How to create a bibliography or reference list
A list of all cited source materials, known as a bibliography or reference list , must be included at the end of your essay.
They are divided into two sections: primary sources and secondary sources . Each of these sections need to be in alphabetical order .
Each bibliographical reference needs:
- the author's last name followed by their first initial(s)
- the year of publication
- the name of the work (in italics)
- the publication details
What is the difference between a bibliography and a reference list?
Depending on the assessment task, you will either be asked to create a bibliography or a reference list. Here are the differences between the two:
- A bibliography lists all of the materials that have been consulted during your research, regardless of whether or not you've quoted from them
- A reference list states only the sources that you've quoted in your assignment
Regardless of which you're required to create, you must follow the formatting shown below.
Correct Format for Different Source Types
These examples use the popular APA (American Psychological Association) referencing style.
Author's Surname, First Initials. (Year of Publication). Name of book . City of Publication: Name of Publishing Company.
Academic Journal Articles
Author's Surname, First Initials. (Year, Month day OR Season - if known - of publication). Article title. Name of Journal the Article Appeared In , Journal Volume Number (Issue or Part Number), page number(s) of the article.
Newspaper or Magazine Articles
Author's Surname, First Initials. (Year, Month day of publication). Article title. Name of Newspaper/Magazine , page number(s) of the article.
Speaker's Surname, First Initials. (Year, Month Day Speech was Given). Title of Speech. Institution, City the Speech was Given at/in.
Author's Surname, First Initials. (Year of Publication). Name of webpage. Retrieved from URL.
Ancient Author's Name. Name of Ancient Work. (Name of Modern Translator that You're Using, trans.). Location of Modern Translation's Publisher: Name of Modern Translation's Publishing Company, Year of Modern Translation's Publication.
Referencing a Source Found in Another Source
On some occasions you find a source in the pages of different source. Your first task should be to try and quote the source you have found separately from the book that it is in. Do this, look in the bibliography of the book in order to gain the necessary details.
However, if you cannot find the information necessary to create a separate bibliographical entry, you will need to create a bibliographical entry that acknowledges the book that the source was found in.
To do this you will need:
- as many of the details that you can find of the source you are using. (Anything you don't know is left out).
- the full bibliographical details of the book it was found in, along with the page number in the book where the source was found. This is preceded by the phrase "As found in" and the entire bibliographical reference is placed in brackets.
Nixon, R. (1969). (As found in US Government Printing Office 1969, Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: Richard Nixon , Washington D.C.: US Government Printing Office, pp. 903).
Example Reference List
Appian. The Civil Wars . (John Carter, trans). New York: Penguin, 1996.
Department of Defence. (1959). Strategic basis of Australian defence policy . Canberra: Department of Defence.
Department of Defence. (1976). Defence White Paper . Canberra: Department of Defence.
Millar, T. (1979). The political-military relationship in Australia . Strategic and Defence Studies Centre Working Paper , 6, p. 12.
Nixon, R. (1969). (As found in US Government Printing Office 1969, Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: Richard Nixon , Washington D.C.: US Government Printing Office, p. 903).
Dibb, P. (2007). The self-reliant defence of Australia: The History of an Idea . (As found in Huisken, R., & Thatcher., M. (eds). History as policy: Framing the debate on the future of Australia’s defence policy . Canberra: ANU Press and Strategic and Defence Studies Centre, p. 11-26).
Horner, D. (1997). Security objectives . (As found in Mediansky, F. (ed). Australian foreign policy: Into the new millennium . South Melbourne: Macmillan, p. 73-92).
Lawson, E. (2009). The Australian defence environment . Australian Defence Force Journal , 179, p. 70-81.
White, H. (2007). Four decades of the defence of Australia: Reflections on Australian defence policy over the past 40 years . (As found in Huisken, R & Thatcher, M. (eds). History as policy: Framing the debate on the future of Australia’s defence policy . Canberra: ANU Press and Strategic and Defence Studies Centre, p. 163-187).
What do you need help with?
Download ready-to-use digital learning resources.
Copyright © History Skills 2014-2023.
Contact via email
Handbook for Historians
- Choosing a Paper Topic
- Thesis Statement
- What Sources Can I use?
- Gathering sources
- Find Primary Sources
- Paraphrasing and Quoting Sources
- How to create an Annotated Bibliography
- Formatting Endnotes/Footnotes
- Formatting Bibliographies
Formatting a Bibliography
Bibliography: books, bibliography: journal articles, bibliography: websites, bibliography: other sources.
- Avoiding Plagiarism
- Sample Papers
- Research Paper Checklist
A bibliography is additional to your endnotes/footnotes, and appears at the very end of your paper. It has hanging indents (here is a video on making a hanging indent in word and a link to making a hanging indent in Google Docs ), and is arranged alphabetically by the author's last name
Primary and secondary sources should be separated in your final bibliography. List all primary sources first, followed by secondary sources, subdivided between books and periodical articles. Read more about primary and secondary sources .
- How to format your bibliography Click here for a printable version.
A. A Book by a Single Author.
Author, last name first. Title . City of Publisher: Publisher, year.
Egerton, Douglas R. Death or Liberty: African Americans and Revolutionary America . New York: Oxford University Press, 2009.
B. Books by Two, Three or Four Authors.
Author, last name first for first author only. Title . City of Publication: Publisher, Year.
Judge, Edward H., and John W. Langdon. A Hard and Bitter Peace: A Global History of the Cold War . New York: Prentice Hall, 1996.
Sánchez, Joseph P., Bruce A. Erickson, and Jerry L. Gurulé. Between Two Countries: A History of Coronado National Memorial, 1939-1990 . Los Ranchos de Albuquerque: Rio Grande Books, 2007.
C. Books by Corporate Authors.
Author. Title . City of Publication: Publisher, Year.
American Historical Association. The Introductory History Course: Six Models . 2nd ed. Washington: American Historical Association, 1984.
D. Edited Books/Parts of Collections of Writings by Different Authors .
Author, last name first. “Title of article.” In Title , edited by editors names, first name first, page numbers. City of Publication: Publisher, Year.
Langdon, John W. "Whither the Postards? Graduates of the Ecole Sainte-Geneviève, 1914-1954." In The Making of Frenchmen , eds. Donald N. Baker and Patrick J. Harrigan, 429-439. Waterloo, Ontario: Historical Reflections Press, 1980.
NOTE: Page numbers of the portion of the collection you are citing must be included: "429-439" above.
D2. Edited Books ( no other author) .
Author, last name first, ed. Title . City of Publication: Publisher, Year.
Beatty, Jack, ed. Colossus: How the Corporation Changed America . New York: Broadway Books, 2001.
E. Multivolume Books with a Single Title by a Single Author.
Author, last name first. Title . Number of volumes. City of Publication: Publisher, Year.
Chamberlin, William Henry. The Russian Revolution . 2 vols. New York: Macmillan, 1935.
F. Multivolume Books by a Single Author with a Separate Title for Each Volume.
Author, last name first. Title . Volume number of Series title . Number of volumes. City of Publication: Publisher, Year.
Viansson-Ponté, Pierre. Le temps des orphelins . Vol. 2 of Histoire de la République Gaullienne . 2 vols. Paris: Fayard, 1976.
G. Multivolume Books with a Different Author and Title for Each Volume.
Author, last name first. Title . Volume number of editor’s name, ed. Series Title . Number of volumes. City of Publication: Publisher, Year.
Spitz, Lewis B. The Protestant Reformation . Vol. 3, William L. Langer, ed. The Rise of Modern Europe . 20 vols. New York: Harper & Row, 1985.
H. Two or More Parts of a Collection of Writings by Different Authors. (Use this format if you are citing from several different sections of a multi-author book.)
Author, last name first. “Article title.” In Editor’s Last name, Title , inclusive pages.
Hinterberger, Martin. “Emotions in Byzantium.” In James, A Companion to Byzantium , 123-34.
Louth, Andrew. “Christology and Heresy.” In James, A Companion to Byzantium, 187-98.
James, Liz. Ed. A Companion to Byzantium. Chichester, West Sussex, UK: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010.
I. Books With More than One Edition.
See section C.
J. Translated Books .
Author, last name first. Title . Translated by Translator’s name. City of Publication: Publisher, Year.
Fischer, Fritz. War of Illusions . Translated by Marian Jackson. New York: Norton, 1975.
K. A letter (or diary entry, memo, etc.) in a published collection.
Original Author. Title. Edited by Editor’s name. City of Publication: Publisher, Year.
Adams, Henry. Letters of Henry Adams, 1858-1891. Edited by Worthington Chauncey Ford. Boston: Hougton Mifflin, 1930.
L. A Primary Source Quoted by a Second Source.
Note: it is preferable that the original source is consulted and cited on its own, but if the original source cannot be obtained use this format .) Use “quoted” if you are taking a direct quote, “cited” if you are paraphrasing .
Author of original source, last name first, Title. City of Publication: Publisher, Year. Quoted/Cited in Author of secondary work, last name first, Title . City of Publication: Publisher, Year.
Ismay, Hastings. The Memoirs of General Lord Ismay. New York: Viking Press, 1960. Quoted in Holland, James. The Battle of Britain. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2010.
Note: you should include a separate citation for the secondary source alone in the bibliography.
M. Books published electronically. Cite the book as you would normally, but include the online format that you used (i.e. Kindle, Nook, Pdf). If you accessed the book online, include the date accessed and the URL.
Kayali, Hasan. Arabs and Young Turks: Ottomanism, Arabism, and Islamism in the Ottoman Empire, 1908-1918 . Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997. Accessed 21 May 2009, http://escholarship.org/editions/view?docId=ft7n39p1dn;query=;brand=ucpress .
Churchill, Winston. The Gathering Storm. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1947. Kindle edition.
N. Articles in Print Journals.
Author, last name first. “Article title.” Journal Title Volume Number:Issue Number (Year): page numbers.
Xu, Yamin. “Policing Civility on the Streets: Encounter with Litterbugs, ‘Nightsoil Lords,’ and Street Corner Urinators in Republican Beijing.” Twentieth-Century China 30:2 (2005): 28-71.
Note: Format multiple authors in the same way as for books.
A Word about CITING ELECTRONIC SOURCES
Citations of electronic resources are different from citations for print sources. The following elements must be included:
- Electronic full-text Journal articles and E-Books from the library’s databases, though they are accessed online, are regarded as published sources. Citations for these must contain full documentation of the publication as well as electronic access information.
- Subscription databases, such as JSTOR or Proquest , must be accessed through a subscribing library or other institution.
- Because material on the internet can change without notice, the last date on which the material was accessed is part of the citation.
- The web address, or URL, is a required part of the citation. Most databases will include a stable URL, a permalink, or a DOI (digital object identifier) that you should use.
Proper citation formats, with examples, are shown below:
O. Articles in Online Journals. (Many online publications are now using a DOI (digital object identifier) to create a persistent link to the article’s information. If no DOI is available, use the URL and date accessed.)
Author, last name first. “Title of Article.” Journal Title Volume number:Issue Number (date): inclusive pages (leave blank if there are no pages). doi: or Accessed date. URL.
Egerton, Douglas R. “The Material Culture of Slave Resistance.” History Now: American History Online (December 2004). Accessed 20 June 2011. http://www.gilderlehrman.org/historynow/12_2004/historian2.php.
Huebner, Timothy S. “Roger B. Taney and the Slavery Issue: Looking Beyond –and before- Dred Scott.” The Journal of American History 97:1 (2010): 17-38. doi: 10.2307/jahist/97.1.17.
P. Articles in Newspapers or Magazines. (If you consulted the article online, include access date and URL. If no author is identified, begin citation with article title.)
Author, Last name first. “Article Title.” Title of Newspaper/Magazine , Date. Accessed date. URL.
Forero, Juan. “Turbulent Bolivia Is Producing More Cocaine, the U.N. Reports.” New York Times on the Web , 15 June 2005. Accessed 16 June 2005. www.nytimes.com/2005/06/15/international/americas/15coca.html.
Q. Articles/Newspapers retrieved from Databases.
Note: Include all journal information and provide database name and a permanent link to the article from the database.
Format with url (seen in articles retrieved from ProQuest databases):
Author, last name first. "Title of Article." Journal Title Volume number: Issue Number (date): inclusive pages. Database name. url.
Zens, Robert. “In the Name of the Sultan: Haci Mustapha, Pasha of Belgrade and Ottoman Provincial Rule in the Late 18th Century.” International Journal of Middle East Studies 44:1 (2012): 130-139. ProQuest Central. http://0-search.proquest.com.library.lemoyne.edu/docview/1531929597/4F00F029CDF14BBBPQ/16?accountid=27881
Format with permalink (seen in articles retrieved from Ebsco databases):
Author, last name first. “Title of Article.” Journal Title Volume number:Issue Number (date): inclusive pages. Database Name. Permanent Link.
Blaszak, Barbara. “Martha Jane Bury (1851-1913): A Case Study of Class Identity.” Labour History Review 67:2 (August 2002): 130-148. Historical Abstracts with Full Text. http://0-search.ebscohost.com.library.lemoyne.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=hia&AN=9502395&site=ehost-live.
Format with stable url link: (seen in articles retrieved from the JSTOR database)
Tisza, Stephen, and Hamilton Fish Armstrong. “A Letter of Count Tisza’s.” Foreign Affairs 6:3 (April 1928): 501-504. JSTOR. http://www.jstor.org/stable/20028631.
Newspaper with Permanent URL link
Author, first name first (leave blank if no author). “Article Title.” Publication Title. Date. Database name. Permanent link.
“General Discussion of the Contest.” New York Times (1857-1922). 22 May 1861. ProQuest Historical Newspapers. http://0-proquest.umi.com.library.lemoyne.edu/pqdweb?did=78657656&sid=1&Fmt=2&clientId=1518&RQT=309&VName=HNP.
Web-based sources should be used sparingly and very carefully. Students must have all sources, Internet or otherwise, approved by the instructor before they are used.
R. Primary source document found online. (Use this format when using approved websites containing primary source material.) Include as many of the following elements as are available.
Author of original document, last name first. “Title of document.” Date of document. Title of Web Site where document is found. Author, Editor, or Producer of site. Date accessed. URL.
Smith, Sydney. “Fallacies of Anti-Reformers.” 1824. Internet Modern History Sourcebook . Paul Halsall, ed. Accessed 22 June 2011. http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/smithantireform.html.
Veblen, Thorstein. “The Theory of the Leisure Class.” 1899. Internet Modern History Sourcebook. Paul Halsall, ed. Accessed 22 June 2011. http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1899veblen.html.
Example (no author given):
“Codex Justinianus: Protection of Freewomen Married to Servile Husbands.” 530 A.D. Internet Medieval Source Book . Paul Halsall, ed. Accessed 25 February 2002. http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/codexVIl-24-i.html.
Note: Many print primary sources are reproduced in digital format on various websites, such at the ones above. Most sites should give original publication information, but if not, you can try to locate original source information by searching online (try google books or worldcat.org). When possible, cite your sources according to the appropriate print format, and include the date accessed and the URL. For example, Veblen’s book The Theory of the Leisure Class can now be found in Google Books and would be cited similar to section N as follows:
Veblen, Thorstein. The Theory of the Leisure Class: An Economic Study of Instituions. London: Macmillan & Co., 1912. Accessed 22 June 21 2011. http://books.google.com/books?id=2kAoAAAAYAAJ&dq=inauthor%3A%22Thorstein%20Veblen%22&pg=PR3#v=onepage&q&f=false.
S. Other Approved Website (Include as much information as available.)
Author of webpage. “Title of Webpage.” Title of Entire Website. Publication Date. Accessed Date. URL.
Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine. “May Day: On the Current Conditions of the Palestinian Working Class.” Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine . Accessed 21 May 2009. www.pflp.ps/english/?q=may-day-current-conditions-struggle-palestinian-wo.
T. Book Reviews.
Book Review found in a journal:
Author of review. “Title of Review.” (if available) Review of Title of Book, by Author of book. Title of Journal Volume: Issue (year). url.
Kerr, Audrey Elisa. “Everybody’s Oprah.” Review of Embracing Sisterhood: Class Identity and Contemporary Black Women, by Katrina Bell McDonald. The Women’s Review of Books 26:2 (2009). http://www.jstor.org/stable/20476833
Book Review found on a website:
Author, “Title of Review” (if available). Review of Title of Book, by Reviewer Name. Website where review appeared. Date. URL.
David Ponton, III. Review of Spatializing Blackness: Architectures of Confinement and Black Masculinity in Chicago, by Rashad Shabazz. H-Net Online. June 2016. https://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=46538.
U. Audio/Visual Materials (films, photographs, images, etc.)
Note: In most cases, visual sources are not acceptable; however some primary sources, such as the Watergate trials or Nazi propaganda, are appropriate and must be cited correctly. All sources must be approved by your instructor. The Library of Congress has an excellent set of example citations that you should consult.
Author (or Creator) of image or video. “Title.” Format. Date. Source . Accessed date. URL.
Example: (primary video accessed from library)
The WPA Film Library. “Nazi Anti-Semitic Propaganda,” Video. 1939. Films on Demand . Accessed 14 September 2014. http://library.lemoyne.edu/record=b1418786
Example: (speech/video found online)
Harry S. Truman. “Speech after Hiroshima Bombing.” Video. August 6. 1945. Critical Past. Accessed 13 August 2016. https://youtu.be/e3Ib4wTq0jY
If the book or article you wish to cite differs from all of the models given here, please consult http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html . If none of those seem to fit, ask your professor or the History Librarian.
- << Previous: Formatting Endnotes/Footnotes
- Next: Avoiding Plagiarism >>
- Last Updated: Jun 16, 2023 10:12 AM
- URL: https://resources.library.lemoyne.edu/guides/history/handbook
- More Referencing guides Blog Automated transliteration Relevant bibliographies by topics
- Automated transliteration
- Relevant bibliographies by topics
- Referencing guides
Academic literature on the topic 'History – Methodology'
Create a spot-on reference in apa, mla, chicago, harvard, and other styles.
Select a source type:
- Journal article
- Video (online)
- All types...
- Archival document
- Book chapter
- Complete reference
- Conference paper
- Copyright certificate
- Dictionary entry
- Dissertation / Thesis
- Encyclopedia article
- Extended abstract of dissertation
- Newspaper article
- Press release
- Religious text
- Social media post
Consult the lists of relevant articles, books, theses, conference reports, and other scholarly sources on the topic 'History – Methodology.'
Next to every source in the list of references, there is an 'Add to bibliography' button. Press on it, and we will generate automatically the bibliographic reference to the chosen work in the citation style you need: APA, MLA, Harvard, Chicago, Vancouver, etc.
You can also download the full text of the academic publication as pdf and read online its abstract whenever available in the metadata.
- Journal articles
- Dissertations / Theses
- Book chapters
- Conference papers
Journal articles on the topic "History – Methodology":
Verriet, Jon. "Methodology in Sports History." International Journal of the History of Sport 36, no. 9-10 (July 3, 2019): 937–39. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09523367.2019.1675037.
Kuzovova, Natalia. "“Survival strategies” in history methodology." BULLETIN of the L.N. Gumilyov Eurasian National University. Historical sciences. Philosophy. Religion Series 139, no. 2 (2022): 96–106. http://dx.doi.org/10.32523/2616-7255-2022-139-2-96-106.
Hoaas, David J., Neil De Marchi, and Christopher Gilbert. "History and Methodology of Econometrics." Southern Economic Journal 57, no. 2 (October 1990): 563. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1060642.
Park, Bynng-Joo. "History and Methodology of Pharmacoepidemiology." Journal of Korean Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 2, no. 1 (1994): 63. http://dx.doi.org/10.12793/jkscpt.1918.104.22.168.
Kocka, Jürgen. "Comparative History: Methodology and Ethos." East Central Europe 36, no. 1 (2009): 12–19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/187633009x411430.
Larvor, Brendan. "History, methodology and early algebra1." International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 8, no. 2 (January 1994): 113–24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02698599408573488.
Tëtushkin, E. Ya. "Genetic genealogy: History and methodology." Russian Journal of Genetics 47, no. 5 (May 2011): 507–20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/s1022795411040132.
Dhuwaib, Jamal Hashim Ahmad. "References Methodology in Teaching History." Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 89 (October 2013): 283–87. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.08.847.
Dhunpath, Rubby. "Life history methodology: "narradigm" regained." International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education 13, no. 5 (September 2000): 543–51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09518390050156459.
Powers, Thomas A., and Carole Rogin. "MarkeTrak 10: History and Methodology." Seminars in Hearing 41, no. 01 (February 2020): 003–5. http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0040-1701241.
Dissertations / Theses on the topic "History – Methodology":
Roberts, Joseph Bradin. "Early Islámic historiography : ideology and methodology /." The Ohio State University, 1986. http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=osu1487268021747239.
Egas, Carlos A. "Methodology for Data Mining Customer Order History for Storage Assignment." Ohio University / OhioLINK, 2012. http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=ohiou1345223808.
Green, Alix Rivka. "Using history in public policy development." Thesis, University of Hertfordshire, 2013. http://hdl.handle.net/2299/13902.
Luck, S. "Congenital CMV : using modern virological methodology to define natural history and rationalise treatment." Thesis, University College London (University of London), 2014. http://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/1435658/.
Lawrence, Anne. "Feminist Design Methodology: Considering the Case of Maria Kipp." Thesis, University of North Texas, 2003. https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc5538/.
Toure, Abu Jaraad. "Towards A ‘Griotic’ Methodology: African Historiography, Identity Politics and Educational Implications." The Ohio State University, 2011. http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=osu1320631211.
Mooney, Elizabeth A. "Housing experiences and housing outcomes : an application of the housing history methodology to rural Scotland." Thesis, University of Strathclyde, 1993. http://oleg.lib.strath.ac.uk:80/R/?func=dbin-jump-full&object_id=21333.
Nishimoto, Warren S. "An oral history of the April 1, 1946 tsunami at Laupāhoehoe, Hawaiʻi a case study in the educative value of constructing history from memory and narrative /." Thesis, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2002. http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?index=0&did=765044521&SrchMode=1&sid=7&Fmt=2&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&TS=1209145450&clientId=23440.
Shenfield, Stephen. "The mathematical-statistical methodology of the contemporary Soviet family budget survey." Thesis, University of Birmingham, 1985. http://etheses.bham.ac.uk//id/eprint/703/.
Macrae, Michael John. "Some aspects of concept acquisition in history." Thesis, Rhodes University, 1987. http://hdl.handle.net/10962/d1001433.
Books on the topic "History – Methodology":
Rahman, Fazlur. Islamic methodology in history . Delhi: Adam Publishers & Distributors, 1994.
Rahman, Fazlur. Islamic methodology in history . Islamabad: Islamic Research Institute, 1995.
Neumann, Boaz. Nazism: History, Historiography, Methodology . Tel-Aviv: MOD Publishing House, 2007.
Balikoev, Vladimir. Economic studies: history, theory, methodology . ru: INFRA-M Academic Publishing LLC., 2020. http://dx.doi.org/10.12737/1035827.
Panischev, Aleksey. Methodology and history of Theology . ru: INFRA-M Academic Publishing LLC., 2021. http://dx.doi.org/10.12737/1176841.
Rudel, Murielle. Underwater archaeology: History and methodology . London: Periplus, 2003.
Hawkins, Penelope, and Ioana Negru. Economic Methodology, History and Pluralism . London: Routledge, 2022. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9781003142324.
Neil, De Marchi, and Gilbert Christopher, eds. History and methodology of econometrics . Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989.
Han, Taidong. Methodology of historty [sic] . Seoul: Yonsei University Press, 2003.
Jordanova, L. J. History in practice . London: Arnold, 2000.
Book chapters on the topic "History – Methodology":
Saunier, Pierre-Yves. "On Methodology." In Transnational History , 117–34. London: Macmillan Education UK, 2013. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-137-35175-3_7.
Wangler, Alexandra. "Methodology." In Rethinking History, Reframing Identity , 69–94. Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, 2012. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-531-19226-0_4.
Grusec, Joan E., and Hugh Lytton. "Methodology: History and Issues." In Social Development , 43–77. New York, NY: Springer New York, 1988. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4612-3768-6_2.
Morales, Socorro, and Dolores Delgado Bernal. "History, Theory, and Methodology." In Handbook of Latinos and Education , 3–7. 2nd ed. New York: Routledge, 2021. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780429292026-2.
Gladwin, Harold S. "Methodology in the Southwest." In Americanist Culture History , 139–42. Boston, MA: Springer US, 1997. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-5911-5_13.
Hsiao, Kuo-Hung, and Hong-Sen Yan. "Reconstruction Design Methodology." In History of Mechanism and Machine Science , 91–108. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2013. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-02009-9_5.
Cross, N. "A History of Design Methodology." In Design Methodology and Relationships with Science , 15–27. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 1993. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-015-8220-9_2.
Batey, Peter. "The History of Planning Methodology." In The Routledge Handbook of Planning History , 46–59. 1 Edition. | New York : Routledge, 2017.: Routledge, 2017. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9781315718996-5.
Gillett, Andrew. "Introduction: Ethnicity, History, and Methodology." In Studies in the Early Middle Ages , 1–18. Turnhout: Brepols Publishers, 2002. http://dx.doi.org/10.1484/m.sem-eb.3.4481.
Markwick, Roger D. "The ‘Hour of Methodology’." In Rewriting History in Soviet Russia , 155–96. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK, 2001. http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/9780230597730_5.
Conference papers on the topic "History – Methodology":
Zhang, Jiawen. "Research on the Conception of History and Methodology of Economic History." In 2016 4th International Education, Economics, Social Science, Arts, Sports and Management Engineering Conference (IEESASM 2016) . Paris, France: Atlantis Press, 2016. http://dx.doi.org/10.2991/ieesasm-16.2016.238.
Shashkov, Igor A. "Methodology of creating apperceptive-destructive background in network discourse." In Communication and Cultural Studies: History and Modernity . Novosibirsk State University, 2021. http://dx.doi.org/10.25205/978-5-4437-1258-1-323-329.
Borisovich, Kornetov Grigory. "Historical-Pedagogical Methodology: Squeezed Between History And Education?" In icCSBs 2019 - 8th Annual International Conference on Cognitive - Social, and Behavioural Sciences . Cognitive-Crcs, 2019. http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2019.12.02.31.
Abramov, Roman, and Nadezhda Abramova. "The adapting of the PERT methodology to Soviet computers and algorithmization." In 2021 7th IEEE History of Electrotechnology Conference (HISTELCON) . IEEE, 2021. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/histelcon52394.2021.9787318.
Maschio, Celio, and Denis Jose Schiozer. "Development and Application of Methodology for Assisted History Matching." In SPE Latin American and Caribbean Petroleum Engineering Conference . Society of Petroleum Engineers, 2005. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/94882-ms.
Baddourah, Majdi A., Ali A. Alturki, Ahmed S. Al-Zawawi, M. Ehtesham Hayder, and Babatunde Moriwawon. "Streamlines Guided Assisted History Matching Methodology: A New Approach." In SPE Saudi Arabia Section Annual Technical Symposium and Exhibition . Society of Petroleum Engineers, 2015. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/178007-ms.
""Lift Slab Construction: its History, Methodology, Economics, and Applications"." In SP-107: Forming Economical Concrete Buildings -- Proceedings of the Third International Conference . American Concrete Institute, 1988. http://dx.doi.org/10.14359/3353.
Marchuk, Alexander, and Irina Krayneva. "Interdisciplinary Interaction of Exact Sciences and Humanities: Methodology and History." In 2014 Third International Conference on Computer Technology in Russia and in the Former Soviet Union (SoRuCom) . IEEE, 2014. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/sorucom.2014.44.
Rios Brandão, Jairo, and Paulo Ernesto Vieira. "Volumetric Estimation – A Case History To Explain An Integrated Methodology." In 7th International Congress of the Brazilian Geophysical Society . European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers, 2001. http://dx.doi.org/10.3997/2214-4609-pdb.217.224.
HIS 104 - Global History to 1648 - Professor Christolyn Williams: Thesis Statements & Bibliographies
- Getting Started: Research Starters
- Sources: Books, E-Books Media (Catalog)
- Sources: Periodicals (Databases/Multi-Search)
- Sources: Internet Media and Resources
- Thesis Statements & Bibliographies
What is a Thesis Statement?
If your assignment requirements allow you to do so, it may be a good idea to complete preliminary research before you develop a thesis statement. Preliminary research will indicate if there are resources available to support your thesis statement.
Browse the links below to learn about thesis statements.
- Developing a Thesis Statement
- How to Write a Thesis Statement
- Tips and Examples for Writing Thesis Statements
What if the difference between a Bibliography and a Works Cited page?
A Bibliography is an alphabetical list of sources that you consulted when you wrote your term project, essay, research paper, or assignment. The sources that you consulted may have expanded your knowledge of the topic, but you may not have used them beyond that.
In contrast , a Works Cited page is an alphabetical list of sources that you cited, (quoted, summarized, or paraphrased), when you wrote your term project, essay, research paper, or assignment.
The Bibliography page is headed Bibliography and is usually longer; the Works Cited page is headed Works Cited, but the citation formats and page setups are the same.
See the sample Works Cited page below . Click on the Citing Sources tab for help formatting your citations.
- Example Bibliography (Works Consulted)
- WCC Library MLA Citation Guide
- << Previous: Sources: Internet Media and Resources
- Last Updated: Sep 30, 2023 9:49 AM
- URL: https://library.sunywcc.edu/c.php?g=242989
Celebrating 75 Years of Excellence!
Westchester Community College provides accessible, high quality and affordable education to meet the needs of our diverse community. We are committed to student success, academic excellence, workforce development, economic development and lifelong learning.
- Admissions and Enrollment
- Workforce & Community
- Student Life
- Employment Opportunities
- DEI/Title IX
- Federal EEOC Compliance Statements
- Policies & Procedures
75 Grasslands Road Valhalla, NY 10595 Tel: (914) 606-6600
- Advanced Search
- All new items
- Journal articles
- All Categories
- Metaphysics and Epistemology
- Philosophy of Action
- Philosophy of Language
- Philosophy of Mind
- Philosophy of Religion
- Value Theory
- Applied Ethics
- Normative Ethics
- Philosophy of Gender, Race, and Sexuality
- Philosophy of Law
- Social and Political Philosophy
- Value Theory, Miscellaneous
- Science, Logic, and Mathematics
- Logic and Philosophy of Logic
- Philosophy of Biology
- Philosophy of Cognitive Science
- Philosophy of Computing and Information
- Philosophy of Mathematics
- Philosophy of Physical Science
- Philosophy of Social Science
- Philosophy of Probability
- General Philosophy of Science
- Philosophy of Science, Misc
- History of Western Philosophy
- Ancient Greek and Roman Philosophy
- Medieval and Renaissance Philosophy
- 17th/18th Century Philosophy
- 19th Century Philosophy
- 20th Century Philosophy
- History of Western Philosophy, Misc
- Philosophical Traditions
- African/Africana Philosophy
- Asian Philosophy
- Continental Philosophy
- European Philosophy
- Philosophy of the Americas
- Philosophical Traditions, Miscellaneous
- Philosophy, Misc
- Philosophy, Introductions and Anthologies
- Philosophy, General Works
- Teaching Philosophy
- Philosophy, Miscellaneous
- Other Academic Areas
- Natural Sciences
- Social Sciences
- Cognitive Sciences
- Formal Sciences
- Arts and Humanities
- Professional Areas
- Other Academic Areas, Misc
- Submit a book or article
- Upload a bibliography
- Personal page tracking
- Archives we track
- Information for publishers
- Submitting to PhilPapers
- Frequently Asked Questions
- Editor's Guide
- The Categorization Project
- For Publishers
- For Archive Admins
- PhilPapers Surveys
- Bargain Finder
- About PhilPapers
- Create an account
Hegel: End of History Thesis
- Hegel: Historical Science ( 5 )
- Hegel: Reason in History ( 13 )
- Hegel: The Ancient World ( 7 )
- Hegel: The Modern World ( 20 )
- Hegel: Philosophy of History, Misc ( 12 )
- Organisations & projects
- Facts & figures
- Image gallery
- Lecture series
This section contains a list of books and articles relevant both to this project and to those interested in historiography in general. It includes works dealing with particular historians and with the history of various organisations, projects and journals, as well as those detailing the current and past states of a variety of historical sub-disciplines.
- Browse the books
- Browse the articles
- Out of the Third Reich: Refugee Historians in Post-War Britain , ed. Peter Alter (London, 1998).
- F. R. Ankersmit, Historical Representation (Stanford, Calif., 2001).
- Steven E. Aschheim, Beyond the Border: the German-Jewish Legacy Abroad (Princeton, N. J., 2007).
- Companion to Historiography , ed. Michael Bentley (London, 1997).
- Michael Bentley, Modern Historiography: an Introduction (London, 1999).
- Michael Bentley, Modernizing England's Past: English Historiography in the Age of Modernism 1870–1970 (Cambridge, 2005).
- Writing History: Theory & Practice , ed. Stefan Berger, Heiko Feldner, Kevin Passmore (London, 2003).
- The History Laboratory: the Institute of Historical Research 1921–1996 , ed. Debra J. Birch and Joyce M. Horn (London, 1996).
- Teaching History: a Reader , ed. Hilary Bourdillon (Abingdon, 1994).
- Encyclopedia of Historians and Historical Writing, ed. Kelly Boyd (London, 1999).
- Peter Burke, History and Social Theory (Cambridge, 2005).
- New Perspectives on Historical Writing , ed. Peter Burke (University Park, Pa., 2001).
- Peter Burke, What is Cultural History? (Cambridge, 2004).
- John Burrow, A History of Histories: Epics, Chronicles, Romances and Inquiries from Herodotus and Thucydides to the Twentieth Century (London, 2007).
- What is History Now? , ed. David Cannadine (Basingstoke, 2002).
- The Blackwell Dictionary of Historians , ed. John Cannon et al. (Oxford, 1988).
- E. H. Carr, What is History? (London, 1961).
- Stuart Clark, Thinking with Demons: the Idea of Witchcraft in Early Modern Europe (Oxford, 1997).
- R. G. Collingwood, The Idea of History (Oxford, 1946).
- Noel Cowen, Global History: a Short Overview (Cambridge, 2001).
- English County Histories: a Guide. A Tribute to C. R. Elrington , ed. C. R. J. Currie and C. P. Lewis (Stroud, 1994).
- A Century of British Medieval Studies , ed. Alan Deyermond (Oxford, 2007).
- Historiography: Critical Concepts in Historical Studies , ed. Richard J. Evans (London, 2005).
- Richard J. Evans, In Defence of History (London, 1997).
- Richard J. Evans, Cosmopolitan Islanders: British Historians and the European Continent (Cambridge, 2009).
- History and Theory: Contemporary Readings , ed. Brian Fay, Philip Pomper and Richard E. Vann (Oxford, 1998).
- Miles Fairburn, Social History: Problems, Strategies and Methods (Basingstoke, 1999).
- Reconstructing History: the Emergence of a New Historical Society , ed. Elizabeth Fox-Genovese and Elisabeth Lasch-Quinn (London, 1999).
- V. H. Galbraith, The Historian at Work (London, 1962).
- V. H. Galbraith, Historical Study and the State: an Inaugural Lecture delivered before the University of Oxford on 3 February 1948 (Oxford, 1948).
- V. H. Galbraith, An Introduction to the Study of History (London, 1964).
- The Houses of History: a Critical Reader in Twentieth-Century History and Theory , ed. Anna Green and Kathleen Troup (Manchester, 1999).
- Beyond the Canon, ed. M. A. Harder, R. F. Regtuit, G. C.Wakker (Leuven, 2006)
- The Study of Economic History: Collected Inaugural Lectures 1893–1970 , ed. N. B. Harte (London, 1971)
- N. B. Harte, One Hundred and Fifty years of History Teaching at University College London (London, 1982).
- Barbara Hibbert, The Articulation of the Study of History at General Certificate of Education Advanced Level with the Study of History for an Honours Degree (Thesis, Leeds, 2006).
- Historical Association, The Historical Association 1906–1956 (London, 1957).
- Historical Manuscripts Commission, Papers of British Antiquaries and Historians (London, 2003).
- Hermione Hobhouse, London Survey'd: the Work of the Survey of London 1894–1994 (Swindon, 1994).
- The Invention of Tradition , ed. Eric Hobsbawm and Terence Ranger (Cambridge, 1983).
- Dirk Hoerder, Cultures in Contact: World Migrations in the Second Millennium , (Durham, NC, 2002).
- Globalization in World History , ed. A. G. Hopkins (London, 2002).
- R. A. Humphreys, The Royal Historical Society 1868–1968 (London, 1969).
- Ben Jay, Tradition and Democracy: Undergraduate History Course 1945–1958 (GRASP Working Paper no. 12, London, 1995).
- The Postmodern History Reader, ed. Keith Jenkins (London, 1997).
- Michael Jones, John Beckett, David Green, History at Nottingham: Teaching, Research and Departmental Life from the 1880s to the Present (Nottingham, 1995).
- Ludmilla Jordanova, History in Practice (London, 2000).
- Harvey J. Kaye, The British Marxist Historians (Basingstoke, 1995).
- J. Kenyon, The History Men: the Historical Profession in England since the Renaissance (London, 1993).
- G. S. R. Kitson Clark and G. R. Elton, Guide to Research Facilities in History in the Universities of Great Britain and Ireland (Cambridge, 1965).
- Historical Controversies and Historians , ed. William Lamont (London, 1998).
- Jon Lawrence, Speaking for the People: Party, Language, and Popular Politics in England, 1867–1914 (Cambridge, 1998).
- Phillipa Levine, The Amateur and the Professional: Antiquarians, Historians and Archaeologists in Victorian England (Cambridge, 2002).
- The Records of the Nation: the Public Record Office, 1838–1988, the British Record Society, 1888–1988, ed. G. H. Martin and Peter Spufford (Woodbridge, 1990).
- The Future of the Past: Big Questions in History, ed. Peter Martland (London, 2002).
- Arthur Marwick, The Nature of History (3rd edn., London, 1989).
- The Global History Reader , ed. Bruce Mazlish and Akira Iriye (New York, 2005).
- K. B. McFarlane, Letters to Friends, 1940–1966 (Oxford, 1997).
- John McLeod, Beginning Postcolonialism (Manchester, 2000).
- Peter Novick, That Noble Dream: the "Objectivity Question" and the American Historical Profession (Cambridge, 1988).
- Maria Lucia Pallares-Burke, The New History: Confessions and Conversations (Cambridge, 2002).
- Christopher Parker, The English Historical Tradition since 1850 (Edinburgh, 1990).
- Christopher Parker, The English Idea of History from Coleridge to Collingwood (Aldershot, 2000).
- The Changing Face of English Local History , ed. R. C. Richardson (Aldershot, 2000).
- S. H. Rigby, Marxism and History: a Critical Introduction (Manchester, 1998).
- Brian Salter and Ted Tapper, The State and Higher Education (London, 1994).
- The Creation of a University System , ed. Michael Shattock (Oxford, 1996).
- Jack Simmons, Local, National, and Imperial History: an Inaugural Lecture delivered at University College, Leicester, 16 Feb. 1948 (Leicester, 1950).
- Daniel Snowman, Hitler Émigrés: the Cultural Impact on Britain of Refugees from Nazism (London, 2002).
- Daniel Snowman, Historians (Basingstoke, 2007).
- Reba N. Soffer, Discipline and Power: the University, History and the Making of an English Elite 1870–1930 (Stanford, Calif., 1994).
- Beverley Southgate, Why Bother with History: Ancient, Modern and Postmodern Motivation (Harlow, 2000).
- Carolyn Steedman, Dust (Manchester, 2001).
- British and German Historiography, 1750–1950: Traditions, Perceptions, and Transfers , ed. Benedikt Stuchtey and Peter Wende (Oxford, 2000)
- John Tosh, Historians on History (London, 2000).
- Rethinking Social History: English Society 1570–1920 and its Interpretation , ed. Adrian Wilson (Manchester, 1993).
- Keith Windschuttle, The Killing of History: How Literary Critics and Social Theorists are Murdering Our Past (New York, 1996).
Back to the top
- Richard J. Aldrich, 'Did Waldegrave work? The impact of open government on British history', Twentieth Century British History, 9, 1 (1998), 111–26.
- Anglo-American Historical Committee, Sub-committee on Editing Historical Documents, 'Report on editing modern historical documents', Historical Research , 3, 7 (1925), 13–26.
- Roger E. Backhouse, 'The future of the history of economic thought in Britain', History of Political Economy , 34, Annual supplement (2002), 79–97.
- Roger E. Backhouse, 'History of economics, economics and economic history in Britain 1824–2000', History of Economic Thought , 11, 1 (2004), 107–27.
- Bernard Barker, 'Values and practice: history teaching 1971–2001', Cambridge Journal of Education , 32, 1 (2002), 61–72.
- Tony Becher, 'Historians on history', Studies in Higher Educuation , 14, 3 (1989), 263–78.
- Peter J. Beck, 'History and policy at work in the Treasury, 1957–1976', History and Policy , 49 (2006).
- John Beckett, 'Local history, family history and the Victoria County History: new directions for the twenty-first century', Historical Research, OnlineEarly Articles, online 19 July 2007.
- John Beckett, 'Victorian makeover', History Today, 57 (2007), 20–1.
- John Beckett, 'What future for the past in local history?', East Midland Historian, 4 (1994), 5–15.
- C. B. A. Behrens, 'Professor Cobban and his critics', Historical Journal , 9 (1966), 236–40.
- John Belchem, 'Reconstructing labour history', Labour History Review, 62, 3 (1997), 318–23.
- H. Hale Bellot, 'Parliamentary printing 1660–1837', Historical Research , 11 (1933–4), 84–98.
- Judith M. Bennett, 'Women's history: a study on continuity and change', Women's History Review , 2, 2 (1993), 173–84.
- Michael Bentley, 'Victorian politics and the linguistic turn', The Historical Journal , 42, 3 (1999), 883–902.
- Maxine Berg, 'The first women economic historians', Economic History Review, 45, 2 (1992), 308–29.
- Jeremy Black and Karl Schweizer, 'The value of diplomatic history: a case study in the historical thought of Herbert Butterfield', Diplomacy and Statecraft, 17 (2006), 617–31.
- Maurice F. Bond, 'Record offices today: facts for historians', Historical Research , 30, 81 (1957), 1–16.
- Alan Booth, 'Discussion briefing paper: linking research and teaching in history: some issues', LTSN Subject Centre History Conference, University of Lancaster, April 2003.
- Alison Booth, 'Focus on the Oxford DNB: fighting for lives in the ODNB, or taking prosopography seriously', Journal of Victorian Culture, 10, 2 (2005), 267–79.
- J. Bornat and H. Diamond, 'Women's history and oral history: developments and debates', Women's History Review , 16, 1 (2007), 19–39.
- Peter Borsay, 'New approaches to social history: myth, memory and place: Monmouth and Bath 1750–1900', Journal of Social History (Spring 2006), 867–89.
- John Michael Bourne, 'History at the universities 1966–86', History, 71, 231 (1986), 54–60.
- Paul Brand, 'Legal history', in A Century of British Medieval Studies , ed. Alan Deyermond (Oxford, 2007), pp. 181–200.
- Richard Brent, 'Butterfield's Tories: "high politics"' and the writing of modern British political history', Historical Journal, 30, 4 (1987), 943–54.
- Roger Bullen, 'What is diplomatic history?', in What is History Today? , ed. Juliet Gardiner (London, 1988).
- David Cannadine, 'Making history now (an inaugural lecture)', History in Focus , 2 (2001).
- David Cannadine, 'Historians in "the liberal hour": Lawrence Stone and J. H. Plumb re-visited', Historical Research, 75 (2002), 316–54.
- John Cannon, 'Teaching history at university', The History Teacher , 22, 3 (1989), 245–75.
- Peter Catterall, 'What (if anything) is distinctive about contemporary history?', Journal of Contemporary History, 32, 4 (1997), 441–52.
- Peter Catterall, 'Contemporary British history: a personal view', Contemporary British History, 16, 1 (2002), 1–10.
- Justin Champion, 'What are historians for?', Historical Research, OnlineEarly Articles, online 19 July 2007.
- Clive Church, 'Constraints on the historian', Studies in Higher Educuation , 3, 2 (1978), 127–38.
- G. Kitson Clark, 'A hundred years of the teaching of history at Cambridge, 1873–1973', The Historical Journal, 16 (1973), 535–53.
- G. N. Clark et al. , 'Report on editing historical documents', Historical Research , 1, 1 (1923), 6–25.
- J. C. D. Clark, 'The strange death of British history: reflections on Anglo-American scholarship', The Historical Journal , 40, 3 (1997), 787–809.
- D. C. Coleman, 'History, economic history and the numbers game', Historical Journal , 38, 3 (1995), 635–46.
- Stefan Collini, 'E. H. Carr: historian of the future', Times Literary Supplement , March 5 2008.
- Committee of Intellectual Co-operation of the League of Nations, 'Notes on foreign archives', Historical Research , 2, 4 (1924), 1–6.
- Penelope J. Corfield, 'Review article: the state of history', Journal of Contemporary History , 36 (2001), 153–61.
- Alexander Cowan, 'History in the United Kingdom public sector', The History Teacher , 22, 3 (1989), 277–92.
- Anne Crawford, 'Today's history: the Public Record Office', History Today , 50, 3 (2000), 26–7.
- C. R. J. Currie, 'The Victoria County History', History Today , 49 (1999), 28–30.
- G. P. Cuttino, 'English medieval history: a survey of needs', Historical Research , 21, 63 (1947), 111–15.
- Oliver J. Daddow, 'Debating history today', Rethinking History , 8, 1 (2004), 143–7.
- Leonore Davidoff, 'Gender and the great divide: public and private in British gender history', Journal of Women's History , 15, 1 (2003), 11–27.
- Bernard Deacon and Moira Donald, 'In search of community history', Family and Community History, 7, 1 (2004), 13–18.
- Cecile Deer, 'Higher education in England and Wales: power struggles underlying reforms since the early Thatcher years', La Revue LISA/LISA e-journal, 2, 1 (2004), 23–39.
- Christopher Dyer, 'Review: alternative approaches to the history of agriculture', Past and Present, 168 (2000), 254–62.
- Anthony Easthope, 'Review article: In Defence of History ', Reviews in History , (1999).
- C. R. Elrington 'The Victoria County History: history 1970–1990', in The Victoria History of the Counties of England: General Introduction. Supplement 1970–1990 (London, 1990), pp. 1–8.
- G. R. Elton, 'Second thoughts on history at the universities', History, 54 (1969), 60–7.
- Richard J. Evans, ' In Defence of History : reply to critics 1–4', Reviews in History , (1998–9).
- Richard J. Evans, 'The two faces of E .H. Carr', History in Focus , 2 ( 2001).
- Steven Fielding, 'Review article: looking for the "new political history''', Journal of Contemporary History, 42, 3 (2007), 515–24.
- Ian Fitzgerald and Adam Flint, 'British university history now', History Today, 45, 8 (1995), 53–6.
- Anthony Fletcher, '"englandpast.net": a framework for the social history of England', Historical Research, 75 (2002), 296–315.
- Keith Flett, 'Where is labour history going?', Labour History Review, 58, 1 (1993), 35–6.
- Roderick Floud, 'Words, not numbers: John Harold Clapham', History Today , 39, 4 (1989), 42–7.
- Peter Furtado, 'History in English schools', History Today, 55, 12 (2005), 28–9.
- Peter Furtado, 'What is history for?', History Today, 57, 4 (2007), 2.
- Lawrence Goldman, 'Focus on the Oxford DNB: a monument to the Victorian age: continuity and discontinuity in the Dictionaries of National Biography', Journal of Victorian Culture, 11, 1 (2006), 111–32.
- Doris S. Goldstein, 'The origins and early years of the English Historical Review', The English Historical Review, 101 (1986), 6–19.
- Doris S. Goldstein, 'The organizational development of the British historical profession 1884–1921', Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research, 55 (1982), 180–93.
- S. J. D. Green, ' Northern History and the history of the north', Northern History, 42, 1 (2005), 15–27.
- J. D. Hargreaves, 'Some notes on Gooch and Temperley', History , new ser., 39 (1954), 68–75.
- A. D. Harvey, 'Historians in the National Archives', Historian, 94 (2007), 19–22.
- Denys Hays, 'The historical periodical: some problems', History, 54 (1969), 165–77.
- Mary Henkel, 'The modernisation of research evaluation: the case of the UK', Higher Education, 38, 1 (1999), 105–22.
- Cynthia Herrup, 'Revisionism: what's in a name?', The Journal of British Studies , 35, 2 (1996), 135–8.
- Bridget Hill, 'Women's history: a study in change, continuity or standing still?', Women's History Review , 2, 1 (1993), 5–22.
- Christopher Hill, R. H. Hilton and Eric Hobsbawm, 'Past and Present: origins and early years', Past and Present, 100 (1983), 3–14.
- Eric Hobsbawm, 'A life in history', Past and Present, 177 (2002), 3–16.
- A. G. Hopkins, 'Back to the future: from national history to imperial history', Past and Present , 164 (1999), 198–243.
- A. G. Hopkins, 'From Hayter to Parker: African economic history at Birmingham University, 1964–1986', African Affairs , 86, 342 1987), 93–102.
- A. G. Hopkins, 'History at the universities: change without decay', History, 54 (1969), 331–7.
- Jules Hudson and Nick Barratt, 'The rise and rise of family history', History Today , 57, 4 (2007), 20–1.
- Tristram Hunt, 'Whose history is it anyway', History Today, 56 (2006), 28–30.
- 'Is there a future for labour history? [editorial]', Labour History Review, 62, 3 (1997), 253–9.
- Patrick Joyce, 'The end of social history?', Social History , 20, 1 (1995), 73–92.
- Patrick Joyce, 'More secondary modern than postmodern', Rethinking History , 5, 3 (2001), 367–82.
- Patrick Joyce, 'Refabricating labour history: or, from labour history to the history of labour', Labour History Review, 62, 2 (1997), 147–52.
- Patrick Joyce, 'The return of history: postmodernism and the politics of academic history in Britain', Past and Present , 158 (1998), 207–35.
- Alon Kadish, 'Scholarly exclusiveness and the foundation of the English Historical Review', Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research, 61 (1988), 183–98.
- Caroline Kennedy-Pipe and Nicholas Rengger, 'BISA at thirty: reflections on three decades of British international relations scholarship', Review of International Studies, 32 (2006), 665–76.
- Christopher Kent, 'Victorian social history: post-Thompson, post-Foucault, postmodern', Victorian Studies , 40, 1 (1996), 97–133.
- Christopher Kitching, 'The Historical Manuscripts Commission: past achievements and future goals', Local Historian , 33, 2 (2003), 66–72.
- M. D. Knowles, 'Academic history', History, 47 (1962), 223–32.
- Christine L. Krueger, 'Why she lived at the PRO: Mary Anne Everett Green and the profession of history', Journal of British Studies , 42 (2003), 65–90.
- Sheila Lambert, 'Guides to parliamentary printing, 1696–1834', Historical Research , 38, 97 (1965), 111–7.
- Peter Laslett, 'Signifying nothing: traditional history, local history, statistics and computing', History and Computing, 11 (1999), 129–33.
- Waldo G. Leland, 'The International Union of Academies and the American Council of Learned Societies', Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research, 4 (1926/1927), 65–72.
- Rodney Lowe, 'Archival report. Plumbing new depths: contemporary historians and the Public Record Office', Twentieth Century British History, 8, 2 (1997), 239–65.
- Gordon Marsden, 'An interview with J. H. Elliott', History Today, 41, 4 (April 1991), 48–52.
- John McIlroy and Alan Campbell, 'Still setting the pace? Labour history, industrial relations and the history of post-war trade unionism', Labour History Review , 64, 2 (1999), 179–98.
- John McCracken, 'African history in British universities: past, present and future', African Affairs , 82, 367 (1993), 239–53.
- A. T. Milne, 'History at the universities: then and now', History, 59 (1974), 33–46.
- A. T. Milne, 'Twenty-five years at the Institute 1946–1971', Bulletin of Historical Research, 44 (1971), 283–92.
- Alan Munslow, 'What history is', History in Focus , 2 (2001).
- 'Notes on the use of private papers for historical research', Historical Research , 39, 100 (1966), 197–8.
- Jim Obelkevich, 'New developments in history in the 1950s and 1960s', Contemporary British History , 14, 4 (2000), 125–42.
- Jim Obelkevich, 'Witness Seminar: new developments in history in the 1950s and 1960s', Contemporary British History , 14, 4 (2000), 143–67.
- Guy Parsloe, 'Recollections of the Institute 1922–43', Bulletin of Historical Research, 44 (1971), 270–83.
- Edward F. Patterson, 'The application of small-scale photography to historical research material: a preliminary study', Historical Research, 15, 43 (1937), 19–23.
- Douglas M. Peers, 'Is Humpty-Dumpty back together again? The revival of imperial history and the Oxford History of the British Empire ' , Journal of World History , 13, 2 (2002), 451–67.
- Harold Perkin, 'Social history in Britain', Journal of Social History , 10, 2 (Winter 1976), 129–43.
- Avery Plaw, 'Isaiah Berlin and the plurality of histories: two concepts of Karl Marx', Rethinking History , 10, 1 (2006), 75–93.
- J. G. A. Pocock, 'The politics of historiography', Historical Research, 78, (2005), 1–14.
- A. F. Pollard, 'Sir Sidney Lee and the "Dictionary of National Biography"', Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research, 4 (1926/1927), 1–13.
- R. L. Poole, 'The beginnings of the English Historical Review', English Historical Review, 36 (1921), 1–4.
- R. B. Pugh, 'The structure and aims of the Victoria History of the Counties of England ', Historical Research, 40 (1967), 65–73.
- R. B. Pugh, 'The Victoria History: its origin and progress', in The Victoria History of the Counties of England: General Introduction , ed. R. B. Pugh (London, 1970), pp. 1–27.
- Diane Purkiss, 'A response to Richard J. Evans', Reviews in History (1999).
- Diane Purkiss, 'Richard J. Evans, yet once more', Reviews in History (1999).
- June Purvis, 'Women's history today', History Today, 54, 11 (2004), 40–2.
- Charles Phythian-Adams, 'Hoskins's England: a local historian of genius and the realisation of his theme', Transactions of the Leicestershire Archaeological and Historical Society , 66 (1992), 143–59.
- Donald Read, 'A parade of past presidents 1906–1982', The Historian , 91 (Autumn 2006), 10–23.
- David Renton, 'Studying their own nation without insularity? The British Marxist historians reconsidered', Science and Society, 69, 4 (2005), 559–79.
- David Renton, '"Unsung heroes behind them": the labour history of Sydney Pollard', Labour History Review, 68, 3 (2004), 311–27.
- David Reynolds, 'Official history: how Churchill and the cabinet office wrote The Second World War ', Historical Research , 78, 201 (2005), 400–22.
- Colin Richmond, 'After McFarlane', History , 68, 222 (February 1983), 46–60.
- Edwin A. Roberts, 'From the history of science to the science of history : scientists and historians in the shaping of British Marxist theory', Science and Society, 69, 4 (2005), 529–58.
- Louis Francis Salzman, 'The Victoria County History', Genealogists Magazine , 7 (1937), 449–54.
- Quentin Skinner, 'Sir Geoffrey Elton and the practice of history', Transactions of the Royal Historical Society , 6th Series, 7 (1997), 301–16.
- Peter Slee, 'Professor Soffer's "History at Oxford"', Historical Journal, 30, 4 (1987), 933–42.
- Bonnie G. Smith, 'The contribution of women to modern historiography in Great Britain, France and the United States, 1750–1940', American History Review, 89, 3 (1984), 709–32.
- Steven R. B. Smith, 'The Institute of Historical Research 1971–96: its third quarter-century', Historical Research, 69 (1996), 181–96.
- Reba N. Soffer, 'The development of disciplines in the modern English university', Historical Journal, 31, 4 (1988), 933–46.
- Reba N. Soffer, 'Nation, duty, character and confidence: history at Oxford 1850–1914', Historical Journal, 30, 1 (1987) 77–104.
- Sarah Speight, 'Localising history 1940–1965: the extra-mural contribution', Journal of Educational Administration and History , 35, 1 (2003), 51–64.
- Ian K. Steele, 'Where is history heading', Canadian Journal of History , 39 (2004), 547–55.
- David Stevenson, 'The end of history: the British university experience 1981–1992', Contemporary Record, 7 (1993), 66–85.
- Lawrence Stone, 'The revival of narrative: reflections on a new old history', Past and Present , 85 (1979), 3–24.
- A. J. Taylor, 'History at Leeds 1877–1974: the evolution of a discipline', Northern History , 10 (1975), 141–64.
- Patricia M. Thane, 'Oral history, memory and written tradition: an introduction', Transactions of the Royal Historical Society , 6th Series, 9 (1999), 161–8.
- Keith Thomas, 'History revisited', Times Online , 11 October 2006.
- John Tosh, 'In defence of applied history: the History and Policy website', History and Policy , 37 (2006).
- Alison Twells, 'Bridging the divide: community history and higher education' http://www.heacademy.ac.uk/hca/projects/detail/round_2_bridging_the_divide [accessed 23 June 2008].
- James Vernon, 'Thoughts on the present "crisis of history" in Britain', History in Focus , 2 (2001).
- James Vernon, 'Who's afraid of the linguistic turn? The politics of social history and its discontents', Social History , 19, 1 (1994), 81–97.
- Keith Vernon, 'Calling the tune: British universities and the state, 1880–1914', History of Education, 30, 3 (2001), 251–71.
- 'The Victoria County History: history 1970–1990', in The Victoria History of the Counties of England: General Introduction. Supplement 1970–1990 (London, 1990)
- Joan Wake, 'Local sources of history', Historical Research , 1, 3 (1924), 81–8.
- Patrick Wolfe, 'Review essay: history and imperialism: a century of theory, from Marx to post-colonialism', American Historical Review, 102, 2 (1997), 388–420.
- Matthew Woollard, 'Introduction: what is history and computing? An introduction to the problem', History and Computing, 11 (1999), 1–8.
- Chris Wrigley, 'The branches of the Historical Association 1906–2006', The Historian , 91 (Autumn 2006), 45–57.
- E. A. Wrigley, 'Small-scale but not parochial: the work of the Cambridge Group for the History of Population and Social Structure', Family and Community History, 1 (1998), 27–36.
The Institute of Historical Research © 2008
History: Citing references
- Key resources
- Primary sources
- Citing references
The Department of History uses the Oxford referencing style , which uses footnotes. The Department provides some examples of how to use this style for different types of sources, below. For general information on referencing, including how to reference, and an explanation of different citation systems, see our Citing references guide .
For help with citing specific types of publication contact your Academic Liaison Librarian, Charlie Carpenter .
For advice on using references in your work, and how to use them to support your arguments, consult the guidance on the Study Advice website or make an appointment with them.
- Secondary literature
The Department of History uses the Oxford referencing style, in the form of footnotes and a bibliography (endnotes are not used). Pay attention to the formatting and to the differences between footnote and bibliographical styles and to the formatting of different forms of references. Above all, make sure that you are consistent in your assignments.
All quotes, paraphrased content, factual details and applied arguments must be footnoted clearly in line with the departmental style guide and include a page number/numbers . You do not need to footnote commonly known information, e.g., William I became king of England following the Battle of Hastings in 1066.
Citation examples for the most commonly used publications are provided via the tabs above. Theses examples are taken from the Department of History's 'Referencing and Presentation Guide'. To consult the full guide, which has many more examples relevant to History, please see the link to the PDF below:
- History Referencing and Presentation Guide A comprehensive guide written by the University of Reading's History Department on using the Oxford Referencing (footnotes) style.
If necessary, you may also wish to refer to the book, New Hart's Rules: the Oxford style guide , below, which provides further guidance on referencing using the Oxford style.
Primary materials (e.g. manuscripts, images, objects etc.)
This information is especially relevant when working with earlier primary sources .
Location of Archive/Collection, Name of Archive/Collection, Manuscript reference [MS. stands for manuscript], folio(s)/page(s) [folio takes the place of page depending on manuscript = use fol./fols.]
Example (first footnote):
London, British Library, MS. Harley 5294, fol. 9v.
Example (additional footnotes):
British Library, MS. Harley 5294, fol. 9v.
London, British Library, MS. Harley 5294.
Other Archival Material
This information is especially relevant when working with more recent primary sources .
Author and/or Relevant Persons [e.g. if this was a letter addressed to someone you would include them here], Date of the Source [be as specific as possible], Location of Archive/Collection, Name of Archive/Collection, Archive reference [this will be the specific reference number for this item], page number(s) [include if relevant, this depends on length of the archival item].
M. Tinkler to E. Wharton, 21 December 1921, London, Imperial War Museum, Department of Documents, R.M. Tinkler Papers, Box 2 (hereafter Tinkler Papers). [use a short form for additional references but be consistent]
Tinkler to Wharton, Tinkler Papers.
London, Imperial War Museum, Department of Documents, R.M. Tinkler Papers, Box 2.
Material Objects (including artwork):
Artist, Description of Object/Item, Place of Creation (Date of Object/Item) [provide as much of the information here as possible], Location of Archive/Collection, Name of Archive/Collection, Object/Item reference.
Reliquary of St Thomas Becket, Limoges (c. 1210), London, British Museum, 1878,1101.3.
Reliquary of St Thomas Becket, British Museum, 1878,1101.3.
London, British Museum, 1878,1101.3.
Unknown Artist, Portrait of Henry II of England, Oil on Panel (1597-1618), London, National Portrait Gallery, NPG 4980(4).
Portrait of Henry II of England, National Portrait Gallery, NPG 4980(4).
London, National Portrait Gallery, NPG 4980(4).
Images from Online
Artist, Description of Object/Item, Place of Creation (Date of Object/Item) [provide as much of the information here as possible], Location of Archive/Collection, Name of Archive/Collection, Object/Item reference [if this information is provided on the website], via Author, ‘Title of Blog’, Website Name [website] (Date Published/Uploaded) [if specified, i.e. on a blog], <URL> (last accessed date).
Effigy of Edward ‘the Black Prince’, Canterbury Cathedral, via Wikimedia [website] <https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Tumba_del_%22Pr%C3%ADncipe_Negro%22_3.jpg> (last accessed 15 September 2019).
Effigy of Edward ‘the Black Prince’, via Wikimedia .
Charm against plague from Leech Book I, London, Wellcome Collection MS 404, via J. Edge, ‘Diagnosing the Past’, Wellcome Collection [website], (26 September 2018), <https://wellcomecollection.org/articles/W5D4eR4AACIArLL8> (last accessed 15 September 2019).
Charm against plague from Leech Book I, via J. Edge, ‘Diagnosing the Past’.
Edge, J., ‘Diagnosing the Past’, Wellcome Collection [website], (26 September 2018), <https://wellcomecollection.org/articles/W5D4eR4AACIArLL8> (last accessed 15 September 2019).
Printed sources (published materials)
Author, Title of the Book (Place of Publication, Date of Publication), page number(s).
The publication date you give should be the date of that edition of the book and not the original date of publication (unless this is the same).
T. Paine, The Rights of Man: Being an Answer to Mr. Burke's Attack on the French Revolution (Auckland, 2010), 20.
T. Paine, The Rights of Man , 20.
Paine, T., The Rights of Man: Being an Answer to Mr. Burke's Attack on the French Revolution (Auckland, 2010).
Original Author, Title of the Book , Editor(s) and/or Translator(s) (ed. and/or trans.) (Place of Publication, Date of Publication), page number(s).
Geoffrey of Burton, The Life and Miracles of St Modwenna , ed. and trans. R. Bartlett (Oxford, 2002), 185.
Geoffrey of Burton, The Life and Miracles of St Modwenna , 185.
Geoffrey of Burton, The Life and Miracles of St Modwenna , ed. and trans. R. Bartlett (Oxford, 2002).
Use ‘ed.’ for one editor and ‘eds.’ when there are two or more editors.
If you don’t know the original author, then start with the title of the work.
If the primary source comes from an edited volume or collection of primary sources:
Eadmer of Canterbury, The Miracles of St Dunstan , in Lives and Miracles of Saints Oda, Dunstan and Oswald , ed. and trans A. Turner and B. Muir (Oxford, 2006), 199.
Eadmer of Canterbury, The Miracles of St Dunstan , 199.
Eadmer of Canterbury, The Miracles of St Dunstan , in Lives and Miracles of Saints Oda, Dunstan and Oswald , ed. and trans. A. Turner and B. Muir (Oxford, 2006) 160-211.
Or you could reference the work as a whole in the bibliography (especially if you have used more than one source from the volume):
Eadmer of Canterbury, Lives and Miracles of Saints Oda, Dunstan and Oswald , eds. and trans. A. Turner and B. Muir (Oxford, 2006).
Multimedia (audio-visual materials)
Film/Broadcast Title , Director (dir.) (Place, Broadcaster, Date Published), [type of multimedia], timestamp [if directing attention to a specific scene etc. this is very useful, just as you would include page numbers for written work].
The Red Badge of Courage , dir. John Huston (USA, MGM, 1951), [videocassette], 00:15:00-00:16:39.
The Red Badge of Courage , 00:15:00-00:16:39.
The Red Badge of Courage , dir. John Huston (USA, MGM, 1951), [videocassette].
If the citation is of a digital version of a pre-digital film or broadcast , include details of the original publication date (as above) and where you sourced it:
‘Tony Hancock Face to Face interview 01 with John Freeman’ (televised by the BBC 7 February 1960), 00:12:15-00:13:00, via YouTube [video] (uploaded 17 March 2009), <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lnkovGeASzE> (last accessed 27 February 2018).
‘Tony Hancock Face to Face interview 01 with John Freeman’, 00:12:15-00:13:00.
‘Tony Hancock Face to Face interview 01 with John Freeman’ (televised by the BBC 7 February 1960) [video], via YouTube [website] (uploaded 17 March 2009), <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lnkovGeASzE> (last accessed 27 February 2018).
Author, Title of the Book (Place of Publication, Date of Publication), page number(s). [For classics include the original publication date in square brackets so we do not have Immanuel Kant, 2022!].
R. Foxley, The Levellers: Radical Political Thought in the English Revolution (Manchester, 2013), 23.
Foxley, The Levellers , 23.
Foxley, R., The Levellers: Radical Political Thought in the English Revolution (Manchester, 2013).
If there are up to 3 authors, then name all the authors.
If there are more than 3 authors, then name the first (lead) author and then use ‘et. al.’ to highlight the contribution of others.
If the book has been translated, then add the name of the translator(s) between the book’s title and the publication information, i.e:
Author, Title of the Book , Translator (trans.) (Place of Publication, Date of Publication), page number(s).
Books (edited volumes)
Editor, ed., Title of the Book (Place of Publication, Date of Publication), page number(s).
N. Saul, ed., The Oxford Illustrated History of Medieval England (Oxford, 2000), v. [Note: this example references a page where the number is given in Latin numerals, list the page in the format it appears within the material.]
Saul, The Oxford Illustrated History of Medieval England , v.
Saul, N., ed., The Oxford Illustrated History of Medieval England (Oxford, 2000).
If there are up to 3 editors, then name all the editors (if there more than 3 use name the main editor and then use ‘et. al.’, as above)
If the e-book is the same as the hard copy (i.e. it is an electronic version of the hard copy with the same page numbers, publication date etc.) then you can cite this as a normal book. BUT, if the e-book differs from the hard copy (e.g. it does not follow the same page numbers as the hard copy) then you need to make it clear that you used the e-book:
Author, Title of the Book (Place of Publication, Date of Publication), page number(s), via Name of Online Library/Website [e-book] <URL>(last accessed date).
H. Newton, The Sick Child in Early Modern England, 1580-1720 (Oxford, 2012), 43-45, via Oxford Scholarship Online [website] <https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199650491.001.0001> (last accessed 14 September 2021).
Newton, The Sick Child , 43-45.
Newton, H., The Sick Child in Early Modern England, 1580-1720 (Oxford, 2012), via Oxford Scholarship Online [website] <https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199650491.001.0001> (last accessed 14 September 2021).
Chapter/articles (in edited books)
Author, ‘Title of the Article/Chapter’, in Title of the Book , Editor, ed. (Place of Publication, Date of Publication), page number(s).
T. Licence, ‘Public Spectacle’, in J. Crick and E. van Houts, eds., A Social History of England, 900-1200 (Cambridge, 2011), 322.
Licence, ‘Public Spectacle’, 322.
Licence, T., ‘Public Spectacle’, in Crick, J. and van Houts, E, eds., A Social History of England, 900-1200 (Cambridge, 2011), 321-29.
Journal articles (print or electronic format)
Author, ‘Title of the Article’, Name of the Journal , vol. volume number (Date of Publication), page number(s).
In the bibliography provide the page numbers for the entire article and the specific page number for the citation in the footnotes.
M. Worley, ‘‘Oi! Oi! Oi!’: Class Locality and British Punk’, Twentieth Century British History , vol. 24 (2013), 623-25.
Worley, ‘'Oi! Oi! Oi!’, 623-25.
Worley, M., ‘‘Oi! Oi! Oi!’: Class Locality and British Punk’, Twentieth Century British History , vol. 24 (2013), 606-636.
Articles and chapters on websites (with no print original)
If the e-copy you are using is a scan of the printed article or appears just as it would do in print, then it is fine to use the referencing style presented above. However, if the e-copy differs (e.g., different formatting, lacking page numbers etc.) you should use the following formatting.
Author, ‘Title of the Article’, Name of the Journal , vol. volume number (Date of Publication), page number(s), <URL> (last accessed date).
K. R. Moore, ‘Was Pythagoras Ever Really in Sparta?’, Rosetta , vol. 6 (2009), 17, <http://www.rosetta.bham.ac.uk/issue6/pythagoras-sparta.pdf> (last accessed 15 September 2022).
Moore, ‘Was Pythagoras Ever Really in Sparta?’, 17.
Moore, K. R., ‘Was Pythagoras Ever Really in Sparta?’, Rosetta , vol. 6 (2009), 1-25, <http://www.rosetta.bham.ac.uk/issue6/pythagoras-sparta.pdf> (last accessed 15 September 2022).
Print newspaper article
Author, ‘Title of the Article’, Name of the Newspaper (Date of Publication), page number(s).
Example (first footnote):
N. Motlafi, ‘Why Black Women in South Africa Don’t Fully Embrace the Feminist Discourse’, Mail & Guardian (7 August 2015), 3-4.
Motlafi, ‘Why Black Women in South Africa Don’t Fully Embrace the Feminist Discourse’, 3-4.
Motlafi, N., ‘Why Black Women in South Africa Don’t Fully Embrace the Feminist Discourse’, Mail & Guardian (7 August 2015), 3-4.
Online newspaper article
Author, ‘Title of the Article’, Name of the Newspaper (Date of Publication), <URL> (last accessed date).
N. Motlafi, ‘Why Black Women in South Africa Don’t Fully Embrace the Feminist Discourse’, Mail & Guardian (7 August 2015), <https://mg.co.za/article/2015-08-07-whyblack-women-in-south-africa-dont-fully-embrace-the-feminist-discourse/> (last accessed 30 August 2022).
Motlafi, ‘Why Black Women in South Africa Don’t Fully Embrace the Feminist Discourse’. [you are unlikely to have page numbers for online articles so these do not need to be included]
Motlafi, N., ‘Why Black Women in South Africa Don’t Fully Embrace the Feminist Discourse’, Mail & Guardian (7 August 2015), <https://mg.co.za/article/2015-08-07-whyblack-women-in-south-africa-dont-fully-embrace-the-feminist-discourse/> (last accessed 30 August 2022).
You should avoid citing webpages unless you are clear of their quality and suitability for inclusion in academic work. See the link at the bottom of the page for more information about evaluating webpages.
Author(s)/Editors [if known], Website Name [website] (published/last updated date) [if known, this is very useful information that should be included], <URL> (last accessed date).
B. Dibble and B. Milech, Elizabeth Jolley Research Collection [website] (published 2008), <http://john.curtin.edu.au/jolley/index.html> (last accessed 15 September 2022).
Dibble and Milech, Elizabeth Jolley Research Collection .
Dibble, B., and Milech, B., Elizabeth Jolley Research Collection [website] (published 2008), <http://john.curtin.edu.au/jolley/index.html> (last accessed 15 September 2022).
Author, ‘Title of Article/Page’, Name of Website [blog] (Date Published/Uploaded), <URL> (last accessed date).
Example (first footnote:
A. Bovey, ‘Inside the Walls: Exploring Medieval Towns’, The British Library [website] (30 April 2015) <https://www.bl.uk/the-middle-ages/articles/inside-the-walls-exploring-towns-inthe-middle-ages> (last accessed 15 September 2019).
Bovey, ‘Inside the Walls’.
Bovey, A., ‘Inside the Walls: Exploring Medieval Towns’, The British Library [website] (30 April 2015) <https://www.bl.uk/the-middle-ages/articles/inside-the-walls-exploring-towns-inthe-middle-ages> (last accessed 15 September 2019).
For internet resources, the same rules as given above apply regarding multiple authors and/or edited volumes.
- Evaluating websites Hints on assessing the reliability of information you find on the Internet.
Your bibliography should be divided into two parts : ‘Primary Material’ and ‘Secondary Literature’. Under these two headings you might wish to use further subheadings to separate different forms of material, such as 'Manuscript Sources' and 'Printed Sources' under 'Primary Materials' or 'Printed Sources' and 'Internet Resources' under 'Secondary Works'.
Organise your bibliography alphabetically – usually this is done by the author’s surname. Exceptions to this are:
- with certain primary materials whose authors are known by a title and not a surname, you use the first letter of the author’s first name (e.g. William of Malmesbury = W)
- with anonymous works, or where there is no named author (e.g. a collection of documents) – use the first letter of the title or use ‘Anon.’
When listing several works by the same author, you should list them by date of publication (starting with the first to be published).
Given the impact of ChatGPT and other writing tools based on Generative Artificial Intelligence, students are reminded that their work must be referenced and drawn from their own research. This means that all quotes, paraphrased content, factual details and applied arguments must be referenced clearly in line with the departmental style guide and all footnotes should include page numbers . This allows lecturers/tutors to check and cross-reference assessed work. Students must be able to demonstrate where the information used in their work comes from, particularly if reading is drawn from outside of the module reading list.
Find out more on our EndNote webpages:
- Library guide to EndNote Information on using EndNote and Endnote online, and details of training sessions.
For information on other options for electronic management of your references see our guide to Managing references:
- Managing references An overview of different systems for managing your references.
Get help from your librarian
- << Previous: Primary sources
- Last Updated: Dec 4, 2023 3:57 PM
- URL: https://libguides.reading.ac.uk/history
Academia.edu no longer supports Internet Explorer.
To browse Academia.edu and the wider internet faster and more securely, please take a few seconds to upgrade your browser .
Enter the email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset link.
- We're Hiring!
- Help Center
Indicative Bibliography for PhD Thesis
The data used to reconstruct the historical narrative will be culled from primary sources – printed books, official correspondence, private letters, travelogues, official publications, newspaper articles, parliamentary debates, speeches, memoirs, prose and poetry, and pamphlets.
Journal of Historical …
International bibliography of historical sciences | Ed. by Massimo Mastrogregori
International bibliography of historical sciences, vol. 81 (2012), section K
International bibliography of historical sciences, vol. 82 (2013), section K
Maeva Le Roy
International bibliography of historical sciences, vol. 79 (2010), section K
International bibliography of historical sciences, vol. 83 (2014), section K
Sajid M Awan
International bibliography of historical sciences, vol. 80 (2011), section K
Stefan Berger/Christoph Conrad (Eds.): The Past as History. National Identity and Historical Consciousness in Modern Europe, pp. 285-379.
EUROPEAN POLITICAL HISTORY: A DRIFT TOWARDS A NEW ERA
International bibliography of historical sciences | Ed. by Massimo Mastrogregori , Massimo Mastrogregori
Intro to New Perspectives on the History of Political Economy (London: Palgrave MacMillan, 2018)
The Palgrave Handbook of State-Sponsored History After 1945
Encyclopedia of Historians and Historical Writing. 2 vols.
International Review of Social History
Alexandru Ionicescu , Ariadna Petri , Avram Cezar , alexandra porumbescu , Lucian Dindirică , Nicoleta Ciachir
Gelencsér I L D I K Ó Éva
Andrew I Port
Germany and the use of force
- We're Hiring!
- Help Center
- Find new research papers in:
- Health Sciences
- Earth Sciences
- Cognitive Science
- Computer Science
- Academia ©2023
Crafting A History Dissertation Bibliography: 8 Effective Tips
The dissertation bibliography is one of the most important sections of the final graduation project in working towards a master’s or PhD degree. However, since it’s often view as the last component of the dissertation, a lot of students wait until the last minute then rush through its composition without giving it the proper attention. Mistakes to a bibliography can cost you a letter grade and sometimes worse. Here are 8 effective tips for crafted a great history dissertation bibliography the correct way:
- Keep Your Bibliography at the End
The first tip is the simplest in that you need to keep your bibliography at the end. Don’t move outside of the accepted standards by making an ill-advised stylistic choice. Stick with the requirements to avoid being deducted valuable points.
- Choose the Correct Citation Format
You should always check with both your advisor and the department to ensure that you have chosen the correct citation format for your discipline. MLA is the standard use in history; however, depending on the branch and approach in study, you might be required to use another.
- Take Complete Information as You Read
A great way of saving time and in preventing you from making mistakes is to take down the complete citation information as you conduct your research. Use notecards to keep the information organized.
- Be Sure You Are Consistent Throughout
After you’ve chosen the correct citation format, you need to be sure you pay attention to consistency. Nothing is more distracting than inconsistency and it could have serious consequences when your graduate advisor finally reviews your work.
- Don’t Leave Any Entry Information Out
Be sure your citations include all of the appropriate information. In history, you may have both primary and secondary resources you have used in your research. Check the appropriate style guide to learn how to put in all appropriate information correctly.
- Don’t Leave Out a Single Citation Used
This is extremely important. Even if you have only borrowed an idea and paraphrased it in your writing, you should never leave out a single citation no matter how small it may seem to you. If you don’t give proper credit you risk being accused of plagiarism, a serious offense that could jeopardize all of your work.
- Double Check Authors’ Correct Spelling
After you’ve completed putting together the entire bibliography it’s a good idea to check for some of the mistakes that can easily be made when working under pressure. One of the most common mistakes is misspelling author’s name.
- Cross Reference Each One for Insurance
Lastly, be sure to cross reference each bibliographic entry against the information you included within the text. This may seem time-consuming but it’s important that everything listed is accurate.
Experienced college essay service - get your admission essay written by and expert from US.
Creating dissertation title pages
History dissertation bibliography
Picking a proper service
Tips on master's dissertations
Finding paper templates in nursing
Radiography dissertation samples
Writing hints: diabetes and depression
Beginning a dissertation properly
Template history dissertations
Sample paper proposal summary
Proposal structure examples
Crafting a PhD thesis in philosophy
In search of a thesis writer
Tips on a PhD thesis on theology
Undergraduate proposal hints
Hiring a writer for a dissertation
Purchasing dissertations with ease
How to find a good writer
Purchasing theses without problems
Why to use an assistance company
Dissertation writers for hire
Ideas on data mining
Picking a writing agency
Hiring a good thesis writer
Who can compose my paper?
Biology proposal hints
PhD dissertation planning
Introduction from the first person
Sample undergraduate paper proposals
MBA dissertation proposal tips
Composing a literature review
Writing ideas on church leadership
Looking for a thesis writer
Getting cheap dissertation assistance
Pros of writing help
Buying dissertations safely
Picking a writer
How to select a thesis writer
Crafting a philosophy thesis
Thesis writing company selection
Online assistance with dissertations
Searching for good services
- Teesside University Student & Library Services
- Subject LibGuides
- How to Reference
- Finding Books
- Finding Journal Articles
- Finding Digital Media, Newspapers, Official Documents & Statistics
- Resources for finding Open Access content
- Primary Research
- Writing Assignments
- Reading Lists Online
- Teesside Advance Recommended Book Bundles
Why do I need to reference?
You need to reference to:.
- acknowledge the work of other writers.
- demonstrate the body of knowledge upon which your research is based.
- show you have widely researched the topic and on what authority you based your arguments and conclusions.
- enable all those who have read your work to locate your sources easily.
- avoid being accused of plagiarism - that is passing off someone else's work as your own.
There are two parts to referencing:
- Citation (in Footnote): the acknowledgement in your text, giving details of the work. The reader should be able to identify or locate the work from these details in your bibliography.
- Bibliography: the list of references at the end of your work. These should include the full information for your citations so that readers can easily identify and locate each piece of work that you have used. It is important that these are consistent, correct and complete.
General Referencing Principles for History
Referencing style for footnotes.
- If you cite the same source in consecutive footnotes/endnotes, then use ibid (from the Latin ibidem, meaning ‘in the same place’) for the second and subsequent footnotes/endnotes.
- After the first, extensive reference, subsequent, non-consecutive footnotes/endnotes should give the minimum necessary information (e.g. Green, p.355; Martel, p.119).
- If you cite two items by the same author, then, to avoid confusion, give a short title as well (e.g. Green, Fatherlands, p.355; Green, ‘German Federalism’, pp.129-33).
- Always put a list of all books, articles and other sources used at the end of your coursework.
- In most cases you will have used only books and articles, but in some cases your bibliography will be more extensive. In such circumstances, it should be subdivided into two categories: primary sources (e.g. private papers, official publications, newspapers) and secondary sources (books, articles and theses).
- The layout and referencing of primary sources will depend on the nature of the sources that you have used. Consult your module tutor for further guidance.
- Secondary sources should be arranged in alphabetical order according to the authors’ surnames (or titles where there is no cited author) and set out according to the conventions described in the ‘Referencing Style’ above.
- With edited collections, note that the article and author should be cited and not simply the book and editor.
S. Berger & N. LaPorte, ‘In Search of Antifascism: The British Left’s Response to the German Democratic Republic’, German History 26:4 (2008), pp.536-52.
A. Green, Fatherlands: State-Building and Nationhood in Nineteenth-Century Germany (Cambridge, 2001).
B. Vick, ‘Language and Nation’, in T. Baycroft & M. Hewitson (eds.), What is a Nation? Europe 1789-1914 (Oxford, 2006), pp. 155-70.
- Book referencing examples
- Journal referencing examples
- Website referencing examples
Referencing style for footnotes .
The referencing of primary sources will depend on the nature of the sources that you have used. You should therefore consult your module tutor for further guidance.
Books (single author)
A. Green, Fatherlands: State-Building and Nationhood in Nineteenth-Century Germany (Cambridge, 2001).
Books (two authors)
O. Figes & B. Kolonitskii, Interpreting the Russian Revolution: The Language and Symbols of 1917 (New Haven, 1999).
Books (subsequent editions)
I.F.W. Beckett, The Great War (second edition, Harlow, 2007).
J.M. Roberts, Europe 1880-1945 (third edition, Harlow, 2001).
T. Buchanan & M. Conway (eds.), Political Catholicism in Europe 1918-1965 (Oxford, 1996).
A. Green, ‘How did German Federalism Shape Unification?’, in R. Speirs & J. Breuilly (eds.), Germany’s Two Unifications: Anticipations, Experiences, Responses (Basingstoke, 2005), pp.122-38.
B. Vick, ‘Language and Nation’, in T. Baycroft & M. Hewitson (eds.), What is a Nation? Europe 1789-1914 (Oxford, 2006), pp.155-70.
How to reference a journal
Journal articles, g. martel, ‘decolonisation after suez: retreat or rationalisation’, australian journal of politics and history 46:3 (2000), pp.403-417., journal articles (two authors), s. berger & n. laporte, ‘in search of antifascism: the british left’s response to the german democratic republic’, german history 26:4 (2008), pp.536-52., journal articles (more than three authors), j. palmowski et al., ‘the long nineteenth century’, german history 26:1 (2008), pp.72-91. , how to reference a website , ‘an act declaring the rights and liberties of the subject and settling the succession of the crown’, the avalon project: documents in law, history and diplomacy [http://avalon.law.yale.edu/17th_century/england.asp], accessed 22 april 2009., ‘constitutional implications of the campaign against nuclear power (november 3, 1976)’, german history in documents and images [http://germanhistorydocs.ghidc.org/sub_document.cfmdocument_id=1114], accessed 22 april 2009., conference proceedings.
C. Albrecht, ‘Economic Nationalism in the Sudetenland, 1918-1938’, Proceedings of the British Academy. Volume 140: Czechoslovakia in a Nationalist and Fascist Europe (Oxford, 2007), pp.89-108.
C. Burke, ‘Working Class Politics in Sheffield, 1900-1920: A Regional Study in the Origins and Early Growth of the Labour Party’(PhD Thesis: Sheffield City Polytechnic, 1983).
P.E. Lynn, ‘The Shaping of Political Allegiance: Class, Gender, Nation and Locality in County Durham 1918-1945’ (PhD Thesis: University of Teesside, 1999).
‘“Nazi” Gains Expected in Bavaria’, The Times , 11 September 1930.
Click on the link below to access the referencing guidelines for your School.
- History referencing guidelines
RefWorks allows you to create and manage your own personal database of useful references. You can then use these to quickly compile a reference list or bibliography for your assignments.
Click on the RefWorks logo above for more information, and details of Library workshops on how to use Refworks.
- << Previous: Resources for finding Open Access content
- Next: Primary Research >>
- Last Updated: Nov 23, 2023 12:21 PM
- URL: https://libguides.tees.ac.uk/history