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Data protection and research: A vital challenge in the era of COVID-19 pandemic

The issue of data protection in research is becoming of pivotal importance, in particular in the last months with the pandemic emergency of COVID-19. 1 Studying the development of the outbreak on affected populations under a scientific and statistic perspective is necessary to understand the trend of contagion, the effectiveness of social distancing measures, the most vulnerable people who are the target of the virus, etc. This has posed several questions in terms of privacy and data protection. 2 Medical researchers and even data scientists might use health data of patients for secondary purposes, different from the original purpose of the mere provision of healthcare services. In addition, researchers might analyse telcom data, such as location data, 3 of patients (or just of citizens of mostly affected area) to understand their movements and the spread of the virus. 4 Also, beyond research, these data have high potentials for further purposes (state surveillance on infected people, the enforcement of social distancing rules, etc.), and related high risks for fundamental rights and freedoms of data subjects (discrimination, stigmatization, unnecessary state surveillance and related chilling effect, profiling for manipulative purposes, etc.). 5

Accordingly, the application of privacy and data protection rules to research has reached higher attention in media, institutions and in the academic arena, although the topic seemed to be not adequately discussed in literature so far, unless few but relevant exceptions in the last months. 6 This is why the need to further analyse this topic is even more pressing today. This special issue of Computer Law and Security Review has this goal: investigating on rules, potentialities and open issues of data processing for research purposes.

The entry into force of the GDPR has given much more relevance to the issue of data protection in the field of research. The notion of research is now explicitly mentioned as an exception to the prohibition of processing of special categories of personal data (Article 9(j)), but also as an exception to the purpose limitation principle (Article 5(1)(b), to the storage limitation principle (Article 5(1)(e) and as a possible derogation from some rights (right to access, rectification, restriction and objection). These exceptions, however, are counterbalanced by specific safeguards to be adopted in case of research purposes (Article 89). As also the preamble reveals, the GDPR recognises and encourages the development of scientific research 7 (and this is why it provides specific exemptions to the general limits of data protection principles and rights), but with alternative suitable measures that need to be respected. Such measures may include specific transparency safeguards, simplified exercise of data protection rights, security measures and an attentive analysis of the impact of research on data subjects. In other words, one of the most relevant principles that researchers should take into account is accountability ( see Ben Wagner in this special issue ). Notions like data protection by design and DPIA becomes thus central. In general terms, we can affirm that there is a sui generis protection for the processing of personal data for research purposes. 8

However, many issues are still unsolved, e.g.: how can we delimit the notion of “research” avoiding abuses of such terms as a legal ground for data processing? How to adequately protect research subjects, in particular the vulnerable data subjects? Should we consider consent as an adequate legal basis for processing data for research purposes or, to the contrary, it is highly unlikely that research subjects (including the vulnerable ones) might give a really “free” and unbiased consent? How could we enhance transparency in practice? What is the role of the accountability principle (including DPIA) when dealing with data processing in research and how such principle should interact with the principle of “ethics in research”? This special issue of CLSR will try to engage in discussions on these fundamental research questions.

The definition of research is vague and broad in the GDPR, since – as recital 159 explains – it should include also “technological development and demonstration, fundamental research, applied research” and even “privately funded research”. This might pose several interpretational issues, including e.g., defining the borderline between marketing studies and private researches; or between academic expression and scientific research; 9 between medical treatment and health research, which is a timely problem in the age of coronavirus pandemic.

Interestingly, the EDPS has tried to delimit more the notion of research, to the cases with the aim of growing society's collective knowledge and wellbeing, as opposed to serving primarily one or several private interests. 10 But this notion seems still relative and open to discussions and interpretations ( see Rossana Ducato in this special issue ).

Another issue is what the exact relationship between law and ethics in research is (in particular in case of Coronavirus-related researches) 11 : recital 33 argues that the provision of consent should be allowed also in case of undefined purposes, but only when “recognised ethical standards for scientific research” are respected. Interestingly, this is the only reference to ethics in the GDPR, 12 despite the broad discussion about data ethics in the European literature 13 ( see Charles Raab in this special issue ).

Consent and purpose limitations are indeed two key issues that are largely addressed in this special issue, in particular in some critical areas of research, like genomic research ( see Dara Hallinan in this special issue ). The EDPB has already been very critical to the large use of consent in data processing for research purposes, in particular in case of medical trials. 14 Research subjects are often in a situation of power asymmetry (patients, employees, asylum seekers, etc.) that generates decisional vulnerability. 15 Such vulnerability does not allow them to give a really free consent according to Article 7 GDPR. This is in line with large part of legal literature in the field of data protection that recommends limiting the use of “consent” as a legal basis due to its fallacy and the difficulty to reach a really informed and free consent. 16 However, the EDPS seems to generally accept the use of consent in the research field, although at some specific conditions. 17 The problem of using alternative legal bases are at least two.

First , while private universities or research entities can use “legitimate interests” (Article 6(f)), public universities or research centres would be forced to use “public interests” (Article 6(e)) 18 : this might create unreasonable disparities between different entities that should however respect similar rules and ethical standards (e.g., private entities would be required to do the balancing test, while the public ones would not; in case the data subjects object to the data processing according to Article 21, public entities could profit from the exemption at Article 21(6), 19 while private entities cannot).

Second , in case of processing of special categories of personal data, the only legal basis alternative to consent might be the necessity for scientific research purpose (Article 9(2)(j)), but that legal basis is conditional to the approval of a “Union or Member State law which shall be proportionate to the aim pursued, respect the essence of the right to data protection and provide for suitable and specific” safeguards. As the EDPS argued, many Member States have not yet approved these laws. 20 Accordingly, researchers might not use that exemption and would be required to ask for explicit consent (Article 9(2)(a)), even though it might be inappropriate in case of power imbalance between researchers and subjects.

Actually, in the age of COVID-19 pandemic, most Member States have already approved emergency pieces of legislation that include also the processing of special categories of data for research purposes. 21 However, as also the EDPB has clarified, these legislations should be strictly limited to the duration of the emergency at hand and prove necessity and proportionality of the derogatory provisions. 22 The issue of necessity and proportionality is a key issue also in the implementation of the DPIA (Article 35(3)(b)). 23

Another relevant problem in data processing for research purposes, especially in the age of pandemic, is purpose limitation. As affirmed above, the risks (e.g. for personal data of people tested positive to COVID-19) of secondary purposes with significantly adverse effects on individuals (and on democracy in general) 24 might be relevant. The principle of purpose limitation in research might be limited, but relevant safeguards (Article 89) should be implemented: e.g., pseudonymization, transparency and personalized safeguards for vulnerable individuals ( see Denise Amram in this special issue ). Each of these points, however, might be problematic.

As regards pseudonymised data in research, some commentators have posed interpretational issues in case the data are acquired without the identifiers from a research entity which has pseudonymised the data: can these de-identified data be considered anonymous for whom acquires them? 25

Regarding transparency duties, more discussion is needed for particular personalised information and legibility requirements in case of research ( see Arianna Rossi and Gabriele Lenzini in this special issue ): there might be “secondary” data subjects (e.g. relatives of the genomic research subject) that are not informed 26 or there might covert researches where disclosing information might be detrimental to the success of the research (but the GDPR cannot help, since there are no exemptions for data collected directly from the subjects, Article13), 27 or there might be particularly cognitive vulnerable subjects that would not understand standard information.

The issue of vulnerable data subjects seems particularly unexplored in the data protection framework ( see Gianclaudio Malgieri and Jedrzej Niklas in this special issue ): the perspective of data protection in research (and the related literature on research ethics 28 ) might be an opportunity to finally address this issue, which also WP29 touched upon (without clear explanation) in several parts. 29

This special issue is not aimed at offering clear answers, but clear problematizations of open issues. The aim is to open a vivid discussion with scholars, policymakers, institutions and stakeholders in order to balance two fundamental values of our society, which are also strongly related: cultural and scientific growth and fundamental rights and freedoms (including privacy and data protection). The first without the second has little value.

Declaration of Competing Interest

No conflict of interest.

The deputy editor is extremely grateful to the authors and the secret reviewers for their invaluable efforts. This special issue is open access and funded by the EU Commission, H2020 SWAFS Programme, PANELFIT Project, research grant number 788039.

1 European Data Protection Board, Guidelines 03/2020 on the processing of data concerning health for the purpose of scientific research in the context of the COVID-19 outbreak, Adopted on 21 April 2020, https://edpb.europa.eu/sites/edpb/files/files/file1/edpb_guidelines_202003_healthdatascientificresearchcovid19_en.pdf

2 Kelly Kelly Servick, ‘Cellphone Tracking Could Help Stem the Spread of Coronavirus. Is Privacy the Price?’ Science AAAS (22 March 2020) < https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2020/03/cellphone-tracking-could-help-stem-spread-coronavirus-privacy-price > accessed 1 April 2020; Janosch Delcker, ‘POLITICO AI: Decoded: Artificial Intelligence in the Age of a Pandemic—Germany's Data Donation Experiment — A White Knight from Beijing?’ ( POLITICO , 25 March 2020) < https://www.politico.eu/newsletter/ai-decoded/politico-pro-ai-decoded-artificial-intelligence-in-the-age-of-a-pandemic-germanys-data-donation-experiment-a-white-knight-from-beijing-2/ > accessed 1 April 2020.

3 Actually, new efforts of researchers are focussing on data minimization techniques that would avoid the use of location data to track possible contagion. See, e.g., Janosch Delcker, Stephen Brown, ‘Europe Shares Code for New Coronavirus Warning App’ ( POLITICO , 1 April 2020) < https://www.politico.eu/article/europe-cracks-code-for-coronavirus-warning-app/ > accessed 1 April 2020.

4 European Data Protection Board, ‘Statement on the Processing of Personal Data in the Context of the COVID-19 Outbreak. Adopted on 19 March 2020’ (2020) 2 < https://edpb.europa.eu/sites/edpb/files/files/file1/edpb_statement_2020_processingpersonaldataandcovid-19_en.pdf >.

5 Yuval Noah Harari, ‘The World after Coronavirus’ Financial Times (20 March 2020) < https://www.ft.com/content/19d90308-6858-11ea-a3c9-1fe6fedcca75 > accessed 29 March 2020.

6 European Parliament and Directorate-General for Parliamentary Research Services, How the General Data Protection Regulation Changes the Rules for Scientific Research. (2019) < http://publications.europa.eu/publication/manifestation_identifier/PUB_QA0419501ENN > accessed 30 March 2020; European Data Protection Supervisor, ‘A Preliminary Opinion on Data Protection and Scientific Research’ (2020) < https://edps.europa.eu/sites/edp/files/publication/20-01-06_opinion_research_en.pdf >.

7 See, e.g., the tone of recital 159.

8 European Data Protection Supervisor (n 5) 21 referring to the ‘special regime’ for scientific research in the data protection framework.

9 ibid 9–10.

10 ibid 13.

11 See the role of ethical checks in this ICT research project adopted by the NHS in the UK: Hannah Devlin Science, ‘NHS Developing App to Trace Close Contacts of Coronavirus Carriers’ The Guardian (31 March 2020) < https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2020/mar/31/nhs-developing-app-to-trace-close-contacts-of-coronavirus-carriers > accessed 1 April 2020.

12 The only other indirect reference is: “breach of ethics for regulated professions” at Article 23(1)(g).

13 See, e.g., Gry Hasselbalch and Pernille Tranberg, Data Ethics: The New Competitive Advantage (PubliShare 2016); High-Level Expert Group on Artificial Intelligence of the European Commission, ‘Ethics Guidelines for Trustworthy AI’ (2019) < https://ec.europa.eu/futurium/en/ai-alliance-consultation/guidelines#Top >.

14 European Data Protection Board, ‘Opinion 3/2019 Concerning the Questions and Answers on the Interplay between the Clinical Trials Regulation (CTR) and the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR)’ (2019) Text < https://edpb.europa.eu/our-work-tools/our-documents/opinion-art-70/opinion-32019-concerning-questions-and-answers-interplay_en >.

15 Éloïse Gennet, Roberto Andorno and Bernice Elger, ‘Does the New EU Regulation on Clinical Trials Adequately Protect Vulnerable Research Participants?’ (2015) 119 Health Policy (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 925.

16 Gabriella Fortuna-Zanfir, ‘Forgetting about Consent. Why the Focus Should Be on “Suitable Safeguards” in Data Protection Law’ in Serge Gutwirth, Ronald Leenes, Paul De Hert (ed), Reloading Data Protection (Springer 2014); Bart W Schermer, Bart Custers and Simone van der Hof, ‘The Crisis of Consent: How Stronger Legal Protection May Lead to Weaker Consent in Data Protection’ (2014) 16 Ethics and Information Technology 171; S. van der Hof, ‘I Agree... Or Do I? A Rights-Based Analysis of the Law on Children's Consent in the Digital World’ (2017) 34 Wisconsin International Law Journal 409; Julie E Cohen, ‘Turning Privacy Inside Out’ (2019) 20 Theoretical Inquiries in Law < http://www7.tau.ac.il/ojs/index.php/til/article/view/1607 > accessed 23 January 2019.

17 European Data Protection Supervisor (n 5) 20.

18 Article 6(1) at its last sentence clarifies that public entities cannot use the legal basis of “legitimate interest” at Article 6(1)(f).

19 Article 21(6): “Where personal data are processed for scientific or historical research purposes or statistical purposes pursuant to Article 89(1), the data subject, on grounds relating to his or her particular situation, shall have the right to object to processing of personal data concerning him or her, unless the processing is necessary for the performance of a task carried out for reasons of public interest”.

20 European Data Protection Supervisor (n 5) 23.

21 See, as the first case in the EU, the Italian Decreto Legge n.14/2020, Article 14.

22 European Data Protection Board (n 3) 2.

23 See, e.g., Dariusz Kloza and others, ‘Towards a Method for Data Protection Impact Assessment: Making Sense of GDPR Requirements’ 6.

24 See, Giovanni Comandé, Denise Amram, Gianclaudio Malgieri, 'The democracy of emergency at the time of the coronavirus: the virtues of privacy', Opinio Juris in Comparatione , forthcoming 2020, http://www.opiniojurisincomparatione.org/opinio/article/view/144/152

25 Miranda Mourby and others, ‘Are “Pseudonymised” Data Always Personal Data? Implications of the GDPR for Administrative Data Research in the UK’ (2018) 34 Computer Law & Security Review 222.

26 Mark Taylor, Genetic Data and the Law: A Critical Perspective on Privacy Protection (Cambridge University Press 2012) 105; See also, on the topic of the use of data of deceased subjects to profile living relatives Gianclaudio Malgieri, ‘R.I.P.: Rest in Privacy or Rest in (Quasi-)Property? Personal Data Protection of Deceased Data Subjects between Theoretical Scenarios and National Solutions’, Ronald Leenes, Rosamunde van Brackel, Serge Gutwirth & Paul De Hert (eds.), Data Protection and Privacy: The Internet of Bodies, (Brussels, Hart, 2018) (2018th edn, Hart Publishing 2018) < https://papers.ssrn.com/abstract=3185249 > accessed 17 December 2018.

27 European Data Protection Supervisor (n 5) 21.

28 See, e.g., Robert E Goodin, Protecting the Vulnerable: A Reanalysis of Our Social Responsibilities (University of Chicago Press 1985); Doris Schroeder and Eugenijus Gefenas, ‘Vulnerability: Too Vague and Too Broad?’ (2009) 18 Cambridge quarterly of healthcare ethics: CQ: the international journal of healthcare ethics committees 113; Florencia Luna, ‘Elucidating the Concept of Vulnerability: Layers Not Labels’ (2009) 2 International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 121.

29 See, e.g., Article 29Working Party, Guidelines on DPIA, WP248, adopted on 4 April 2017, 9. See also Article 29 Working Party, Opinion 03/2013 on purpose limitation, WP 203, 32; Article 29 Working Party, Guidelines on Transparency under Regulation 2016/679" clarifying requirements of the EU GDPR, WP 260, 9; Article 29 Working Party, Guidelines on Automated individual decision-making and Profiling for the purposes of Regulation 2016/679, WP 251 rev.01, 22.

Data Security and Privacy: Concepts, Approaches, and Research Directions

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Dissertation Topics on Data Security and Privacy

Published by Carmen Troy at January 4th, 2023 , Revised On August 16, 2023

For any company and organisation, one of the most important yet sensitive assets is its information. Therefore, it is essential to keep the data secured from getting stolen and avoid getting it used for malicious activities. There are many ways to keep data secure, and in today’s digital, it has become easier to secure data yet too smooth to steal it. However, by employing robust, imperative measures, the data can be secured from harmful encounters.

Anyways, if you are aiming to do your dissertation on data security and privacy or a related topic and are ambiguous about where to start, here is the solution to your problem. Down below is the list of dissertation topics along with their research aim regarding data security and privacy to help you get an idea for your dissertation.

You may also want to start your dissertation by requesting a  brief research proposal  from our writers on any of these topics, which includes an  introduction  to the problem,  research question , aim and objectives,  literature review , along with the proposed  methodology  of research to be conducted. Let us know if you need any help in getting started.

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2022 Dissertation Topics on Data Security and Privacy

Topic 1: an investigation of the effectiveness of gdpr in safeguarding the personal data and privacy of e-commerce customers..

Research Aim: The research aims to investigate the effectiveness of GDPR in safeguarding the personal data and privacy of e-commerce customers.


  • To analyse the extent of data protection offered by GDPR concerning AI and big data.
  • To evaluate the data security and privacy concerns for e-commerce users.
  • To investigate the effectiveness of GDPR in safeguarding the personal data and privacy of e-commerce customers.

Topic 2: The data security and privacy challenges associated with Bring Your Own Devices policy in organisations and appropriate mitigation measures.

Research Aim: The research aims to analyse the data security and privacy challenges associated with bringing your own devices policy in organisations and appropriate mitigation measures.

  • To analyse the concept of bringing your own devices policy in organisations.
  • To identify the data security and privacy challenges associated with the BYOD policy.
  • To provide recommendations for improving data security and privacy of organisations and employees in a BYOD context.

Topic 3: The impact of organisational leadership and governance on employee awareness and training about possible cybersecurity attacks.

Research Aim: The research aims to evaluate the impact of organisational leadership and governance on employee awareness and training about possible cybersecurity attacks.

  • To analyse the impact of leadership on cybersecurity awareness among employees.
  • To evaluate the influence of corporate governance on employee training policies about data integrity and cybersecurity challenges.
  • To investigate the impact of organisational leadership and governance on employee awareness and training about possible cybersecurity attacks.

Topic 4: Analysis of the cybersecurity attacks impacting cloud-based ERP systems and recommendations of measures to improve data security and privacy.

Research Aim: The research aims to analyse the cybersecurity attacks impacting cloud-based ERP systems and recommendations of measures to improve data security and privacy.

  • To analyse the susceptibility of the ERP systems to cybersecurity attacks.
  • To evaluate the data security mechanisms of cloud-based ERP systems.
  • To provide recommendations for improving the data security and privacy of cloud-based ERP systems against cybersecurity attacks.

Topic 5: An investigation into the present data security challenges associated with the integration of big data in healthcare with Electronic health systems and available countermeasures.

Research Aim: The research aims to investigate the current data security challenges concerning the integration of big data in healthcare with Electronic health systems and the available countermeasures.

  • To analyse the data security issues of big data.
  • To evaluate the susceptibility of Electronic health systems to data security and privacy issues.
  • To investigate the available countermeasures for the current data security challenges in big data-powered Electronic health systems.

Topic. 1: Blockchain and data security

Research Aim: Blockchain is a decentralised digital record that holds the information of thousands of computer worldwide transactions. The stored data is highly encrypted, and therefore, blockchain technology offers robust security and speeds up the exchange of information cost-effectively.

The aim of the research is to deeply analyse and evaluate blockchain technology for strong data security and how it can be used in corporate settings for boosting security measures.

Topic. 2: Significance of data security and privacy in health care

Research Aim: Keeping the health privacy of the patients is highly important to maintain the follow-up and keep their privacy intact unless they give consent for sharing it with another party. The aim of the research is to find the importance of data security in the health care system by identifying the outcomes of mismanagement of the patient’s health record on the patient and the health institutions.

Topic. 3: Data security and privacy in banks

Research Aim: The aim of the research is to identify the daily challenges that banks have to face in order to keep their highly sensitive data secured and to study what are the ways to keep the data highly secure. It will also study the data security programs that high-profile banks use.

Topic. 4: Why it is imperative for businesses to ensure the data security of their clients

Research Aim: Businesses keep the information of their clients and prospected customers to plan, strategise, and implement their marketing plans. In that regard, they have a bulk of their clients’ information. It is the responsibility of the businesses not to share the information with a third party without the clients’ consent. The aim of the research is to identify the significance of the client’s data security for businesses by analysing their ramifications.

Topic. 5: Challenges of cyberattacks for state organisations

Research Aim: The aim of the research is to identify the daily challenges of cyberattacks that pose to different state-level organisations. It will identify the risks that can threaten the state’s security as a result of the attacks and what are the ways to encounter them.

Topic. 6: Challenges and opportunities of technology for data security and privacy

Research Aim: While technology has geared with the tools to deal with security issues, it has also made it easy for cybercriminals to extract sensitive information. The aim of the research is to identify and explore both sides of technology, advantages and disadvantages,  for data security and privacy.

Also Read: Technology Dissertation Topics

Topic. 7: Data protection vs data privacy

Research Aim: The aim of the research is to compare and contrast data protection and data privacy. While they may look synonymous, they are not. Hence, they have to be ensured in different ways. Moreover, it is aimed to understand the necessary measures required to be taken in order to ensure data protection as well as data privacy.

Topic. 8: The importance of updates for data security

Research Aim: Personal computers and devices are always at risk of data theft, especially ransomware attacks. The updates that people usually are highly significant to counter such threats. The aim of the research is to identify and evaluate the importance of updates to keep the data of a computer system safe and secure.

Also Read: Artificial Intelligence Topics for Dissertations

Topic. 9: Social media accounts and their susceptibility to data theft

Research Aim: Social media platforms are some of the most common avenues for cybercriminals to target their prey. The aim of the research is to identify whether or not social media accounts are susceptible to data theft and how.

Topic. 10: Spam emails; do email websites filter the mails rightly

Research Aim: We see that normally email portals put suspected emails into the spam category, which is a very helpful way of avoiding scams. However, it is significant to understand the effectiveness of the program to accurately trigger all kinds of overt and covert spam messages. The research will aim to find out to what extent the email websites are effective to filter the mails rightly.

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Topic. 11: What do weak passwords look like:

Research Aim: The aim of the research is to find ways to create a good password by identifying the features of weak kinds of passwords. A good password is a prerequisite to keeping computer systems, devices, and digital profiles and all kinds of information safe and secure.

Topic. 12: probing different techniques of data extraction:

Research Aim: There are many ways cybercriminals can extract information from computer systems. The aim of the research is to analyse and evaluate the different kinds of data extraction techniques and provide tips to avoid and overcome them.

Topic. 13: Unlocking phone with password vs face recognition:

Research Aim: Biometric recognition technology has made it much easier to deny access to outsiders and unknown to the computer systems and premises locked with computer systems. The smartphones have that feature too, which means they can be unlocked with face recognition or thumb impression. The aim of the research is to compare the unlocking phone with passwords and face recognition and find out the stronger option between them.

Topic. 14: The new update in WhatsApp: Are messages really encrypted

Research Aim: The aim of the research is to analyse and evaluate the recent updates in WhatsApp and explore if the messages sent between two parties are really encrypted or are shared with a third party.

Topic. 15: Encryption technology of different social media sites:

Research Aim: Different social media pages have different encryption technology used to keep the chats of the users secured. The aim of the research is to explore and analyse different encryption technologies used for differnet social media platforms and identify which one of them offers the best solution.

Topic. 16: cookies and cache files; what do they do

Research Aim: Cookies that we usually accept on different sites without reading why they are used is the negligence we often show. Although cookies and cache files may seem meaningless, they are not. In fact, they can help cybercriminals invade your computers and phones. The aim of the research is to study the function of cookies and cache files in-depth and analyse what they can do to pose a security threat to the data.

Also Read: 5 Dissertation Topics on Cyber Crime

Topic. 17: Mechanics of password protection:

Research Aim: The aim of the research is to study the mechanics of password protection in order to understand what goes into creating a robust password that is difficult to hack.

Topic. 18: IoT and the vulnerability of data theft:

Research Aim: Today, almost everything runs on the internet. The internet of things, the technology embedded in normal things to convert therm into smart devices, has taken over all the arduous tasks such as watching over, cleaning, and washing etc. However, having these devices set into homes and officies also has negative repercussions if the data is stolen. The aim of the research is to study IoT technology and its vulnerability to data theft.

Topic. 19: Bots and cyber security:

Research Aim: The aim of the research is to study and evaluate the future prospects regarding bots taking over the responsibility of cyber security. It will explain and evaluate how artificial intelligence is capable of taking charge of cyber security.

Topic. 20: term and conditions in software:

Research Aim: There are certain terms and conditions that we have to accept to install the software on a computer.  A software mentions in its policy that it might share information with a third party. The aim of the research is to explore what the terms and conditions in software mean and how significantly they can affect the user.

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  • Select a niche area matching your expertise and concerns.

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Dissertation topics on data security and privacy

Over the past decade, there has been a major increase in the volume of data stored or transfered between systems, users, or organisations. Additionally, the rate of sharing personal and corporate data across networks and public cloud platforms has increased greatly. This has also resulted in an increase in security and privacy issues, as network and online attackers are always searching for new methods of gaining unauthorised access to such data. Organisations encounter various challenges to deal with cyber attacks. Data Privacy Law is also a vast and multifaceted area of law that is ever evolving to keep up to date with technological advancements. The new General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) comes in to force on the 28th of May and with it brings a lot of new changes that businesses will have to consider when collecting and holding personal data and the effects this will have on data privacy. Here we take a look at 10 dissertation topics to do with data privacy:

1) Evaluation of the Data Security & Privacy Issues Introduced by Bring Your Own Devices in Business Organisations

The introduction of smart devices such as mobile phones and laptops have resulted in the new phenomenon known as “bring your own device”, whereby an organisation’s employees can conduct their tasks or processes on their own personal devices. However, this approach also introduces major concerns about data security and privacy of corporate data, as employees take their devices everywhere with them, opening more opportunities for unauthorised access to corporate data. The aim of this dissertation is to critically evaluate the data security challenges introduced by BYOD and propose security policies that can aid organisations in implementing a secured BYOD structure.

Source: Rai, S., Chukwuma, P. and Cozart, R. (2017). Security and Auditing of Smart Devices: Managing Proliferation of Confidential Data on Corporate and BYOD Devices. NW: CRC Press.

2) Big Data in Healthcare: Addressing the Current Security Challenges of Electronic Health Systems in Healthcare Organisations

Like other industry sectors, healthcare organisations have also adopted the digitisation of their patients’ medical records. Consequently, health services are currently experiencing a growth in the total volume of data with regards to density, multiplicity and accuracy. However, issues such as patients’ confidentiality and privacy have also become major challenges, with various healthcare organisations experiencing data breaches in recent years. This dissertation aims to evaluate the major data privacy concerns of patiets, and identify the best security policies that can be implemented by healthcare organisations to prevent data breaches.

Source: Munns, C. and Basu, S. (2017). Privacy and Healthcare Data: ‘Choice of Control’ to ‘Choice’ and ‘Control’. New York: Routledge.

3) A Framework for Improving Data Privacy and Security of Public Cloud-based Enterprise Resource Planning Systems

The reliance on cloud based systems such as ERPS in businesses is growing daily, as these systems currently aid in carrying out several processes with improved operational effectiveness and dependability. However, cloud computing introduces securitY vulnerabilities to organisations. This aim of this dissertation is to evaluate the pertinent security vulnerabilities of cloud-based Enterprise Resource Planning systems, and subsequently propose a novel, conceptual, framework on how to improve the security structure of organisations using cloud-based ERPs.

Source: Kumar, V., Chaisiri, S. and Ko, R. (2017). Data Security in Cloud Computing. Idaho, U.S.: Institution of Engineering and Technology

4) Cyber attacks in organisations and the challenges for organisations

Organisations have to address various challenges to try to prevent cyber attacks from occurring. This dissertation aims to investigate the ways in which organisations try establish why the attacks have occurred, particularly in relation to their own staff. It aims to determine how organisations monitor their technology for possible cyber issues.

Source: Kumar, V. Chaisira, S. and Ko, R. (2017) Data security in cloud computing. Reading: Reading Institution of Computing and Technology.

5) How to train employees to be aware of possible cyber attacks

Employees are a significant factor in the prevention of cyber attacks. This dissertation aims to establish the ways in which organisations train employees to be aware of possible cyber attacks. It also aims to establish how staff are developed and empowered to work in a culture based on technological security.

Source: Leennes, R. Van Brakel, R. and Gutwirth, S. (2017) Data Protection and Privacy: (In)visibilities and infrastructure. New York: Springer.

6) Security today: What are the threats to personal and organisational data privacy?

Web security and the Internet face a constant threat for both private users and organisation. This dissertation aims to set out all the possible threats to data security, such as account hacking and insecure cloud services. The dissertation also aims to establish the costs of the security violations for individuals and organisations, for example, blackmail, theft of money, and identity fraud.

Source: Oppitz, M. and Tomsu, P. (2017) Inventing the Cloud Century: How Cloudiness Keeps Changing Our Life, Economy and Technology. New York: Springer.

7) What can organisations and individuals learn from the history of cyber attacks on security and data?

Cyber attacks have had a constant presence in the media in the last thirty years. What can be learnt from these attacks, and can recommendations be made based on an understanding of such attacks, to prevent them occurring? This dissertation aims to set out a history of the major cyber attacks that have occurred in the last twenty years, from 1998-2018. It also aims to make recommendations based on the knowledge of how these attacks occurred for preventing future attacks for both individuals and organisations.

Source: Middleton, B. (2017) A History of Cyber Security Attacks: 1980 to present. New York: CRP Press.

8) How will the GDPR Effect Data Privacy on Social Networks?

This topic would focus on the GDPR and the changes being brought in. Depending on the length of the dissertation you could include a few changes or focus on one that will have great effect on social networks, such as the changes to the legitimate use of data and consent (Article 4 of the GDPR). A recent event such as the Cambridge Analytica scandal would be good to include to analyse the effects that this change would have had on Facebook and whether or not it would have been preventable.

Source: Voight, P. (2017) The EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR): A Practical Guide. Basel: Springer.

9) Data Protection vs. Data Privacy: the new regulation is focused on protecting individuals’ privacy but will this regulation negatively affect businesses too much?

The focus of the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) is to enhance the safety of individuals online and their personal data. There are many protected rights such as the right to erasure of personal data and the right to object to processing. This dissertation would analyse the rights of individuals and focus on how businesses and institutions will fair with their added obligations. The dissertation will also look at the difficulty involved with this and also the risk of not ensuring these obligations are met, e.g. heavy fines.

Source: Salami, E. (2017). An Analysis of the General Data Protection Regulation (EU) 2016/679. SSRN Electronic Journal.

10) The Development and Harmonisation of Data Privacy Legislation. Data privacy has gone through numerous changes over the years, have these changes been advantageous? (Potential focus on research)

This dissertation will discuss the development of data privacy and the various pieces of legislation. It will also focus on the new regulation, the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) and whether this has struck the right balance between protection of privacy and innovation. It would also be good to focus on a particular area, such as research, where there has been a lot of development by the GDPR in terms of processing and consent, Article 6 (4) The GDPR also gives research a broad definition, Recital 159.

Source: Dobrick, Fischer, Hagen. (2018). Research Ethics in the Digital Age: Ethics for the Social Sciences and Humanities in Times of Mediatization and Digitization. Wiesbaden: Springer, pp.29-44

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Dissertations / Theses on the topic 'Privacy and personal data protection'

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Yang, Cao. "Rigorous and Flexible Privacy Protection Framework for Utilizing Personal Spatiotemporal Data." 京都大学 (Kyoto University), 2017. http://hdl.handle.net/2433/225733.

Ophoff, Jacobus Albertus. "WSP3: a web service model for personal privacy protection." Thesis, Port Elizabeth Technikon, 2003. http://hdl.handle.net/10948/272.

Garcia, Arturo, Luis Calle, Carlos Raymundo, Francisco Dominguez, and Javier M. Moguerza. "Personal data protection maturity model for the micro financial sector in Peru." Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc, 2018. http://hdl.handle.net/10757/624636.

Spiekermann-Hoff, Sarah, Rainer Böhme, Alessandro Acquisti, and Kai-Lung Hui. "Personal Data Markets." Taylor & Francis, 2015. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12525-015-0190-1.

Spiekermann-Hoff, Sarah, and Jana Korunovska. "Towards a value theory for personal data." Palgrave Macmillan, 2017. http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/jit.2016.4.

Ravinder, Singh. "Legalization of Privacy and Personal Data Governance: Feasibility Assessment for a New Global Framework Development." Thesis, Université d'Ottawa / University of Ottawa, 2016. http://hdl.handle.net/10393/35333.

Kan, Chi-keung. "A review of the implementation of the personal data (privacy) ordinance in the Hong Kong Correctional Services Department." Hong Kong : University of Hong Kong, 1998. http://sunzi.lib.hku.hk/hkuto/record.jsp?B1971015X.

Dayarathna, Rasika. "Discovering Constructs and Dimensions for Information Privacy Metrics." Doctoral thesis, Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap, 2013. http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:su:diva-89336.

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following paper was unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 6: Accepted.

McCullagh, Karen. "The social, cultural, epistemological and technical basis of the concept of 'private' data." Thesis, University of Manchester, 2012. https://www.research.manchester.ac.uk/portal/en/theses/the-social-cultural-epistemological-and-technical-basis-of-the-concept-of-private-data(e2ea538a-8e5b-43e3-8dc2-4cdf602a19d3).html.

Kamleitner, Bernadette, and Vince Mitchell. "Your Data Is My Data: A Framework for Addressing Interdependent Privacy Infringements." Sage, 2019. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0743915619858924.

Olausson, Michaela. "User control of personal data : A study of personal data management in a GDPR-compliant grahpical user interface." Thesis, Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), 2018. http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-75880.

Kan, Chi-keung, and 簡志強. "A review of the implementation of the personal data (privacy) ordinance in the Hong Kong Correctional Services Department." Thesis, The University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong), 1998. http://hub.hku.hk/bib/B31965507.

Fabbri, Elena. "Privacy By Design e Data Protection Officer: aspetti normativi e buone prassi nel trattamento dei dati personali." Bachelor's thesis, Alma Mater Studiorum - Università di Bologna, 2015. http://amslaurea.unibo.it/8248/.

Sou, Sok Fong. "An approach to protecting online personal information in Macau government." Thesis, University of Macau, 2018. http://umaclib3.umac.mo/record=b3869194.

Törngren, Oskar. "Mergers in big data-driven markets : is the dimension of privacy and protection of personal data something to consider in the merger review?" Thesis, Stockholms universitet, Juridiska institutionen, 2018. http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:su:diva-153509.

Oldani, Isabella. "Exchanging and Protecting Personal Data across Borders: GDPR Restrictions on International Data Transfer." Doctoral thesis, Università degli studi di Trento, 2020. http://hdl.handle.net/11572/270518.

Skolmen, Dayne Edward. "Protection of personal information in the South African cloud computing environment: a framework for cloud computing adoption." Thesis, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, 2016. http://hdl.handle.net/10948/12747.

Maouche, Mohamed. "Protection against re-identification attacks in location privacy." Thesis, Lyon, 2019. http://www.theses.fr/2019LYSEI089.

Weston, Mindy. "The Right to Be Forgotten: Analyzing Conflicts Between Free Expression and Privacy Rights." BYU ScholarsArchive, 2017. https://scholarsarchive.byu.edu/etd/6453.

LaTouche, Lerone W. "Usability Issues in the User Interfaces of Privacy-Enhancing Technologies." NSUWorks, 2013. http://nsuworks.nova.edu/gscis_etd/207.

Favero, Luca. "La dimension externe de la protection des données à caractère personnel dans le droit de l'Union européenne." Thesis, Strasbourg, 2013. http://www.theses.fr/2013STRAA012.

Therése, Nielsen Johannes Wind. "GDPR - Are We Ready? A Comparative and Explorative Study of the Changes in Personal Data Privacy and Its Impact on ICT Companies." Thesis, Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), 2018. http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-20394.

Raad, Eliana. "Towards better privacy preservation by detecting personal events in photos shared within online social networks." Thesis, Dijon, 2015. http://www.theses.fr/2015DIJOS079/document.

Strindberg, Mona. "Protection of Personal Data, a Power Struggle between the EU and the US: What implications might be facing the transfer of personal data from the EU to the US after the CJEU’s Safe Harbour ruling?" Thesis, Uppsala universitet, Juridiska institutionen, 2016. http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-294790.

Österberg, Louise. "Anti-Money Laundering and the Right to Privacy: A Study of Potential Conflicts between the Processing of Bank Information to Fight Crime and the Protection of Personal Data." Thesis, Uppsala universitet, Juridiska institutionen, 2019. http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-390951.

Ladjel, Riad. "Secure distributed computations for the personal cloud." Thesis, université Paris-Saclay, 2020. http://www.theses.fr/2020UPASG043.

Gamboa, Sabina, and Kenny Chauca. "Studenters integritet i Big Data-eran : En kvalitativ studie om oro över personlig data och digital integritet." Thesis, Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för informatik (IK), 2021. http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-104420.

Al, Abassi Baraa, and Sara Aladellie. "Opportunities and challenges with the GDPR implementation : A study of how the GDPR has affected business processes in Sweden." Thesis, Uppsala universitet, Företagsekonomiska institutionen, 2020. http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-417576.

Tenhovaara, Taru. "Transferring Big Data to the United States in the Post Snowden Era : Can the Fundamental Rights of EU citizens laid down in Articles 7,8 and 47 of the Charter be guaranteed?" Thesis, Stockholms universitet, Juridiska institutionen, 2018. http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:su:diva-159827.

Bučinskas, Liudas. "Asmens duomenų apsauga darbo vietoje." Master's thesis, Lithuanian Academic Libraries Network (LABT), 2006. http://vddb.library.lt/obj/LT-eLABa-0001:E.02~2006~D_20060320_153329-71861.

Gerl, Armin. "Modelling of a privacy language and efficient policy-based de-identification." Thesis, Lyon, 2019. http://www.theses.fr/2019LYSEI105.

Machado, Fernando Inglez de Souza. "Privacidade e prote??o de dados pessoais na sociedade da informa??o : profiling e risco de discrimina??o." Pontif?cia Universidade Cat?lica do Rio Grande do Sul, 2018. http://tede2.pucrs.br/tede2/handle/tede/8002.

Walczak, Nathalie. "La protection des données personnelles sur l’internet.- Analyse des discours et des enjeux sociopolitiques." Thesis, Lyon 2, 2014. http://www.theses.fr/2014LYO20052/document.

Gratton, Eloïse. "Redéfinir la notion de donnée personnelle dans le contexte des nouvelles technologies de l'Internet." Thesis, Paris 2, 2012. http://www.theses.fr/2012PA020061.

Dari, Bekara Kheira. "Protection des données personnelles côté utilisateur dans le e-commerce." Phd thesis, Institut National des Télécommunications, 2012. http://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-00923175.

Ökvist, Nicklas, and Max Furberg. "Analysmodell för inbyggt dataskydd och dataskydd som standard." Thesis, Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för informatik och media, 2017. http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-324930.

Khalifa, Otman. "La protection de la vie privée à l’ère des nouvelles technologies : une protection relative." Thesis, Paris 10, 2019. http://www.theses.fr/2019PA100023.

Boumaza-Mercier, Coralie. "Aspects juridiques de la mise en oeuvre d'un système informatisé d'aide aux personnes." Thesis, Montpellier, 2015. http://www.theses.fr/2015MONTD022.

Suárez, Gonzalo Sara. "Big data, poder y libertad. Sobre el impacto social y político de la vigilancia masiva." Doctoral thesis, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, 2019. http://hdl.handle.net/10803/668235.

Nilsson, Eric. "Informerat samtycke till behandling av personuppgifter på webbplatser : En analys av hur kraven i dataskyddsförordningen kommer att påverka den personliga integriteten i praktiken." Thesis, Uppsala universitet, Juridiska institutionen, 2017. http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-323168.

Morgenroth, Thomas. "La vie privée en droit du travail." Thesis, Lille 2, 2016. http://www.theses.fr/2016LIL20016/document.

Hedefine, Eeva Kaarina. "Personal Privacy Protection within Pervasive RFID Environments." Fogler Library, University of Maine, 2006. http://www.library.umaine.edu/theses/pdf/HedefineEK2006.pdf.

Rossi, Julien. "Protection des données personnelles et droit à la vie privée : enquête sur la notion controversée de « donnée à caractère personnel »." Thesis, Compiègne, 2020. http://www.theses.fr/2020COMP2549.

Pezzi, Ana Paula Jacobus. "A necessidade de proteção dos dados pessoais nos arquivos de consumo: em busca da concretização do direito à privacidade." Universidade do Vale do Rio do Sinos, 2007. http://www.repositorio.jesuita.org.br/handle/UNISINOS/2400.

Franceschini, Davide. "Panoramica sull'utilizzo etico dei Big Data." Bachelor's thesis, Alma Mater Studiorum - Università di Bologna, 2017. http://amslaurea.unibo.it/13809/.

Loukides, Grigorios. "Data utility and privacy protection in data publishing." Thesis, Cardiff University, 2008. http://orca.cf.ac.uk/54743/.

Duaso, Calés Rosario. "Principe de finalité, protection des renseignements personnels et secteur public : étude sur la gouvernance des structures en réseau." Thèse, Paris 2, 2011. http://hdl.handle.net/1866/12714.

Goulvestre, Ann-maël. "La RFID et le droit." Thesis, Aix-Marseille, 2013. http://www.theses.fr/2013AIXM1016.

Henrique, Lygia Maria Moreno Molina. "Proteção de dados pessoais: um direito relevante no mundo digital." Pontifícia Universidade Católica de São Paulo, 2016. https://tede2.pucsp.br/handle/handle/7009.

Sweatt, Brian M. (Brian Michael). "A privacy-preserving personal sensor data ecosystem." Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2014. http://hdl.handle.net/1721.1/91875.

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Data protection in the age of Big Data: legal challenges and responses in the context of online behavioural advertising


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  1. A Review of Data Protection Regulations and the Right to Privacy: the

    MASTER'S THESIS Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of International Affairs at the City College of New York COLIN POWELL SCHOOL FOR CIVIC AND GLOBAL LEADERSHIP ... data protection legislation which resembles that of the EU General Data Protection Regulation.

  2. PDF The Role of Data Protection and Cybersecurity Regulations in Artificial

    thesis research is to understand the legal and policy framework positioning of data protection and the cybersecurity of the data in the supply chain of AI, and precisely the big data consisted of personal data in jurisdictions of the EU, the US and China to understand how it could impact

  3. PDF Data Protection and Right to Privacy.

    Data protection law is seen as substantiating both the right to privacy and the right to the protection of personal data, two distinct but related fundamental rights under the European Union's Charter of Fundamental Rights (Clément-Fontaine 2017; González Fuster 2014a). Given that we just defined "privacy" as the object of the "right ...

  4. PDF Data protection in thesis

    2 Data protection in Tampere Universities Data protection is the process of protecting personal data. Data protection is a fundamental right and safeguards the rights and freedoms of data subjects (=research participants) when their personal data is processed. Every community member's duty

  5. Your Data Is My Data: A Framework for Addressing Interdependent Privacy

    The challenge of personal data protection is growing and necessitates a better understanding of the dynamics that induce the sharing of others' information. Our 3R framework provides such an understanding. It contributes to prior literature by adding a multiactor perspective, juxtaposing interdependent breaches of privacy and property ...

  6. Data protection, scientific research, and the role of information

    open access Abstract This paper aims to critically assess the information duties set out in the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) and national adaptations when the purpose of processing is scientific research.

  7. Right to Data Privacy in the Digital Era

    thesis of the previous academic year that is published online as part of the GC publications. The selected seven GC master theses cover a range ... 1 The term 'right to data privacy' is preferred to 'right to data protection' in this study. However, the terms are used interchangeably in various works and laws so the term 'data ...


    with modern data protection issues, the legislation which we now know as the General Data Protection Regulation ('GDPR'), and which became applicable in 2018. This article-based doctoral dissertation sets out some of the key elements of the EU data protection reform package that has been processed for the past six years, and

  9. Data protection and research: A vital challenge in the era of COVID-19

    The issue of data protection in research is becoming of pivotal importance, in particular in the last months with the pandemic emergency of COVID-19. 1 Studying the development of the outbreak on affected populations under a scientific and statistic perspective is necessary to understand the trend of contagion, the effectiveness of social distancing measures, the most vulnerable people who are ...

  10. Browsing LAW PhD Theses by Subject "Data protection -- Law and

    Title: Location data and human mobility : an evaluation of a dissonance that frames data protection and privacy rights  Author(s): ANDREW, Jonathan Date: 2018 Citation: Florence : European University Institute, 2018 Type: Thesis Series/Number: EUI; LAW; PhD Thesis Abstract: With citizens' movements mediated by many technologies that aid our navigation the potential for omnipresent ...

  11. Data Security and Privacy: Concepts, Approaches, and Research

    Data are today an asset more critical than ever for all organizations we may think of. Recent advances and trends, such as sensor systems, IoT, cloud computing, and data analytics, are making possible to pervasively, efficiently, and effectively collect data. However for data to be used to their full power, data security and privacy are critical. Even though data security and privacy have been ...

  12. (PDF) Privacy and Data Protection

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  13. PDF Guide on Good Data Protection Practice in Research

    February 2019 regarding data protection at the EUI. President's Decision 10/2019 has adapted the EUI's Data Protection Policy to the new General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) and Regulation 1725/2018. The goal of this guide is also to provide researchers with a handy tool to guide them through the daily work on their research project.

  14. Effective Digital Marketing in an Age of Privacy Concerns and Data

    This master thesis seeks to investigate the effects that the European Union's General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), as well as the area of data protection in general, have on Austrian tourism ...

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    Topic. 1: Blockchain and data security Topic. 2: Significance of data security and privacy in health care Topic. 3: Data security and privacy in banks Topic. 4: Why it is imperative for businesses to ensure the data security of their clients Topic. 5: Challenges of cyberattacks for state organisations

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  19. Data protection and the prevention of cybercrime : a dual role for

    Data protection and the prevention of cybercrime : a dual role for security policy in the EU? PORCEDDA, Maria Grazia. Florence : European University Institute, 2012, EUI, LAW, LLM Thesis. Cite. Cybercrime and cyber-security are attracting increasing attention, both for the relevance of Critical Information Infrastructure to the national economy ...

  20. Dissertations / Theses: 'Privacy and personal data protection'

    On the 25th of May 2018 the Swedish Personal Data Act (PuL) is replaced by the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR). The regulation is designed to set a uniform standard with regards to the way we collect, use and share personal data of European citizens. This research uses a two-step research approach.

  21. Data protection in the age of Big Data: legal challenges and responses

    This thesis addresses the question of how data protection law should respond to the challenges arising from the ever-increasing prevalence of big data. The investigation is conducted with the case study of online behavioural advertising (OBA) and within the EU data protection legal framework, especially the General Data Protection Regulation ...

  22. PDF The National University of Advanced Legal Studies, Kochi

    DISSERTATION Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the award of the degree of MASTER OF LAW (LL.M) (2020-2021) ON THE TOPIC PRIVACY AND DATA PROTECTION IN CYBERSPACE -A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF DATA PROTECTION LAWS IN INDIA Under the guidance and supervision of Dr. Sandeep M.N. Assistant Professor NUALS

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