What you would ideally like to see your readers do in reaction to your paper?
  • Do you want them to take a certain action or investigate further?
  • Is there a bigger issue that your paper wants to draw attention to?

Also, try to reference your introduction in your conclusion. You have already taken a first step by restating your thesis. Now, check whether there are other key words, phrases or ideas that are mentioned in your introduction that fit into your conclusion. Connecting the introduction to the conclusion in this way will help readers feel satisfied.

I explored how Mary Wollstonecraft, in both her fiction and political writings, envisions an ideal medico-political state, and how other writers like William Wordsworth and Mary Shelley increasingly imagined the body politic literally, as an incorporated political collective made up of bodies whose immunity to political and medical ills was essential to a healthy state.

Tip: Make sure to explain why your thesis is relevant to your field of research.

Although you can encourage readers to question their opinions and reflect on your topic, do not leave loose ends. You should provide a sense of resolution and make sure your conclusion wraps up your argument. Make sure you explain why your thesis is relevant to your field of research and how your research intervenes within, or substantially revises, existing scholarly debates.

This project challenged conventional ideas about the relationship among Romanticism, medicine, and politics by reading the unfolding of Romantic literature and biopolitical immunity as mutual, co-productive processes. In doing so, this thesis revises the ways in which biopolitics has been theorized by insisting on the inherent connections between Romantic literature and the forms of biopower that characterize early modernity.

Tip: If you began your thesis with an anecdote or historical example, you may want to return to that in your conclusion.

End your conclusion with something memorable, such as:

  • a call to action
  • a recommendation
  • a gesture towards future research
  • a brief explanation of how the problem or idea you covered remains relevant

Ultimately, you want readers to feel more informed, or ready to act, as they read your conclusion.

Yet, the Romantic period is only the beginning of modern thought on immunity and biopolitics. Victorian writers, doctors, and politicians upheld the Romantic idea that a "healthy state" was a literal condition that could be achieved by combining politics and medicine, but augmented that idea through legislation and widespread public health measures. While many nineteenth-century efforts to improve citizens' health were successful, the fight against disease ultimately changed course in the twentieth century as global immunological threats such as SARS occupied public consciousness. Indeed, as subsequent public health events make apparent, biopolitical immunity persists as a viable concept for thinking about the relationship between medicine and politics in modernity.

Need more advice? Read our 5 additional tips on how to write a good thesis conclusion.

The conclusion is the last thing that your reader will see, so it should be memorable. To write a great thesis conclusion you should:

The basic content of a conclusion is to review the main points from the paper. This part represents your own closing thoughts on the topic. It should mainly consist of the outcome of the research in your own words.

The length of the conclusion will depend on the length of the whole thesis. Usually, a conclusion should be around 5-7% of the overall word count.

End your conclusion with something memorable, such as a question, warning, or call to action. Depending on the topic, you can also end with a recommendation.

In Open Access: Theses and Dissertations you can find thousands of completed works. Take a look at any of the theses or dissertations for real-life examples of conclusions that were already approved.

how to do you write a conclusion

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  • Dissertation

How to Write a Thesis or Dissertation Conclusion

Published on September 6, 2022 by Tegan George and Shona McCombes. Revised on November 20, 2023.

The conclusion is the very last part of your thesis or dissertation . It should be concise and engaging, leaving your reader with a clear understanding of your main findings, as well as the answer to your research question .

In it, you should:

  • Clearly state the answer to your main research question
  • Summarize and reflect on your research process
  • Make recommendations for future work on your thesis or dissertation topic
  • Show what new knowledge you have contributed to your field
  • Wrap up your thesis or dissertation

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Table of contents

Discussion vs. conclusion, how long should your conclusion be, step 1: answer your research question, step 2: summarize and reflect on your research, step 3: make future recommendations, step 4: emphasize your contributions to your field, step 5: wrap up your thesis or dissertation, full conclusion example, conclusion checklist, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about conclusion sections.

While your conclusion contains similar elements to your discussion section , they are not the same thing.

Your conclusion should be shorter and more general than your discussion. Instead of repeating literature from your literature review , discussing specific research results , or interpreting your data in detail, concentrate on making broad statements that sum up the most important insights of your research.

As a rule of thumb, your conclusion should not introduce new data, interpretations, or arguments.

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Depending on whether you are writing a thesis or dissertation, your length will vary. Generally, a conclusion should make up around 5–7% of your overall word count.

An empirical scientific study will often have a short conclusion, concisely stating the main findings and recommendations for future research. A humanities dissertation topic or systematic review , on the other hand, might require more space to conclude its analysis, tying all the previous sections together in an overall argument.

Your conclusion should begin with the main question that your thesis or dissertation aimed to address. This is your final chance to show that you’ve done what you set out to do, so make sure to formulate a clear, concise answer.

  • Don’t repeat a list of all the results that you already discussed
  • Do synthesize them into a final takeaway that the reader will remember.

An empirical thesis or dissertation conclusion may begin like this:

A case study –based thesis or dissertation conclusion may begin like this:

In the second example, the research aim is not directly restated, but rather added implicitly to the statement. To avoid repeating yourself, it is helpful to reformulate your aims and questions into an overall statement of what you did and how you did it.

Your conclusion is an opportunity to remind your reader why you took the approach you did, what you expected to find, and how well the results matched your expectations.

To avoid repetition , consider writing more reflectively here, rather than just writing a summary of each preceding section. Consider mentioning the effectiveness of your methodology , or perhaps any new questions or unexpected insights that arose in the process.

You can also mention any limitations of your research, but only if you haven’t already included these in the discussion. Don’t dwell on them at length, though—focus on the positives of your work.

  • While x limits the generalizability of the results, this approach provides new insight into y .
  • This research clearly illustrates x , but it also raises the question of y .

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You may already have made a few recommendations for future research in your discussion section, but the conclusion is a good place to elaborate and look ahead, considering the implications of your findings in both theoretical and practical terms.

  • Based on these conclusions, practitioners should consider …
  • To better understand the implications of these results, future studies could address …
  • Further research is needed to determine the causes of/effects of/relationship between …

When making recommendations for further research, be sure not to undermine your own work. Relatedly, while future studies might confirm, build on, or enrich your conclusions, they shouldn’t be required for your argument to feel complete. Your work should stand alone on its own merits.

Just as you should avoid too much self-criticism, you should also avoid exaggerating the applicability of your research. If you’re making recommendations for policy, business, or other practical implementations, it’s generally best to frame them as “shoulds” rather than “musts.” All in all, the purpose of academic research is to inform, explain, and explore—not to demand.

Make sure your reader is left with a strong impression of what your research has contributed to the state of your field.

Some strategies to achieve this include:

  • Returning to your problem statement to explain how your research helps solve the problem
  • Referring back to the literature review and showing how you have addressed a gap in knowledge
  • Discussing how your findings confirm or challenge an existing theory or assumption

Again, avoid simply repeating what you’ve already covered in the discussion in your conclusion. Instead, pick out the most important points and sum them up succinctly, situating your project in a broader context.

The end is near! Once you’ve finished writing your conclusion, it’s time to wrap up your thesis or dissertation with a few final steps:

  • It’s a good idea to write your abstract next, while the research is still fresh in your mind.
  • Next, make sure your reference list is complete and correctly formatted. To speed up the process, you can use our free APA citation generator .
  • Once you’ve added any appendices , you can create a table of contents and title page .
  • Finally, read through the whole document again to make sure your thesis is clearly written and free from language errors. You can proofread it yourself , ask a friend, or consider Scribbr’s proofreading and editing service .

Here is an example of how you can write your conclusion section. Notice how it includes everything mentioned above:

V. Conclusion

The current research aimed to identify acoustic speech characteristics which mark the beginning of an exacerbation in COPD patients.

The central questions for this research were as follows: 1. Which acoustic measures extracted from read speech differ between COPD speakers in stable condition and healthy speakers? 2. In what ways does the speech of COPD patients during an exacerbation differ from speech of COPD patients during stable periods?

All recordings were aligned using a script. Subsequently, they were manually annotated to indicate respiratory actions such as inhaling and exhaling. The recordings of 9 stable COPD patients reading aloud were then compared with the recordings of 5 healthy control subjects reading aloud. The results showed a significant effect of condition on the number of in- and exhalations per syllable, the number of non-linguistic in- and exhalations per syllable, and the ratio of voiced and silence intervals. The number of in- and exhalations per syllable and the number of non-linguistic in- and exhalations per syllable were higher for COPD patients than for healthy controls, which confirmed both hypotheses.

However, the higher ratio of voiced and silence intervals for COPD patients compared to healthy controls was not in line with the hypotheses. This unpredicted result might have been caused by the different reading materials or recording procedures for both groups, or by a difference in reading skills. Moreover, there was a trend regarding the effect of condition on the number of syllables per breath group. The number of syllables per breath group was higher for healthy controls than for COPD patients, which was in line with the hypothesis. There was no effect of condition on pitch, intensity, center of gravity, pitch variability, speaking rate, or articulation rate.

This research has shown that the speech of COPD patients in exacerbation differs from the speech of COPD patients in stable condition. This might have potential for the detection of exacerbations. However, sustained vowels rarely occur in spontaneous speech. Therefore, the last two outcome measures might have greater potential for the detection of beginning exacerbations, but further research on the different outcome measures and their potential for the detection of exacerbations is needed due to the limitations of the current study.

Checklist: Conclusion

I have clearly and concisely answered the main research question .

I have summarized my overall argument or key takeaways.

I have mentioned any important limitations of the research.

I have given relevant recommendations .

I have clearly explained what my research has contributed to my field.

I have  not introduced any new data or arguments.

You've written a great conclusion! Use the other checklists to further improve your dissertation.

If you want to know more about AI for academic writing, AI tools, or research bias, make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples or go directly to our tools!

Research bias

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In a thesis or dissertation, the discussion is an in-depth exploration of the results, going into detail about the meaning of your findings and citing relevant sources to put them in context.

The conclusion is more shorter and more general: it concisely answers your main research question and makes recommendations based on your overall findings.

While it may be tempting to present new arguments or evidence in your thesis or disseration conclusion , especially if you have a particularly striking argument you’d like to finish your analysis with, you shouldn’t. Theses and dissertations follow a more formal structure than this.

All your findings and arguments should be presented in the body of the text (more specifically in the discussion section and results section .) The conclusion is meant to summarize and reflect on the evidence and arguments you have already presented, not introduce new ones.

For a stronger dissertation conclusion , avoid including:

  • Important evidence or analysis that wasn’t mentioned in the discussion section and results section
  • Generic concluding phrases (e.g. “In conclusion …”)
  • Weak statements that undermine your argument (e.g., “There are good points on both sides of this issue.”)

Your conclusion should leave the reader with a strong, decisive impression of your work.

The conclusion of your thesis or dissertation shouldn’t take up more than 5–7% of your overall word count.

The conclusion of your thesis or dissertation should include the following:

  • A restatement of your research question
  • A summary of your key arguments and/or results
  • A short discussion of the implications of your research

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George, T. & McCombes, S. (2023, November 20). How to Write a Thesis or Dissertation Conclusion. Scribbr. Retrieved February 26, 2024, from https://www.scribbr.com/dissertation/write-conclusion/

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How to Conclude an Essay (with Examples)

Last Updated: April 3, 2023 Fact Checked

Writing a Strong Conclusion

What to avoid, brainstorming tricks.

This article was co-authored by Jake Adams and by wikiHow staff writer, Aly Rusciano . Jake Adams is an academic tutor and the owner of Simplifi EDU, a Santa Monica, California based online tutoring business offering learning resources and online tutors for academic subjects K-College, SAT & ACT prep, and college admissions applications. With over 14 years of professional tutoring experience, Jake is dedicated to providing his clients the very best online tutoring experience and access to a network of excellent undergraduate and graduate-level tutors from top colleges all over the nation. Jake holds a BS in International Business and Marketing from Pepperdine University. There are 8 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page. This article has been fact-checked, ensuring the accuracy of any cited facts and confirming the authority of its sources. This article has been viewed 3,196,751 times.

So, you’ve written an outstanding essay and couldn’t be more proud. But now you have to write the final paragraph. The conclusion simply summarizes what you’ve already written, right? Well, not exactly. Your essay’s conclusion should be a bit more finessed than that. Luckily, you’ve come to the perfect place to learn how to write a conclusion. We’ve put together this guide to fill you in on everything you should and shouldn’t do when ending an essay. Follow our advice, and you’ll have a stellar conclusion worthy of an A+ in no time.

Things You Should Know

  • Rephrase your thesis to include in your final paragraph to bring the essay full circle.
  • End your essay with a call to action, warning, or image to make your argument meaningful.
  • Keep your conclusion concise and to the point, so you don’t lose a reader’s attention.
  • Do your best to avoid adding new information to your conclusion and only emphasize points you’ve already made in your essay.

Step 1 Start with a small transition.

  • “All in all”
  • “Ultimately”
  • “Furthermore”
  • “As a consequence”
  • “As a result”

Step 2 Briefly summarize your essay’s main points.

  • Make sure to write your main points in a new and unique way to avoid repetition.

Step 3 Rework your thesis statement into the conclusion.

  • Let’s say this is your original thesis statement: “Allowing students to visit the library during lunch improves campus life and supports academic achievement.”
  • Restating your thesis for your conclusion could look like this: “Evidence shows students who have access to their school’s library during lunch check out more books and are more likely to complete their homework.”
  • The restated thesis has the same sentiment as the original while also summarizing other points of the essay.

Step 4 End with something meaningful.

  • “When you use plastic water bottles, you pollute the ocean. Switch to using a glass or metal water bottle instead. The planet and sea turtles will thank you.”
  • “The average person spends roughly 7 hours on their phone a day, so there’s no wonder cybersickness is plaguing all generations.”
  • “Imagine walking on the beach, except the soft sand is made up of cigarette butts. They burn your feet but keep washing in with the tide. If we don’t clean up the ocean, this will be our reality.”
  • “ Lost is not only a show that changed the course of television, but it’s also a reflection of humanity as a whole.”
  • “If action isn’t taken to end climate change today, the global temperature will dangerously rise from 4.5 to 8 °F (−15.3 to −13.3 °C) by 2100.”

Step 5 Keep it short and sweet.

  • Focus on your essay's most prevalent or important parts. What key points do you want readers to take away or remember about your essay?

Step 1 Popular concluding statements

  • For instance, instead of writing, “That’s why I think that Abraham Lincoln was the best American President,” write, “That’s why Abraham Lincoln was the best American President.”
  • There’s no room for ifs, ands, or buts—your opinion matters and doesn’t need to be apologized for!

Step 6 Quotations

  • For instance, words like “firstly,” “secondly,” and “thirdly” may be great transition statements for body paragraphs but are unnecessary in a conclusion.

Step 1 Ask yourself, “So what?”

  • For instance, say you began your essay with the idea that humanity’s small sense of sense stems from space’s vast size. Try returning to this idea in the conclusion by emphasizing that as human knowledge grows, space becomes smaller.

Step 4 Think about your essay’s argument in a broader “big picture” context.

  • For example, you could extend an essay on the television show Orange is the New Black by bringing up the culture of imprisonment in America.

Community Q&A

wikiHow Staff Editor

  • Always review your essay after writing it for proper grammar, spelling, and punctuation, and don’t be afraid to revise. Thanks Helpful 2 Not Helpful 1
  • Ask a friend, family member, or teacher for help if you’re stuck. Sometimes a second opinion is all you need. Thanks Helpful 2 Not Helpful 1

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Put a Quote in an Essay

  • ↑ https://www.uts.edu.au/current-students/support/helps/self-help-resources/grammar/transition-signals
  • ↑ https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/general_writing/common_writing_assignments/argument_papers/conclusions.html
  • ↑ http://writing2.richmond.edu/writing/wweb/conclude.html
  • ↑ https://writingcenter.fas.harvard.edu/pages/ending-essay-conclusions
  • ↑ https://www.pittsfordschools.org/site/handlers/filedownload.ashx?moduleinstanceid=542&dataid=4677&FileName=conclusions1.pdf
  • ↑ https://www.cuyamaca.edu/student-support/tutoring-center/files/student-resources/how-to-write-a-good-conclusion.pdf
  • ↑ https://library.sacredheart.edu/c.php?g=29803&p=185935

About This Article

Jake Adams

To end an essay, start your conclusion with a phrase that makes it clear your essay is coming to a close, like "In summary," or "All things considered." Then, use a few sentences to briefly summarize the main points of your essay by rephrasing the topic sentences of your body paragraphs. Finally, end your conclusion with a call to action that encourages your readers to do something or learn more about your topic. In general, try to keep your conclusion between 5 and 7 sentences long. For more tips from our English co-author, like how to avoid common pitfalls when writing an essay conclusion, scroll down! Did this summary help you? Yes No

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How to Write a Conclusion

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Inhaltsverzeichnis

  • 1 Definition: Conclusion
  • 3 Closing Paragraph
  • 4 Length of a Conclusion 
  • 6  Dos and Don’ts
  • 7 Insider tips
  • 8 In a Nutshell

Definition: Conclusion

The conclusion is the final paragraph of an essay, research paper, bachelor’s thesis, or master’s thesis. Instead of the term conclusion , synonymous expressions like results, résumé, upshot, or bottom line may be used.

The main objective of a conclusion is to provide an answer/resolution to the research question posed in the introduction. Moreover, the conclusion makes clear how the paper makes a valuable contribution to a particular field of research. Additionally, weaknesses are mentioned and discussed, and conclusions are drawn which lead to suggestions for future research.

What is a conclusion?

A conclusion is the last section or paragraph in any piece of academic writing work. It basically summarizes the main results, findings or central ideas of the writing. Depending on the type of thesis or report that you’re writing, the conclusion may be a call to action designed to motivate readers. However, the main purpose of most conclusions is to summarize what was learned throughout the report/thesis.

How long is a conclusion?

How long your conclusion is, depends on the length of your academic work. As a rule of thumb, the conclusion should generally make up 5%-10% of your word count.

Calculated based on the total length of the research paper: • Short research papers: one page (approximately) • Bachelor’s and master’s thesis : three to five text pages

What do I need to write in a conclusion?

The following aspects are included in a conclusion:

  • Main ideas/summary
  • Results: Answering the research question
  • Criticism/weaknesses and limitations
  • Generalisability of results/impact of results
  • Outlook (variable)

Avoid bringing in new ideas that were not discussed in the main body of the thesis or dissertation . Remember that the deep analysis and discussion of variables and results has already occured in the body paragraphs. The conclusion needs to summarise these aspects whilst linking them to the research questions and including any criticism or weaknesses of the research with an outlook to the future.

What is the aim of a conclusion?

The conclusion should provide an answer to the research question(s) and help the reader to quickly access the main results. The main results should be easy to read in their summarized form. Finally, it should highlight the coherent structure and line of argument in the research paper .

How do introduction and conclusion compare?

The introduction sets the scene and poses the research questions and thesis statement, whilst the conclusion addresses the latter. The two written parts are not interconnected but present different directions and views of the main body of the text. Essentially, the introduction will introduce your topic to the reader and the conclusion will summarize the topic and any research that was conducted.

What else do I need to know on how to write a conclusion?

a) Do not underestimate the conclusion—it must have a lasting effect. b) NEVER introduce new ideas that are not mentioned in the main body of the text. c) No results also count as results: Do not cover up non-results by claiming things that your analysis fails to show.

You can find examples of conclusions on our blog.

Closing Paragraph

The following aspects are part of a sound conclusion:

I.a) Main ideas/summary

Give an overview of the logical structure of your paper and highlight the findings of the individual chapters (cf. Oertner, St. John & Thelen 2014: 31).

I.b) Results: Answering the research question

Link your results to the research question(s): There must be a harmony/balance between your research question(s), which is/are derived from a broader topic, and the answers presented in your conclusion (cf. Bänsch & Alewell 2013: 6).

I.c) Weaknesses and limitations

Make clear how your results fit into the field of research but be critical about the generalisability of your findings (cf. Winter 2004: 76). Discuss weaknesses and limitations (cf. Oertner, St. John & Thelen 2014: 31).

I.d) Impact/Future research

Address open questions (cf. Samac, Prenner & Schwetz 2014: 74) and give suggestions for future research (cf. Franck 2004: 199).

II. Outlook

Project your results into the future, describe future developments, predict what impact your results can have on practice (cf. Stickel-Wolf & Wolf 2013: 208).

The summary of the main ideas and all other aspects listed under I. reflect on the paper as such (cf. Stickel-Wolf & Wolf 2013: 207). The outlook, however, is a part of the conclusion that does not focus on what has been done but goes a step further by tracing (possible) future developments (cf. Rossig & Prätsch 2005:76). Whether or not it makes sense to provide an outlook depends on the topic.

Length of a Conclusion 

One of the most frequently asked questions concerns the approximate length of the conclusion. Although there is no universal standard as such, you can derive the length of the conclusion from the total length of the paper.

Thus, the total length serves as the basis for calculating the length of the conclusion (cf. Stickel-Wolf & Wolf 2013: 207; Brauner & Vollmer 2004: 117).

For a Bachelor’s thesis, it is recommended that the conclusion be two- to three-pages in length (cf. Samac, Prenner & Schwetz 2014: 74). In contrast, it is sufficient to conclude a seminar paper with a few sentences and a short closing remark (cf. Brauner & Vollmer 2004: 117).

Here are a few examples showing the language use in a conclusion—i.e. how to report, comment, or speculate on your findings (based on Hewings 1993 as quoted in Paltridge & Starfield 2007: 152–153).

How-to-write-a-conclusion-example-1

 Dos and Don’ts

Below is a short list of what to focus on and what to avoid in your conclusion.

Conclusion-Dos

  • Take enough time to write your conclusion
  • List your most important findings
  • Summarize—avoid lengthy repetitions
  • Stay as objective as possible
  • Keep in mind that the conclusion will impact the overall judgement of your text

Conclusion-Donts

  • Underestimate the impact of your conclusion
  • Bring in new ideas you have not mentioned before
  • Give a positive appraisal of your work
  • Appeal to the reader to carry out more research
  • Use exaggerated phrases
  • Diminish the findings of your paper

(cf. Andermann, Drees & Grätz 2006: 87; Bänsch & Alewell 2013: 6, 86; Esselborn-Krumbiegel 2002: 143; Franck 2004: 200f.; Franck & Stary 2009: 142, 156, 201; Oertner, St. John & Thelen 2014: 31; Rossig & Prätsch 2005: 76; Winter 2004: 75)

Important Match with Your Introduction

The conclusion is a self-contained part of your research paper—i.e. it can be read and understood as a stand-alone, complete text (cf. Oertner, St. John & Thelen 2014: 31). It never just repeats what has been said in the main body of the research paper. Still, it functions as one part of the whole text.

The introduction sets the scene and introduces the research question(s); the conclusion takes them up again to provide an answer based on the findings discussed in the main part.

There is a connection between the introduction and the conclusion—a connection that you must establish. The two parts do not actually build on one another, but they point towards the main body from different angles (cf. Brauner & Vollmer 2004: 121).

Tip:  It is easier to write the main body first . After the main body, you can focus on writing your conclusion. The very last thing you should write is the introduction.

By then, you will have gained a good overview of your work and also know where you ended up, which means you know what your results look like. Bridging the gap between conclusion and introduction is easier than the other way around: Now you know what you are setting the scene for.

An example to illustrate the connection between introduction and conclusion

Topic: The British Northern Ireland politics 1968–1974 (cf. Esselborn-Krumbiegel 2002: 143)

  • Introduction:  Analyzing the flaws of British Northern Ireland politics can help to analyze the crisis from a historical perspective.
  • Conclusion:  Even post-millennial politicians try to solve new crises by drawing on old strategies, although they have proved ineffective in the past.

Insider tips

Writing a research paper can be an arduous task. You feel relieved after finishing the main body of the text. All you need is some sort of conclusion now—a nice ending summarize all of your work up. At the same time, you might feel you already said everything in the main part.

However, it is important not to run out of steam in the end, for the following reasons:

1. the conclusion guides the reader, who may have lost the thread and may need a summary of the main objectives and ideas to get back on track (cf. Winter 2004: 75)

2. the conclusion provides an answer to the research question, obtained through your research and data analysis (cf. Samac, Prenner & Schwetz 2014: 74).

3. a well-written conclusion shows that you are a competent and skillful writer. Can you portray your results well? Do you show a good level of abstract thinking (cf. Brauner & Vollmer 2004: 121)?

4. in your conclusion, you have to make clear how your research paper fits into the given field of research and how your work is a novel contribution. What can your paper offer to the reader (cf. Andermann, Drees & Grätz 2006: 87)?

It is important to understand that a badly written conclusion leaves a negative impression that can overshadow even a very well-written main part. From your perspective, as the author, the results obtained are very clear and straightforward. However, it is important to consider the perspective of the reader, who has not studied this topic as thoroughly as you have. Thus, a sound conclusion not only offers readers a special service, it also convinces them that your paper makes a valuable contribution to the field and that reading it is worth their while.

In a Nutshell

  • The conclusion of a bachelor’s thesis or master’s thesis is often referred to as perspectives, outlook, resumé, or results , but all those terms denote the same concept—namely an evaluative summary of the main findings.
  • The conclusion answers the research question(s) and maintains a clear link with the initially stated objectives of research; it serves to guide the reader and makes clear how the paper fits into the larger context of a particular field of research. A good grasp of the main ideas and coherences and abstract thinking ability are characteristics of competent authors.
  • The length of the conclusion can be calculated based on the total length and complexity of the paper. For short-term papers, it should not exceed a page, but for longer research papers such as a bachelor’s thesis or master’s thesis, the conclusion should comprise three to five pages approximately.
  • In your conclusion, you should at first give an overview of the structure of the research paper, then answer the research question; after highlighting limitations and weaknesses you can talk about the implications of your paper. What is more, you should make suggestions for future research (and give an outlook if possible).
  • Introduction and conclusion are interconnected, which means that the introduction poses the questions and the conclusion answers them (based on the research discussed in the main body of the text).
  • Do not underestimate the conclusion, as it is the last bit of text to be read and thus has the power to make a lasting (positive or negative) impression
  • Avoid bringing in new ideas that you have not discussed in the main body of text.
  • On a stylistic level, you should neither praise your own achievement nor belittle it. Be objective and to the point. In addition, you must avoid merely repeating longer paragraphs of the main body of the text, or appealing to reader by drawing on emotional/sensational formulations and phrases.

References:

Andermann, Ulrich, Martin Drees & Frank Götz. 2006.   Wie verfasst man wissenschaftliche Arbeiten?  3rd ed. Mannheim: Dudenverlag.

Bänsch, Axel & Dorothea Alewell. 2013.   Wissenschaftliches Arbeiten . 11th ed. München: Oldenbourg Verlag.

Brauner, Detlef Jürgen & Hans-Ulrich Vollmer. 2004.   Erfolgreiches wissenschaftliches Arbeiten – Seminararbeit Diplomarbeit Doktorarbeit . Sternenfels: Verlag Wissenschaft und Praxis.

Esselborn-Krumbiegel, Helga. 2002.   Von der Idee zum Text – Eine Anleitung zum wissenschaftlichen Schreiben . Paderborn: Ferdinand Schöningh.

Franck, Norbert. 2004.   Handbuch Wissenschaftliches Arbeiten . Frankfurt: Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag.

Franck, Norbert & Joachim Stary. 2009.   Die Technik des wissenschaftlichen Arbeitens . 15th ed. Paderborn: Ferdinand Schöningh.

Gruber, Helmut, Birgit Huemer & Markus Rheindorf. 2009.   Wissenschaftliches Arbeiten – Ein Praxisbuch für Studierende . Wien: Böhlau Verlag.

Oertner, Monika, Illona St. John & Gabriele Thelen. 2014.   Wissenschaftlich Schreiben – Ein Praxisbuch für Schreibtrainer und Studierende . Paderborn: Wilhelm Fink.

Paltridge, Brian & Sue Starfield. 2007. Thesis and Dissertation Writing in a Second Language – a handbook for supervisors. London: Routledge.

Rossig, Wolfram E. & Joachim Prätsch. 2005.   Wissenschaftliche Arbeiten . 5th ed. Weyhe: PRINT-TEC.

Samac, Klaus, Monika Prenner & Herbert Schwetz. 2014.   Die Bachelorarbeit an Universität und Fachhochschule . 3rd ed. Wien: Facultas.

Stickel-Wolf, Christine & Joachim Wolf. 2013.   Wissenschaftliches Arbeiten und Lerntechniken – Erfolgreich studieren – gewusst wie!  7th ed. Wiesbaden: Springer Gabler.

Winter, Wolfgang. 2005.   Wissenschaftliche Arbeiten schreiben . 2nd ed. Frankfurt: Redline Wirtschaft.

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How to Write a Conclusion for Research Papers (with Examples)

How to Write a Conclusion for Research Papers (with Examples)

The conclusion of a research paper is a crucial section that plays a significant role in the overall impact and effectiveness of your research paper. However, this is also the section that typically receives less attention compared to the introduction and the body of the paper. The conclusion serves to provide a concise summary of the key findings, their significance, their implications, and a sense of closure to the study. Discussing how can the findings be applied in real-world scenarios or inform policy, practice, or decision-making is especially valuable to practitioners and policymakers. The research paper conclusion also provides researchers with clear insights and valuable information for their own work, which they can then build on and contribute to the advancement of knowledge in the field.

The research paper conclusion should explain the significance of your findings within the broader context of your field. It restates how your results contribute to the existing body of knowledge and whether they confirm or challenge existing theories or hypotheses. Also, by identifying unanswered questions or areas requiring further investigation, your awareness of the broader research landscape can be demonstrated.

Remember to tailor the research paper conclusion to the specific needs and interests of your intended audience, which may include researchers, practitioners, policymakers, or a combination of these.

Table of Contents

What is a conclusion in a research paper, summarizing conclusion, editorial conclusion, externalizing conclusion, importance of a good research paper conclusion, how to write a conclusion for your research paper, research paper conclusion examples, frequently asked questions.

A conclusion in a research paper is the final section where you summarize and wrap up your research, presenting the key findings and insights derived from your study. The research paper conclusion is not the place to introduce new information or data that was not discussed in the main body of the paper. When working on how to conclude a research paper, remember to stick to summarizing and interpreting existing content. The research paper conclusion serves the following purposes: 1

  • Warn readers of the possible consequences of not attending to the problem.
  • Recommend specific course(s) of action.
  • Restate key ideas to drive home the ultimate point of your research paper.
  • Provide a “take-home” message that you want the readers to remember about your study.

how to do you write a conclusion

Types of conclusions for research papers

In research papers, the conclusion provides closure to the reader. The type of research paper conclusion you choose depends on the nature of your study, your goals, and your target audience. I provide you with three common types of conclusions:

A summarizing conclusion is the most common type of conclusion in research papers. It involves summarizing the main points, reiterating the research question, and restating the significance of the findings. This common type of research paper conclusion is used across different disciplines.

An editorial conclusion is less common but can be used in research papers that are focused on proposing or advocating for a particular viewpoint or policy. It involves presenting a strong editorial or opinion based on the research findings and offering recommendations or calls to action.

An externalizing conclusion is a type of conclusion that extends the research beyond the scope of the paper by suggesting potential future research directions or discussing the broader implications of the findings. This type of conclusion is often used in more theoretical or exploratory research papers.

The conclusion in a research paper serves several important purposes:

  • Offers Implications and Recommendations : Your research paper conclusion is an excellent place to discuss the broader implications of your research and suggest potential areas for further study. It’s also an opportunity to offer practical recommendations based on your findings.
  • Provides Closure : A good research paper conclusion provides a sense of closure to your paper. It should leave the reader with a feeling that they have reached the end of a well-structured and thought-provoking research project.
  • Leaves a Lasting Impression : Writing a well-crafted research paper conclusion leaves a lasting impression on your readers. It’s your final opportunity to leave them with a new idea, a call to action, or a memorable quote.

how to do you write a conclusion

Writing a strong conclusion for your research paper is essential to leave a lasting impression on your readers. Here’s a step-by-step process to help you create and know what to put in the conclusion of a research paper: 2

  • Research Statement : Begin your research paper conclusion by restating your research statement. This reminds the reader of the main point you’ve been trying to prove throughout your paper. Keep it concise and clear.
  • Key Points : Summarize the main arguments and key points you’ve made in your paper. Avoid introducing new information in the research paper conclusion. Instead, provide a concise overview of what you’ve discussed in the body of your paper.
  • Address the Research Questions : If your research paper is based on specific research questions or hypotheses, briefly address whether you’ve answered them or achieved your research goals. Discuss the significance of your findings in this context.
  • Significance : Highlight the importance of your research and its relevance in the broader context. Explain why your findings matter and how they contribute to the existing knowledge in your field.
  • Implications : Explore the practical or theoretical implications of your research. How might your findings impact future research, policy, or real-world applications? Consider the “so what?” question.
  • Future Research : Offer suggestions for future research in your area. What questions or aspects remain unanswered or warrant further investigation? This shows that your work opens the door for future exploration.
  • Closing Thought : Conclude your research paper conclusion with a thought-provoking or memorable statement. This can leave a lasting impression on your readers and wrap up your paper effectively. Avoid introducing new information or arguments here.
  • Proofread and Revise : Carefully proofread your conclusion for grammar, spelling, and clarity. Ensure that your ideas flow smoothly and that your conclusion is coherent and well-structured.

Remember that a well-crafted research paper conclusion is a reflection of the strength of your research and your ability to communicate its significance effectively. It should leave a lasting impression on your readers and tie together all the threads of your paper. Now you know how to start the conclusion of a research paper and what elements to include to make it impactful, let’s look at a research paper conclusion sample.

how to do you write a conclusion

The research paper conclusion is a crucial part of your paper as it provides the final opportunity to leave a strong impression on your readers. In the research paper conclusion, summarize the main points of your research paper by restating your research statement, highlighting the most important findings, addressing the research questions or objectives, explaining the broader context of the study, discussing the significance of your findings, providing recommendations if applicable, and emphasizing the takeaway message. The main purpose of the conclusion is to remind the reader of the main point or argument of your paper and to provide a clear and concise summary of the key findings and their implications. All these elements should feature on your list of what to put in the conclusion of a research paper to create a strong final statement for your work.

A strong conclusion is a critical component of a research paper, as it provides an opportunity to wrap up your arguments, reiterate your main points, and leave a lasting impression on your readers. Here are the key elements of a strong research paper conclusion: 1. Conciseness : A research paper conclusion should be concise and to the point. It should not introduce new information or ideas that were not discussed in the body of the paper. 2. Summarization : The research paper conclusion should be comprehensive enough to give the reader a clear understanding of the research’s main contributions. 3 . Relevance : Ensure that the information included in the research paper conclusion is directly relevant to the research paper’s main topic and objectives; avoid unnecessary details. 4 . Connection to the Introduction : A well-structured research paper conclusion often revisits the key points made in the introduction and shows how the research has addressed the initial questions or objectives. 5. Emphasis : Highlight the significance and implications of your research. Why is your study important? What are the broader implications or applications of your findings? 6 . Call to Action : Include a call to action or a recommendation for future research or action based on your findings.

The length of a research paper conclusion can vary depending on several factors, including the overall length of the paper, the complexity of the research, and the specific journal requirements. While there is no strict rule for the length of a conclusion, but it’s generally advisable to keep it relatively short. A typical research paper conclusion might be around 5-10% of the paper’s total length. For example, if your paper is 10 pages long, the conclusion might be roughly half a page to one page in length.

In general, you do not need to include citations in the research paper conclusion. Citations are typically reserved for the body of the paper to support your arguments and provide evidence for your claims. However, there may be some exceptions to this rule: 1. If you are drawing a direct quote or paraphrasing a specific source in your research paper conclusion, you should include a citation to give proper credit to the original author. 2. If your conclusion refers to or discusses specific research, data, or sources that are crucial to the overall argument, citations can be included to reinforce your conclusion’s validity.

The conclusion of a research paper serves several important purposes: 1. Summarize the Key Points 2. Reinforce the Main Argument 3. Provide Closure 4. Offer Insights or Implications 5. Engage the Reader. 6. Reflect on Limitations

Remember that the primary purpose of the research paper conclusion is to leave a lasting impression on the reader, reinforcing the key points and providing closure to your research. It’s often the last part of the paper that the reader will see, so it should be strong and well-crafted.

  • Makar, G., Foltz, C., Lendner, M., & Vaccaro, A. R. (2018). How to write effective discussion and conclusion sections. Clinical spine surgery, 31(8), 345-346.
  • Bunton, D. (2005). The structure of PhD conclusion chapters.  Journal of English for academic purposes ,  4 (3), 207-224.

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These words of wisdom are carefully chosen to energize teachers as they welcome their new classes and to encourage students as they embark on another year of learning. These quotes for school reopening aim to remind teachers and students of the incredible journey of discovery they are about to undertake together.

40 Best New School Year Quotes

Here are our top picks of back to school sayings:

20 Back to School Quotes for Teachers

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  • “Education is not the filling of a pail, but the lighting of a fire.” – William Butler Yeats
  • “The art of teaching is the art of assisting discovery.” – Mark Van Doren
  • “Teachers can change lives with just the right mix of chalk and challenges.” – Joyce Meyer
  • “A good teacher can inspire hope, ignite the imagination, and instill a love of learning.” – Brad Henry
  • “It is the supreme art of the teacher to awaken joy in creative expression and knowledge.” – Albert Einstein
  • “The influence of a good teacher can never be erased.” – Anonymous
  • “Teaching is not a lost art, but the regard for it is a lost tradition.” – Jacques Barzun
  • “I am not a teacher, but an awakener.” – Robert Frost
  • “One child, one teacher, one book, one pen can change the world.” – Malala Yousafzai
  • “Teachers open the door, but you must enter by yourself.” – Chinese Proverb
  • “The task of the modern educator is not to cut down jungles, but to irrigate deserts.” – C.S. Lewis
  • “Teaching might even be the greatest of the arts since the medium is the human mind and spirit.” – John Steinbeck
  • “The best teachers are those who show you where to look but don’t tell you what to see.” – Alexandra K. Trenfor
  • “Education is not preparation for life; education is life itself.” – John Dewey
  • “A teacher affects eternity; he can never tell where his influence stops.” – Henry Adams
  • “What the teacher is, is more important than what he teaches.” – Karl Menninger
  • “Good teaching is more a giving of right questions than a giving of right answers.” – Josef Albers
  • “The beautiful thing about learning is that no one can take it away from you.” – B.B. King
  • “To teach is to learn twice over.” – Joseph Joubert
  • “Teachers who love teaching, teach children to love learning.” – Robert John Meehan

20 Back to School Quotes for Students

Back to school quote for kids

  • “Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world.” – Nelson Mandela
  • “You are always a student, never a master. You have to keep moving forward.” – Conrad Hall
  • “The only person who is educated is the one who has learned how to learn and change.” – Carl Rogers
  • “Strive for progress, not perfection.” – Unknown
  • “You don’t have to be great to start, but you have to start to be great.” – Zig Ziglar
  • “The future belongs to those who believe in the beauty of their dreams.” – Eleanor Roosevelt
  • “Success is not the key to happiness. Happiness is the key to success. If you love what you are doing, you will be successful.” – Albert Schweitzer
  • “It always seems impossible until it is done.” – Nelson Mandela
  • “The more that you read, the more things you will know. The more that you learn, the more places you’ll go.” – Dr. Seuss
  • “Start where you are. Use what you have. Do what you can.” – Arthur Ashe
  • “Success is the sum of small efforts, repeated day in and day out.” – Robert Collier
  • “Learning is a treasure that will follow its owner everywhere.” – Chinese Proverb
  • “Believe in yourself and all that you are. Know that there is something inside you that is greater than any obstacle.” – Christian D. Larson
  • “The best way to predict your future is to create it.” – Abraham Lincoln
  • “Education is the passport to the future, for tomorrow belongs to those who prepare for it today.” – Malcolm X
  • “Your attitude, not your aptitude, will determine your altitude.” – Zig Ziglar
  • “Take your risks now; as you grow older, you become more fearful and less flexible.” – Amy Poehler
  • “Dream big and dare to fail.” – Norman Vaughan

As we embrace the new school year with open arms, let these back to school quotes be your guide and inspiration. Whether you’re teaching or learning, remember that every day is a chance to make a difference and grow.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

What is a warm welcome caption.

A warm welcome caption is a friendly and inviting message used to greet someone, making them feel appreciated and at ease.

What are some of the coolest first day of school quotes?

Some of the coolest first day of school quotes include “The journey of a thousand miles begins with a single step” and “Today is the first page of a 365-page book. Write a good one.”

How do you write a short welcome message?

A short welcome message is concise and heartfelt, expressing happiness or gratitude for someone’s arrival or participation, like “Thrilled to have you with us!” or “Welcome aboard, let’s make great things happen together!”

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How to Use AI for Sales Automation

two men talking about Sales automation

Artificial Intelligence is a growing concept in today’s business processes. AI has become essential for businesses around the world. Over the past few years, technology has grown significantly and now affects people’s daily lives in one way or another.

The major place where artificial intelligence is used in business is sales and marketing.

Why Do You Need Sales Automation?

Sales automation has changed the work of sales representatives significantly, allowing them to grow and do very well. Due to technological advances, the sales teams can:

  • perform many functions and work steps automatically;
  • get rid of the tasks and use the free time and resources to develop many relationships;
  • close deals.

Sales automation using AI will spur sales growth , boost efficiency, and lead to better performance.

How to Apply AI to the Best of Sales and Marketing

Let’s look at the use cases for AI that can help maximize your business’s potential.

Identify Potential Deals Using Predictive Vote Scoring

Imagine having a personal assistant who can instantly identify your most promising leads. Artificial intelligence doesn’t just crunch numbers and compile statistics. It reads the behavior and predicts the client’s intentions (whether he or she buys or not).

This is mainly included in the sales manager’s responsibilities . However, now you can trust this work to AI services.

AI can help you determine which potential customers are ready to act and which may need additional advice. While your competitors are processing all the leads, you can focus on those who are truly interested in your product.

Improve Communication Quality Using Customer Data Mining

Artificial intelligence will help you understand customers’ preferences, behaviors, and needs.

The logic is simple: AI collects information about the contact from your CRM and creates an approximate portrait based on the data received. The more information you fill in about the client, the more accurate their profiles will be, down to nuances such as hobbies or marital status.

Such analytics can make your communication with the buyer more focused and help you more accurately identify pain points. This strategy is especially useful when making calls or creating a segment for email campaigns.

Personalize Mailings

Regarding e-mail and the AI-powered systematic send-outs of letters and messages, it is not limited just to sending messages. The idea is that customers become your constant clients and maintain communication with you. Among the top AI tools for sales managers are:

  • Mixmax is a sales engagement platform that enables you to tailor the sales emails
  • using AI or optimizing the existing ones.
  • Lavender is an artificial intelligence email assistant that is located on top of several platforms, such as Gmail, Outlook, and LinkedIn. It gives instant feedback in the process of writing emails, consequently making written emails clearer and faster.

AI turns every customer interaction into a quality interaction point. A personalized salutation and timely follow-up can add a human touch to every message that will build trust and engagement.

Improve Process Organization

Artificial intelligence can undertake repetitive and mechanical work. This can actually make sales and marketing managers work less, giving them more time to understand customers and eventually become effective.

For instance, each customer feedback and analysis can take a long time for the sales team. Nevertheless, using AI, a part of the task of the sales team will be left to the automated system.

Customer data collection and developing useful insights is a long process that takes time. Nevertheless, AI assists to automate this task and to make it even more efficient.

AI-based systems can track, gather, and analyze data in great detail and provide better information. With a system like this, marketers can leverage it to work smarter and produce unique campaigns that are well-received by the target audience.

AI gives sales and marketing teams an opportunity to focus on their targets more. It encompasses the creation of creative campaigns and establishing strong relationships with the clients.

Expanding 24/7 Customer Support With Chatbots

An artificial intelligence chatbot will solve problems at lightning speed. Chatbots are one of the most common use cases for artificial intelligence in online business. In addition to the work of the marketing department, chatbots with built-in AI greatly facilitate the work of sales departments and customer support (technical support).

Chatbots remove the time gap between the customer and the information they seek, providing smooth and immediate support. This is a major benefit for companies whose sales strategy is focused on long-term customer relationships.

Time-saving for Sales Departments

Among the greatest advantages of chatbots is the fact that they cut the sales team’s time with great efficiency. Sales personnel do not have to handle routine queries and repetitive tasks manually anymore. They can entrust this to chatbots.

Let’s imagine that a user on the site has issues concerning the products or services. In this scenario, the chatbot can open a dialogue and give real-time responses, thus, making the sales team use this saved time for other things to do.

Efficiency in Email Marketing

AI mailing platforms offer a unique capability to streamline your email marketing process, automating everything from capturing leads to executing follow-up sequences seamlessly.

Imagine not having to manually send out every email or remember to follow up with prospects. Automated email platforms do it all, ensuring your messages reach the right people at the right time.

Call Transcription and Analytics

Every interaction with a customer or a lead is a chance to acquire vital information about their business and the pain points they face.

But listening to long minutes or hours of telephone conversations with the client more than one time is expensive. Thanks to AI, you can get a “squeezed” version or a detailed transcription of the conversation and also receive valuable analytical observations.

If you cannot remember the details of a conversation with an old client last week, artificial intelligence will make a quick summary of the essence. That will enhance the quality of customer interaction and make the sales managers’ tasks simpler.

AI-empowered sales automation services are an excellent method for performance. In spite of this, the success of AI can be attributed to the readiness of the companies to invest in the technology as well as the training of their staff. Subsequently, the company will acquire the best outcome thanks to the use of AI in sales.

Companies are relying on AI as a very vital mechanism. This could be the next face of the many companies to come, regardless of the size.

how to do you write a conclusion

Brad Anderson

Editor in chief at readwrite.

Brad is the editor overseeing contributed content at ReadWrite.com. He previously worked as an editor at PayPal and Crunchbase. You can reach him at brad at readwrite.com.

how to do you write a conclusion

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IMAGES

  1. How To Write a Conclusion for an Essay: Expert Tips and Examples

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  4. Best Tips and Help on How to Write a Conclusion for Your Essay

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  1. How to Write Introduction & Conclusion for Long Answers

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  5. 5 Other Ways to Say In Conclusion at End of Essay or End of Paragraph

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COMMENTS

  1. How to Write a Conclusion for an Essay

    Before we dive into the details, here's a basic outline of how to write a conclusion: Restate your thesis: remind readers of your main point. Reiterate your supporting points: remind readers of your evidence or arguments. Wrap everything up by tying it all together. Write a clincher: with the last sentence, leave your reader with something to ...

  2. How to Write a Conclusion (With Tips and Examples)

    1. Restate the thesis. An effective conclusion brings the reader back to the main point, reminding the reader of the purpose of the essay. However, avoid repeating the thesis verbatim. Paraphrase your argument slightly while still preserving the primary point. 2. Reiterate supporting points.

  3. How to Write a Conclusion: 9 Steps (with Pictures)

    For example, you may have opened your introduction with an anecdote, quote, or image. Bring it back up in your conclusion. Similarly, if you opened with a rhetorical question, you might offer a potential answer in your conclusion. 3. Include all of your points in your summary, rather than focusing on one.

  4. How to Conclude an Essay

    Step 1: Return to your thesis. To begin your conclusion, signal that the essay is coming to an end by returning to your overall argument. Don't just repeat your thesis statement—instead, try to rephrase your argument in a way that shows how it has been developed since the introduction.. Example: Returning to the thesis Braille paved the way for dramatic cultural changes in the way blind ...

  5. Ending the Essay: Conclusions

    Finally, some advice on how not to end an essay: Don't simply summarize your essay. A brief summary of your argument may be useful, especially if your essay is long--more than ten pages or so. But shorter essays tend not to require a restatement of your main ideas. Avoid phrases like "in conclusion," "to conclude," "in summary," and "to sum up ...

  6. Conclusions

    a complete restatement of all that you have said in your paper. a substantial counterargument that you do not have space to refute; you should introduce counterarguments before your conclusion. an apology for what you have not said. If you need to explain the scope of your paper, you should do this sooner—but don't apologize for what you ...

  7. How to Write a Conclusion for Your Next Writing Project

    How to Write a Conclusion for Your Next Writing Project. Conclusions are at the end of nearly every form of writing. A good conclusion paragraph can change a reader's mind when they reach the end of your work, and knowing how to write a thorough, engaging conclusion can make your writing more impactful.

  8. Conclusions

    The conclusion pushes beyond the boundaries of the prompt and allows you to consider broader issues, make new connections, and elaborate on the significance of your findings. Your conclusion should make your readers glad they read your paper. Your conclusion gives your reader something to take away that will help them see things differently or ...

  9. How to Write a Strong Essay Conclusion

    In this video, you'll learn how to write a strong essay conclusion paragraph that ties together the essay's main points, shows why your argument matters, and...

  10. Conclusions

    Conclusions. Conclusions wrap up what you have been discussing in your paper. After moving from general to specific information in the introduction and body paragraphs, your conclusion should begin pulling back into more general information that restates the main points of your argument. Conclusions may also call for action or overview future ...

  11. How to Write a Conclusion for an Essay

    Step 2: Provide New and Interesting Insight. In addition to restating the thesis, a conclusion should emphasize the importance of the essay's argument by building upon it. In other words, you want to push your ideas one step beyond your thesis.

  12. How to Write a Conclusion: Tips and Examples for a Strong Final Word

    How to Write a Conclusion. To write a strong conclusion, there are several "do's" you'll want to keep in mind. Image by Jan Vašek from Pixabay. 1. Synthesize your main points. While your summary should neatly wrap up your paper and tie up any loose ends, you should note the difference between summarizing and synthesizing your main points.

  13. Writing a Research Paper Conclusion

    Table of contents. Step 1: Restate the problem. Step 2: Sum up the paper. Step 3: Discuss the implications. Research paper conclusion examples. Frequently asked questions about research paper conclusions.

  14. How to write an essay conclusion

    A conclusion should link back to the essay question and briefly restate your main points drawing all your thoughts and ideas together so that they make sense and create a strong final impression ...

  15. 3 Ways to Start a Conclusion

    1. Start with a transition sentence. If you are writing a conclusion to an essay or paper for school or college, it's important to understand the functions of the conclusion. Your conclusion shouldn't only restate the main points of your argument in a way that is disconnected from the rest of the text.

  16. How to write an excellent thesis conclusion [with examples]

    End your conclusion with something memorable, such as: a question. a call to action. a recommendation. a gesture towards future research. a brief explanation of how the problem or idea you covered remains relevant. Ultimately, you want readers to feel more informed, or ready to act, as they read your conclusion. Example.

  17. How to Write a Thesis or Dissertation Conclusion

    Step 1: Answer your research question. Step 2: Summarize and reflect on your research. Step 3: Make future recommendations. Step 4: Emphasize your contributions to your field. Step 5: Wrap up your thesis or dissertation. Full conclusion example. Conclusion checklist. Other interesting articles.

  18. How to Write a Research Paper Conclusion

    6 Conciseness. Above all, every research paper conclusion should be written with conciseness. In general, conclusions should be short, so keep an eye on your word count as you write and aim to be as succinct as possible. You can expound on your topic in the body of your paper, but the conclusion is more for summarizing and recapping.

  19. How to End an Essay: Writing a Strong Conclusion

    End your essay with a call to action, warning, or image to make your argument meaningful. Keep your conclusion concise and to the point, so you don't lose a reader's attention. Do your best to avoid adding new information to your conclusion and only emphasize points you've already made in your essay. Method 1.

  20. How to Write a Conclusion (Including Tips and Examples)

    Align the tone of your conclusion with the tone used in the rest of the document. Avoid using phrases like "in conclusion", "in summary" or "in closing" as they don't add value to the article. Avoid using a conclusion that is too short, because it cannot cover all the required elements of an effective conclusion.

  21. How to Write a Conclusion

    1. the conclusion guides the reader, who may have lost the thread and may need a summary of the main objectives and ideas to get back on track (cf. Winter 2004: 75) 2. the conclusion provides an answer to the research question, obtained through your research and data analysis (cf. Samac, Prenner & Schwetz 2014: 74).

  22. Conclusion Examples: Strong Endings for Any Paper

    See how to write a good conclusion for a project, essay or paper to get the grade. ... When it comes to crafting the perfect conclusion, there are a lot of different things you should do. But there are also a few things you'll want to avoid. While you do need to refer back to your essay or report, don't just provide a bland summary. ...

  23. How to Write a Conclusion for Research Papers (with Examples)

    Writing a strong conclusion for your research paper is essential to leave a lasting impression on your readers. Here's a step-by-step process to help you create and know what to put in the conclusion of a research paper: 2. Research Statement: Begin your research paper conclusion by restating your research statement.

  24. 40 Top Back to School Quotes for Kids & Teachers

    If you love what you are doing, you will be successful." - Albert Schweitzer "It always seems impossible until it is done." - Nelson Mandela "The more that you read, the more things you will know. The more that you learn, the more places you'll go." - Dr. Seuss "Start where you are. Use what you have. Do what you can ...

  25. How to Use AI for Sales Automation

    It gives instant feedback in the process of writing emails, consequently making written emails clearer and faster. AI turns every customer interaction into a quality interaction point.

  26. PDF Conclusions

    • a substantial counterargument that you do not have space to refute; you should introduce counterarguments before your conclusion. • an apology for what you have not said. If you need to explain the scope of your paper, you should do this sooner—but don't apologize for what you have not discussed in your paper.