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Original research article, impact of pricing and product information on consumer buying behavior with customer satisfaction in a mediating role.
- 1 Department of Product Design, School of Fine Arts, Guizhou Minzu University, Guiyang, China
- 2 School of Mechanical Engineering, Guizhou University, Guiyang, China
- 3 School of Data Science and Information Engineering, Guizhou Minzu University, Guiyang, China
- 4 School of Mechanical Engineering, Guiyang University, Guiyang, China
The relationship between product pricing and product packaging plays an important role in the buying behavior of consumers, whereas customer satisfaction plays a mediating role. To test these hypotheses, research was conducted on university students in China. Questionnaire-based convenience sampling was conducted on 500 students for data collection using online and offline sources. A total of 367 (73%) students responded, and 17 questionnaires were rejected due to missing information. SPSS and AMOS software were used for the data analysis. Product pricing and product information were independent variables in this study, whereas consumer buying behavior was a dependent variable. Customer satisfaction is mediated by one dependent and two independent variables. Confirmatory factor analysis, path analysis, and discriminant validity in structural equation modeling revealed that product pricing and packaging had a statistically significant relationship with the buyer decision process. The introduction of satisfaction as a mediating variable led to the observation of full mediation in the case of product pricing and partial mediation in product packaging. Given the results of this research, product managers should adopt pricing tactics along with product packaging to influence the buying intentions of consumers.
In the competitive market of commodities, products, varieties, consumers, ethnicities, and preferences, product pricing and product packaging information descriptions have a considerable influence on the buying behavior of consumers. To explore the cumulative effects of product pricing and packaging on the buying behavior of consumers of different ethnicities, it is essential to research these aspects of marketing. It is worth mentioning that consumer satisfaction also plays a decisive and mediating role in the development and molding of buying behavior of consumers ( Larsen et al., 2017 ). It is believed that pricing has a significant effect on the buying behavior of consumers because the higher a product is priced, the fewer units are sold. By contrast, products selling at prices lower than the market rate are assumed to sell at a higher volume ( Sadiq M. W. et al., 2020 ). Several studies have shown that pricing is more critical and relevant to consumer buying behavior ( Huo et al., 2021 ).
When discussing the combined effect of product pricing and packaging relationships on consumer buying behavior, pricing alone plays a more critical role than packaging, which has a partial role in buying behavior ( Jabarzare and Rasti-Barzoki, 2020 ). Thus, using this analogy, products can be sold, surprisingly, at a much higher volume. One can increase the prices of the products if the competitor products are scarce in the market or if the manufacturers are low in number. This behavior may not affect the number of sales or the attitude of the consumer toward buying. If the product is already in abundance in the market, then pricing will definitely play an important role because the increase in price will discourage customers from buying it. Similarly, if prices are lowered under such market conditions, then consumers will increase the amount that they purchase significantly.
Even though product pricing has a greater influence than product packaging on the decision process of a buyer ( Pratama and Suprapto, 2017 ; Abdullah et al., 2021 ), high prices in a highly competitive market can lose customers permanently due to the effect of increased pricing ( Kotler et al., 2012 ). While talking about the packaging of products, it should be kept in mind that packaging has a significant relationship on consumers and their decision making about product purchases ( Sadiq M. W. et al., 2020 ). For example, quality, color, and material can have a positive effect on consumers ( Rambabu and Porika, 2020 ). Most consumers desire a range of product choices when purchasing, in terms of packaging. Thus, marketers should place a premium on creative and exclusive packaging that is distinctive in scale, instruction, convenience, product design, and form when compared with rivals in the market segment ( Li et al., 2021 ). Marking a product with accurate information adds to its value. Consumers are attracted to detailed labels, content, and packaging. Many people are influenced by the way a product is packaged and presented in the market. While the product itself may be of any quality, the relationship it produces through its packaging has a strong influence on the purchasing attitude of the consumer. Nowadays, eco-friendly packaging is essential. Thus, advertisers should prioritize this factor and employ best practices to the maximum degree possible, including eco-friendly recyclable packaging ( Abdullah et al., 2021 ). Consumer buying behavior also has a lot to do with product selling and buying ( Brun et al., 2014 ), although some customers are not influenced by the packaging or labeling of products, buying is demand-driven or need-oriented by most consumers.
However, super packaging or labeling of products may not attract the consumer for several reasons. One of the primary reasons may be the high price and packaging, announcing the excellent quality of the product. In such cases, there may be a lack of interest by the consumer toward attractive packaging; instead, they may prefer to buy local products that are cheap and readily available in the market. According to Tu and Chih (2013) , consumer satisfaction is another aspect of product selling and consumer buying behavior. It also plays a mediating role in product buying behavior, pricing, and packaging ( Rambabu and Porika, 2020 ). Even though a price might be negotiable and the product is provided with helpful information and good, decent packaging, there is a lot to do to satisfy a consumer. All of these factors are correlated with consumer satisfaction. If the consumer is satisfied with all these, they may buy the product, but there is no guarantee of this. Thus, consumer buying behavior is also influenced by satisfaction ( Brun et al., 2014 ). This study seeks to answer several questions to explain consumer buying behavior in relation to product pricing and packaging, with consumer satisfaction as a mediating factor. In this work, we first present a brief review of this research, which differs from the current literature in various respects. The research has generated several findings.
• Product prices significantly correlate with consumer buying behavior.
• The product information available on packaging influences the consumer’s buying behavior.
• Satisfaction plays a mediating role in consumer buying behavior.
• Pricing of the product plays an essential role in customer satisfaction.
• Product information available on labels plays a significant role in customer satisfaction.
The remainder of this work is structured as follows: Section “Review of Literature and Hypothesis Development” presents a review of previous studies supporting different theoretical frameworks. Section “Research Methodology” presents the methodology adopted for the empirical analysis. Section “Data Analysis and Results” presents the results of this analysis. Section “Conclusion and Recommendations” concludes the present study, limitations and future directions.
Review of Literature and Hypothesis Development
Product pricing and consumer buying behavior.
Product pricing seems to be the only direct element that generates revenue and indicates the success or failure of a product or service. As a result, the researchers in this study chose to emphasize this aspect. Manali (2015) carried out research into the theoretical dimensions of consumer purchasing behavior and the factors that affect it. He analyzed the relationship between consumer buying behavior and factors affecting the buying process and decisions of the consumers. His research provides enough evidence to show that the internal and external influences of a consumer have a major relationship with their purchasing behavior.
According to Al-Salamin et al. (2015) , good prices of well-known brands negatively affect the purchasing process. Young people are eager to buy brands, but their low income hinders them from doing so. The only aspect of the marketing mix that generates revenue is price, whereas the others generate costs. The authors also noted that the purchasing decisions of consumers focus on their price perception and what they think about the actual price of a product. The main goal of marketing is to understand how customers move toward their price perception. We are all customers, no matter how old, educated, wealthy, or talented. Understanding customer behavior thus becomes a critical challenge for advertisers, distributors, and salespeople. Therefore, we hypothesized the following:
H 1 : Product pricing is significantly correlated with consumer buying behavior.
Product Packaging and Consumer Buying Behavior
Packaging a product with relevant product details contributes positively to consumer buying behavior. Names, features, and product packaging attract consumers. Many people are influenced by the packaging and marketing of items. While a product may be of any quality, the impact on customer purchasing is essential ( Rundh, 2009 ; Li et al., 2021 ; Naseem et al., 2021 ). The aim of this study was to determine the effect of product pricing and information about product packaging on the buying behavior of consumers. Innovation in product labeling and packing often has a major relationship with demand, which is why there are many methods for this type of action plan if a company wants to pursue this strategy with regard to its product packaging. When it comes to packaging, many buyers want a range of product choices. Therefore, marketers should pay high prices for innovative and exclusive packaging that differentiate their products from the competition in terms of size, guidance, functionality, product innovation, and shape ( Rundh, 2009 ; Li et al., 2021 ; Sarfraz et al., 2021 ). For the target consumer, product packaging acts as an outstanding networking tool, ultimately increasing their awareness levels. Packaging must highlight key aspects of the product and brand, such as material composition, purpose, and quality. To show respect for customers, packaging should include all of this information in regional languages. Not only is efficient packaging important for storing and preserving products, but it is also important for creating an interest in and generating actions toward purchasing the product. Packaging that is environmentally friendly has become increasingly important. As a result, marketers should place a high priority on this aspect and use best practices to the greatest possible extent, including the use of environmentally friendly recycled materials ( Deliza and MacFie, 2001 ; Abdullah et al., 2021 ; Mohsin et al., 2021 ).
H 2 : Product information on packaging is significantly related to consumer purchasing behavior.
Satisfaction of Consumers and Their Buying Behavior
Customer value and customer satisfaction are considered important parameters for the relationship between customer value and the willingness to sacrifice ( Zechmeister et al., 1997 ). This sacrifice is made in accordance with an exchange mechanism that includes transaction costs and the risk of the goods of the company. According to Larsen et al. (2017) , customers will be disappointed in the future if the ratio value considered by the economic sacrifice of customers with the goods sold by the company does not meet their expectations. Customers will be satisfied if the ratio value is sufficient or exceeds their expectations. Another analysis of consumer value examines the understanding of customers of the quality and benefits of toothpaste in relation to price sacrifice. Social, emotional, and functional values are all aspects of customer value ( Keller and Kotler, 2012 ).
Customer satisfaction is evaluated by obtaining feedback from customers after purchasing products or services, and then comparing it with their expectations. Customer satisfaction is calculated using the performance requirements of products or services that are capable of satisfying the needs and desires of customers. A satisfied consumer is a consumer who believes that the products or services were worth purchasing, which would encourage them to buy the products again. On the other hand, a frustrated consumer will persuade other consumers not to buy the same brand, which ultimately causes switching to rival brands. According to Tu and Chih (2013) , “customer satisfaction is perceived as affecting repurchasing intentions and actions, which, in turn, contributes to an organization’s potential sales and income.”
H 3 : Satisfaction plays a mediating role in consumer buying behavior.
Role of Product Pricing on Consumer Satisfaction
Price is regarded as something that can be calculated according to several measures, such as a reasonable price, a competitive price, a discounted price, a retailer’s price, and price suitability. Value is a higher-level definition than quality and price because it is more individualistic and personal. A satisfied consumer believes that the value of goods and services is comparable with the price, which will encourage them to repurchase the products. According to Zeithaml (1988) , “quality can be characterized as superiority or excellence in a broad sense.” From the customer’s perspective, “The price is given up or sacrificed to get the product or service” ( Zeithaml, 1988 ). According to Bei and Chiao (2001) , “[P]rice is described as giving or sacrificing for the acquisition of a service or product,” while Kotler et al. (2012) proposed that “the price is the amount paid for a product or service and the sum of the value exchanged by consumers for the advantages of a product or service available or being used.” The perceptions of customers of a given price can have a direct relationship with the their decision to buy a product ( Zechmeister et al., 1997 ). Customers will pay attention to the prices paid by their peers, and no one wants to spend more money than their peers do. The fairness of a price can affect the perception of consumers of the product, and ultimately their desire to become a consumer.
H 4 : The pricing of a product plays a significant role in customer satisfaction.
Role of Product Packaging on Consumer Satisfaction
Packaging and labeling can be considered one of the most important tools in marketing and communication, which means that a thorough examination of their components and their relationships with consumer buying behavior is necessary. According to Joewono and Kubota (2007) , consumer satisfaction results from product and service reviews based on customer perceptions and a broad assessment of the overall consumption experience. It is suggested that customer satisfaction affects repurchase intentions and actions, which, in turn, determine potential sales and revenue for a company. According to Zeithaml (2000) , consumer satisfaction is measured on a multidimensional scale that includes service quality, product quality, scenario factors, personal factors, and price factors.
Product packaging plays a variety of roles. It provides information about the product and the company, connects them with customers, and ensures product quality ( Naseem et al., 2020 ; Rambabu and Porika, 2020 ). It is important to remember that packaging has a significant influence on customers and their purchasing decisions. Consumers react positively to quality, color, and content. Similarly, if a product is labeled with accurate information about the product, it increases the value of the product. Consumers respond to a product’s specific name, ingredients, and packaging. Many consumers are concerned about the way a product is designed and advertised. Although the quality of the product itself may vary, the effect of packaging on customer purchasing decisions is important.
H 5 : Product information available on labels plays a significant role toward customer satisfaction.
Theoretical Support of the Study
The following research was conducted to investigate underlying issues. This study is a continuation of expectancy disconfirmation theory (EDT) and social cognitive theory (SCT). Both theories provide a strong background for conducting this research. According to EDT, the satisfaction of consumers is linked to the expectation and perception of product quality. A consumer sets an expectation before examining a product in real time. This comparison of preset expectations with real-sense performance is the basis of EDT. In this study, consumer satisfaction plays a mediating role between product pricing, product packaging, and consumer buying behavior. The expectations of consumers are based on the price of the product, information on product packaging, and perceived quality.
The other central backbone of this research is SCT, developed by Bandura (2012) , which explains that learning takes place in a social context with a complex and reciprocal relationship between the individual, their environment, and their actions. The emphasis on social relationships, and also external and internal social reinforcement, is a distinctive feature of SCT. SCT considers the specific ways in which people maintain their behavior and interact with others. It also considers the specific ways in which people learn and sustain behaviors and the social context in which they do so. According to this theory, past experiences strengthen ideas and expectations, all of which affect whether a person maintains his/her attitudes. Many behavioral models that are used in studies related to health do not include behavior maintenance; instead, they focus on behavior initiation. This is a shame because the real purpose of public health is to maintain conduct rather than initiate it. SCT aims to illustrate how people monitor and reinforce their actions to achieve goal-directed behavior that can be managed. Thus, the product pricing and packaging of a product with useful information on labels will surely correlate with consumer buying behavior that will persist. The customer will buy or not buy in the future on the basis of the expectations and perceptions of the product once his behavior about the product has already been initiated. A conceptual framework was developed to focus on the specific variables. The framework consists of the hypotheses shown in Figure 1 .
Figure 1. Theoretical framework.
The research methodology of a study represents an essential and integral part of the entire process and explains how science contributes to aims. The behavioral approach of respondents, i.e., expectations, evidence, observations, knowledge of reality, and individual point of view, can be summarized by analytical parameters. According to James and Vinnicombe (2002) , the assurance of objectivity in the scientific procession is compulsory. Furthermore, a perspective emphasizing social variable is considered essential by the society for practical implications ( Blaikie, 2007 ). Their innovative discoveries and interpretation are leading activities of label research.
In this research, the structure of behavior science by Zechmeister et al. (1997) is followed with mediation and description for the problem-solving process. The main focus of this research is the state of mind, mood swings, variations in feelings, and behavior toward the specific situation of the respondents. In addition, the organizational performance in the market and consumer buying behavior can solve many problems by approaching the cooperative feedback process with peers and accumulating knowledge. The analysis of buying behavior may be categorized as “co-oriented” or “comparative.” According to behavioral science, these two factors have real meaning. This study seeks to understand the effect of product pricing and packaging on the buying behavior of consumers. At the same time, satisfaction plays its role as a mediating variable ( Zechmeister et al., 1997 ; Bollen and Pearl, 2013 ). For data collection, self-administered questionnaires were used for quantitative analysis.
The sample of this study comprises students from different universities in China. The main reason for choosing university students is that recent research concentrates on product pricing with consumer buying behavior while considering university students as their population. The population selection is based on the area of interest and importance, which covers the objectivity of this research. Divergent online and offline sources were used to collect analytical data. The questionnaires were circulated among 500 students, and the 367 replied to us regarding that, and so the aggregate received response was 73%. Seventeen answers received from respondents were rejected due to incomplete information, and 350 were finalized for the analytical process. This study used convenience sampling for data collection. Bonds-Raacke and Raacke (2012) suggested that field examinations should use a questionnaire. The researcher used a questionnaire to collect the data in this study. SPSS software was used to check the quality, validity, and scale reliability of the instrument.
Data Analysis and Results
SPSS and AMOS software were used for the data analysis. Table 1 presents the reliability analysis results. Product pricing and product information are independent variables in this study, whereas consumer buying behavior is a dependent variable. In this study, satisfaction is mediated between two independent variables and one dependent variable. All variables have acceptable reliability alpha values.
Table 1. Reliability analysis.
Table 2 shows the descriptive statistics. The mean value of product pricing is 3.4, where product information has a mean value of 3.9, satisfaction has a mean value 3.6, and consumer buying behavior has a mean value of 3.8.
Table 2. Descriptive statistics.
The product price measuring scale was introduced by Lichtenstein et al. (1993) . The Likert scale ranges from strongly agree to strongly disagree, and this scale was used in this research with slight modifications. The Lichtenstein et al. (1993) ranking was further verified by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) analysis to meet the requirements of this research. The measuring scales of Brun et al. (2014) and Zekiri and Hasani (2015) were used to measure the product packaging and customer satisfaction. The behavior of consumers toward buying decisions, the measurement scale of Bagga and Bhatt (2013) is used with slight modification to fit the scale for scope and broaden the view of this research. All predefined models/scales were rated on 5-point Likert scale, with higher numerical values indicating greater satisfaction.
Confirmatory Factor Analysis
The pooled CFA is more reliable than other versions and the most up-to-date approach. The AMOS 24 is used to check the relationship among variables ( Afthanorhan et al., 2014 ; Chong et al., 2014 ).
The results of Table 3 declare the structural fitness of the model by meeting all criterion requirements. The reliability values or factor loading of individual items are presented in Figure 2 . The findings of Table 4 have also covered the composite reliability of a wide scale. The composite reliability is indicated by the reliability of the measurement scales while reporting reliability ( Netemeyer et al., 2003 ).
Table 3. Pooled CFA model fitness tests.
Figure 2. Pooled confirmatory factor analysis.
Table 4. Factor loading of items.
Assessment of Discriminant Validity
Discriminant validity was measured using HTMT analysis by considering two determinants, i.e., supposed to be related or unrelated. The value of cut-off criteria for strict discriminant validity was 0.850, and for liberal discriminant validity it was 0.900 ( Henseler et al., 2015 ), obtained by employing discriminant validity. The following discriminant validity criteria have provided the results of Table 5 .
Table 5. HTMT analysis.
Path Analysis in Structural Equation Modeling
In this study, structural equation modeling was used to determine the proposed relationships. Exogenous variables were included in this analysis to allow for the study of endogenous variables using AMOS 24. Here, we can see whether the independent and dependent variables are linearly related to each other. The analytical observations and their mean values are tabulated and linked with the collected information. The results of Table 6 declare the structural fitness of the model by meeting all criterion requirements.
Table 6. SEM, model fitness tests.
Figure 3 shows the direct effects of the independent variables on the dependent variable. In this figure, the mediator variable is missing from this path analysis diagram to capture the direct correlation of the independent variable on the dependent variable.
Figure 3. Direct effects of path analysis.
Table 7 shows that H 1 , H 3 , and H 5 are statistically significant, and their P-value is less than 0.05, which shows the 95% confidence interval. The structural equation modeling with the path analysis is presented in Figure 4 . The path analysis declared the nature of variables, i.e., two variables are independent: one is the mediator and the other one is dependent.
Table 7. Results of indirect effects.
Figure 4. Indirect direct effects of path analysis.
The findings of Table 8 indicate that both hypotheses are statistically significant, but the observed mediation values for these hypotheses differ. H 2 is statistically significant but has a full mediation effect, whereas H 4 is statistically significant and has a partial mediation effect.
Table 8. Results of indirect effects.
The results of the hypothesis are shown in Table 9 in a more detailed and comprehensive manner. To calculate the standard error with T and P-values and the significance of the path coefficient, bootstrapping (1,000 subsamples) was used, which provided direct evidence of the hypotheses being accepted or rejected. The structural model analysis results show the path coefficients and their significance levels, as presented in Table 9 . The findings confirmed that all five relationships were significant, and it can be concluded that H 1 , H 2 , H 3 , H 4 , and H 5 were supported.
Table 9. Hypothesis results.
According to Sisodiya and Sharma (2018) , the marketing mix has a significant influence on the buying behavior of consumers. In this study, the main principle in packaging is to “reach a greater height of opportunity.” It is often regarded as a critical component of purchase decision making, and has often been shown to be a way of building market awareness and connecting with consumers outside the product itself and across several channels ( Rambabu and Porika, 2020 ; Sadiq W. et al., 2020 ). Packaging performs multidimensional functions. It can not only offer knowledge about products and business entities, but it is also a technique for communicating with consumers and safeguarding product quality ( Silayoi and Speece, 2007 ). Pricing can be considered one of the most vital and essential elements that can influence consumer buying behavior or the buyer decision process ( Dhurup et al., 2014 ; Sadiq W. et al., 2020 ).
According to Kotler et al. (2012) , customer satisfaction “is the extent to which a product’s perceived performance matches the buyer’s expectations.” Aslam et al. (2018) stated that price has a positive and significant correlation with customer satisfaction. Furthermore, they believed that the success of the sector was based on price fairness and customer satisfaction. Previous studies have also discussed this phenomenon in connection with other geographical locations. The price factor is more relatable to consumer buying behavior than product packaging ( Jabarzare and Rasti-Barzoki, 2020 ; Huo et al., 2021 ). Product pricing has a greater influence than product packaging on the buyers’ decision processes ( Pratama and Suprapto, 2017 ; Abdullah et al., 2021 ). Innovation in product packaging also has a significant relationship with the consumer; however, if any organization wants to follow a strategy that is relevant to its product packaging, then there are several strategies for this kind of plan of action. Most consumers desire a range of product choices when purchasing, in terms of packaging. Thus, the marketer should place a premium on creative and exclusive packaging that is distinctive in terms of scale, instruction, convenience, product design, and form when compared to rivals in market segmentation ( Rundh, 2009 ; Bollen and Pearl, 2013 ). Product packaging serves as an excellent networking medium for target customers, eventually increasing their knowledge levels. Packaging must convey pertinent details about the product and brand, including ingredient composition, intent, and consistency. In addition, packaging should provide all of this material in regional languages to demonstrate respect for consumers. Efficient packaging is critical not only for storing and protecting goods but also for generating interest in and action toward buying the commodity. Currently, eco-friendly packaging is essential. Thus, advertisers should prioritize this factor and employ best practices to the maximum degree possible, including eco-friendly recyclable packaging ( Deliza and MacFie, 2001 ; Abdullah et al., 2021 ).
Conclusion and Recommendations
The study results clearly show that both product pricing and packaging have a statistically significant relationship with the buyer’s decision process. At the same time, the introduction of satisfaction leads to the observation of full mediation in the case of product pricing and partial mediation in product packaging. Despite knowing that both the variables have a statistically significant relationship with the consumer buying behavior, it is essential to understand the managerial implications. Suppose, we would like to report and recommend these findings to different organizations looking to cut their operational costs in any possible way without compromising product quality, we suggest in such cases that they focus on pricing strategies for a better consumer response. A focus on the product packaging design process, packaging material, or the information available on product packaging positively influences consumer buying behavior. However, its effect is lower than product pricing. Therefore, it is recommended for managers that if they want to connect with their target customers more efficiently and effectively, they should focus on both product pricing and packaging options. However, if they can afford only one option from the product’s operational cost perspective, they must focus on product pricing strategies.
In future studies, it must be kept in mind that these findings pertain directly to the individuals listed as respondents. To make it more accurate, other demographic, psychographic, and geographic samples should be used. It is likely that when data are thus obtained, the findings will differ. To ensure more lasting and repeatable corporate outcomes, several studies are required to obtain results that are more accurate and reliable.
Data Availability Statement
The original contributions presented in the study are included in the article/supplementary material, further inquiries can be directed to the corresponding author.
HZ, XY, and ZL contributed to conception and design of the study. HZ organized the database, performed the statistical analysis, and wrote the first draft of the manuscript. XY, ZL, and QY wrote sections of the manuscript. All authors contributed to manuscript revision, read, and approved the submitted version.
This work was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (52065010), Open Fund of Key Laboratory of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Ministry of Education (GZUAMT2021KF and GZUAMT2021KF), Natural Science Research Project supported by the Education Department of Guizhou Province [Grant Nos. (2018)152 and (2017)239], Humanities and Social Science Research Project of Guizhou Provincial Department of Education (Grant No. 2018qn46), and the Guiyang University Teaching Research Project (Grant No. JT2019520206).
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article, or claim that may be made by its manufacturer, is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.
CFA, Confirmatory Factor Analysis; RMSEA, Root Mean Square of Error Approximation; CFI, Comparative fit index; EDT, Expectancy Disconfirmation Theory; SCT, Social Cognitive Theory.
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Keywords : product pricing, product packaging, consumer buying behavior, consumer satisfaction, confirmatory factor analysis, structural equation modeling
Citation: Zhao H, Yao X, Liu Z and Yang Q (2021) Impact of Pricing and Product Information on Consumer Buying Behavior With Customer Satisfaction in a Mediating Role. Front. Psychol. 12:720151. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.720151
Received: 03 June 2021; Accepted: 08 October 2021; Published: 13 December 2021.
Copyright © 2021 Zhao, Yao, Liu and Yang. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) . The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
*Correspondence: Huiliang Zhao, [email protected]
57 Inspiring Consumer Behaviour Dissertation Topics and Sample Ideas
Consumer behaviour dissertation topics explore the complex dynamics that influence individuals’ purchasing choices. These topics cover areas like the impact of advertising, online reviews, social media, and cultural factors on consumer decisions. They delve into the psychology behind consumer choices, helping businesses tailor marketing strategies to reach and engage their target audiences effectively. Consumer Behaviour […]
Consumer behaviour dissertation topics explore the complex dynamics that influence individuals’ purchasing choices. These topics cover areas like the impact of advertising, online reviews, social media, and cultural factors on consumer decisions. They delve into the psychology behind consumer choices, helping businesses tailor marketing strategies to reach and engage their target audiences effectively.
Consumer Behaviour Dissertation Topic: “Influence of Online Reviews on Consumer Purchase Decisions”
Brief : This dissertation topic investigates the profound influence of online reviews on consumer behaviour. With the proliferation of e-commerce and digital platforms, consumers increasingly rely on the opinions and ratings of other users when making purchase decisions. This research aims to delve into the factors that shape consumers’ trust in online reviews, examining the role of review quality, source credibility, and the impact of fake or biased reviews. Additionally, the study explores how online reviews affect various stages of the consumer decision-making process, from product consideration to post-purchase evaluation. By analyzing real-world cases, conducting surveys, and employing data analytics, this research uncovers insights into how online reviews can be leveraged by businesses to enhance brand perception and sales. Understanding the dynamics of online reviews in consumer behaviour is crucial in the contemporary digital marketplace, making this topic both timely and impactful.
Are you looking to help with Consumer Behaviour Dissertation Topics? Consumer behavior has always caught the attention of researchers. If you’re planning to research the same area, we have a list of research proposal topics and dissertation topics on consumer behavior to help you in your undergrad and master’s research projects.
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Best consumer behaviour dissertation topics or research topics for master’s and undergraduate students
Here is the list of best research topics in consumer behaviour:
- How do emerging trends influence consumer behaviour and their decisions?
- What are the basic principles of consumer behavior? – A literature review.
- How do satisfy the needs of consumers in the construction industry?
- Can a business run without satisfying the needs of the consumer? – a systematic literature review.
- Why is consumer feedback very important for new startups – a case analysis.
- What is your opinion on the famous saying ‘customers are always right? – a survey analysis.
- To study the barriers between consumer and seller? – a literature review.
- Studying the effects of Digital Marketing on Generation Z consumers in the food industry.
- How do geographical barriers change the needs of customers?
- How to build strong online branding? A systematic analysis of literature and theoretical concepts.
- Evaluating the impact of product design on the consumer – packaging theories and models.
- To study the effect of brand image on the consumer in the airline industry.
- To study the effect of brand pricing on customers related to food products.
- To analyze consumer behaviors on different branding strategies adopted by the smartphone industry.
- Conducting an online survey to know the needs of consumers in the fashion industry.
- To make data of consumers which helps in the development of financial products.
- How are the needs of people changing with their way of living in the rural areas of developing countries? A case analysis.
- How do you think the consumer behavior field came into existence? A literature review.
- To study the mechanism of analysis on consumer behavior.
- Research on rich and poor customer needs – a comparative analysis for the food businesses.
- What are the challenges faced by the customer in product buying?
- To study the role of customers in supply chain management – a systematic analysis of the food supply chain.
- Study the Effects of COVID-19 on consumer behavior.
- To study the risk-taking consumers.
- Do you think consumerism is a form of consumer behavior?
- What are the cross-cultural comer behaviors?
- What is the effect of Greenwashing’s marketing strategy on consumers?
- What is the impact of negative online reviews on customers?
- How do assess if the consumer’s behavior is rational or not?
- To study Maslow’s hierarchy needs of consumer behavior in the light of FMCGs.
- To study neuromarketing and its effects on consumer behavior.
- What are the customer retention methods, and how can companies use this to retain Generation Z consumers?
- To study the effects of packaging of products on customers’ purchase intention.
- Do you think Marketing is a power of emotions?
- To study the relationship between customer loyalty and repurchasing of a product.
- To study the relationship between celebrity endorsement and consumer behavior.
- Impact of Education on consumer behavior towards green products.
- To study the business-to-business relationship to meet the needs of customers.
- The analysis of the effects of a Good online website on Consumer purchasing behavior in the long run.
- Studying the impact of cost transparency and its effects on consumer behavior – literature review analysis.
- To study the impact of sales in malls on consumer behavior.
- To explore the difference in men’s and women’s behaviors in online advertisements.
- Why does a consumer become loyal to brands? – an analysis of the factors influencing brand loyalty.
- What type of consumer considers quality above all? A survey analysis.
- A survey on food courts in malls related to consumer behavior and how they perceive the food options
- To study the child consumer preferences related to fast food products
- To study the role of emotions in consumer behavior.
- What are the possibilities of buying a product?
- To study the Ethnographic factors on consumer behavior.
- What are the current trends in the market to satisfy consumer needs?
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Dissertations / Theses on the topic 'Consumer behaviour'
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Martínez, Bárbara, and Sara Pérez. "Consumer Behaviour." Thesis, Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), 2008. http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-1595.
The aim of this work is to understand the consumer behaviour. The research is going to be focus on the factors that influence the consumers behaviour. The purpose of this paper is to know the different aspects that the consumers have into account when they decide to use a certain product.
Westberg, Kathleen J., and n/a. "The Impact of Cause-Related Marketing on Consumer Attitude to the Brand and Purchase Intention: A Comparison with Sponsorship and Sales Promotion." Griffith University. School of Marketing, 2004. http://www4.gu.edu.au:8080/adt-root/public/adt-QGU20050211.124210.
Westberg, Kathleen J. "The Impact of Cause-Related Marketing on Consumer Attitude to the Brand and Purchase Intention: A Comparison with Sponsorship and Sales Promotion." Thesis, Griffith University, 2004. http://hdl.handle.net/10072/366195.
Lourenço, Jacqueline Areal. "Children consumer behaviour field lab: the Nestum consumer." Master's thesis, NSBE - UNL, 2010. http://hdl.handle.net/10362/10285.
Abu, Hasan Zuha. "Interpreting green consumer behaviour : an exploratory examination of Cardiff consumers." Thesis, Cardiff University, 2011. http://orca.cf.ac.uk/24494/.
Whiting, Philip. "Can Changes to Product Behaviour Alter Consumer Behaviour?" Thesis, Griffith University, 2014. http://hdl.handle.net/10072/366234.
Hasslinger, Anders, Selma Hodzic, and Claudio Opazo. "Consumer Behaviour in Online Shopping." Thesis, Kristianstad University College, School of Health and Society, 2008. http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-4715.
The Internet has developed into a new distribution channel and online
transactions are rapidly increasing. This has created a need to understand how
the consumer perceives online purchases.
The purpose of this dissertation was to examine if there are any particular
factors that influence the online consumer. Primary data was collected through
a survey that was conducted on students at the University of Kristianstad.
Price, Trust and Convenience were identified as important factors. Price was
considered to be the most important factor for a majority of the students.
Furthermore, three segments were identified, High Spenders, Price Easers and
Bargain Seekers. Through these segments we found a variation of the different
factors importance and established implications for online book stores.
Jeub, Lucas G. S. "Networks, communities, and consumer behaviour." Thesis, University of Oxford, 2015. https://ora.ox.ac.uk/objects/uuid:15a20771-8844-4b01-b187-0b8d411bc457.
Dizdarevic, Goran. "Data Fusion for Consumer Behaviour." Thesis, KTH, Matematisk statistik, 2017. http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-209247.
Duh, Helen Inseng. "Money attitudes and materialism among generation Y South Africans: a life-course study." Thesis, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, 2011. http://hdl.handle.net/10948/d1008612.
Blomqvist, Anna, Louise Nyman, and Frida Lennartsson. "Consumer Attitudes Towards Online Grocery Shopping : A Research Conducted on Swedish Consumers." Thesis, Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, 2015. http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-26652.
Ayalew, Romel. "Consumer behaviour in Apple's App Store." Thesis, Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för informatik och media, 2011. http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-166547.
David, Yigal. "Consumer behaviour in voice based interactions." Thesis, Middlesex University, 2015. http://eprints.mdx.ac.uk/17321/.
El, Said Ghada Refaat. "Cultural effect on electronic consumer behaviour." Thesis, Brunel University, 2006. http://bura.brunel.ac.uk/handle/2438/412.
Sehib, Khairia A. H. "Consumer food shopping behaviour in Libya." Thesis, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, 2013. http://hdl.handle.net/10443/2289.
Mahmood, Ammara. "Essays on consumer behaviour and pricing." Thesis, University of Oxford, 2014. http://ora.ox.ac.uk/objects/uuid:2f99d998-5536-44cc-aae1-99fb97f1a191.
Svensson, Karolina, and Nathalie Myhre. "Insights about the Swedish ethical consumer : a study on consumer behavoiur towards fairtrade coffee." Thesis, Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle, 2012. http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-9690.
Dootson, Paula. "Where do consumers draw the line? : an investigation of deviant consumer behaviour." Thesis, Queensland University of Technology, 2014. https://eprints.qut.edu.au/75517/1/Paula_Dootson_Thesis.pdf.
Lefevre, Emelie, and Marcus Nilsson. "The responsible consumer – Consumer consciousness from idea to delivery : an exploratory study of consumers’ willingness to act socially responsible when purchasing fashion online." Thesis, Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för ekonomi, 2020. http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:hkr:diva-20779.
Hanel, Vanessa K., and University of Lethbridge Faculty of Management. "Socially conscious consumer behaviour : the role of ethical self-identity in the use of mental accounting / Vanessa K. Hanel." Thesis, Lethbridge, Alta. : University of Lethbridge, Faculty of Management, 2010, 2010. http://hdl.handle.net/10133/2598.
Nordfält, Jens. "Is consumer decision-making out of control ? : non-conscious influences on consumer decision-making for fast moving consumer goods /." Stockholm : Economic Research Institute, Stockholm School of Economics (EFI), 2005. http://web.hhs.se/efi/summary/673.htm.
Vervliet, Bruce Morton. "A model for green product purchasing behaviour." Thesis, Nelson Mandela University, 2016. http://hdl.handle.net/10948/13636.
HUO, Yue. "Susceptibility to global consumer culture : scale development and purchase behaviour of Shanghai consumers." Digital Commons @ Lingnan University, 2008. https://commons.ln.edu.hk/mkt_etd/7.
Nordling, Cim. "Video consumption in 2020 : A study on consumer behaviour and consumer motives." Thesis, KTH, Medieteknik och interaktionsdesign, MID, 2015. http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-170134.
Abley, Jennifer. "Stated preference techniques and consumer choice behaviour." Thesis, Cranfield University, 2002. http://hdl.handle.net/1826/4063.
Stewart, Christopher. "Modelling and comparing OECD countries' consumer behaviour." Thesis, London Metropolitan University, 1999. http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.297585.
Hewer, Paul A. "The sociology of consumer behaviour and men." Thesis, University of York, 1995. http://etheses.whiterose.ac.uk/10834/.
Norrgård, I. (Isadora). "Consumer buying behaviour in online legal services." Master's thesis, University of Oulu, 2019. http://jultika.oulu.fi/Record/nbnfioulu-201911223154.
Cornovan, Daniela <1996>. "Italian consumer behaviour towards plant-based meat." Master's Degree Thesis, Università Ca' Foscari Venezia, 2022. http://hdl.handle.net/10579/20804.
SEHRAWAT, SHIVANGI. "ANALYSING CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR IN INDIAN HATCHBACK MARKET." Thesis, DELHI TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY, 2021. http://dspace.dtu.ac.in:8080/jspui/handle/repository/18341.
Borowa, Monika. "The demand for tourism services in Poland between 1990 and 2005." Thesis, Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), 2008. http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-1596.
Tourism plays an important role in today’s world. More and more people leave all the issues and problems behind, and just travel to relax and experience something unique in their lives. The main research question of this paper has been created:
“Did consumer behaviour affect what services tourism companies provided in Poland between 1990 and 2005?”
The objective of this paper is to fill the lack of knowledge about tourism offerings in Poland. The purpose of this study is to investigate travellers’ preferences for facilities and services in analysed country between 1900 and 2005. This study also investigates if consumer behaviour affects what services tourism companies will provide.
Apell, Karlsson Jennifer, Moa Gustafsson, and Rikard Rasmusson. "Consumers' Response to Irresponsible Corporate Behaviour : A Study of the Swedish Consumers' Attitude and Behaviour." Thesis, Internationella Handelshögskolan, Högskolan i Jönköping, IHH, Företagsekonomi, 2015. http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-26693.
Perez, Montesa Luis. "Online and Smartphone Consumer Behaviour of Spanish Millennials." Master's thesis, Vysoká škola ekonomická v Praze, 2015. http://www.nusl.cz/ntk/nusl-205808.
Gradassi, Florent, and Justine Viennot. "The country of origin effect on the consumer behaviour : The impact of the "Made in France" on the Swedish consumer behaviour." Thesis, Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), 2014. http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-25469.
Smith, Andrew Peter. "Consumer's product choice behaviour : an application of chaos theory." Thesis, University of Stirling, 2000. http://hdl.handle.net/1893/1452.
Chan, Siu-kay. "Consumption behaviour of Mainland vacation visitors in Hong Kong." Hong Kong : University of Hong Kong, 2002. http://sunzi.lib.hku.hk/hkuto/record.jsp?B25018036.
Chak, Chi-kin. "Consumer behaviour with regard to the replacement of domestic cooking appliances in Hong Kong /." [Hong Kong] : University of Hong Kong, 1990. http://sunzi.lib.hku.hk/hkuto/record.jsp?B12923084.
McCole, Patrick. "Dimensionalising trust in Internet buying behaviour." Thesis, University of Ulster, 2001. http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.272536.
Guido, Gianluigi. "An incongruity-salience hypothesis on consumer awareness." Thesis, University of Cambridge, 1995. http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.263008.
Shum, Yiu-cheung Paul. "Property buying behaviour in Shenzhen." Click to view the E-thesis via HKUTO, 2002. http://sunzi.lib.hku.hk/hkuto/record/B31969203.
Hernández, Maskivker Gilda Maria. "Consumer waiting behaviour: Priority passes in tourism services." Doctoral thesis, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, 2015. http://hdl.handle.net/10803/454776.
Harmgart, H. "Consumer behaviour, feedback information and the supermarket industry." Thesis, University College London (University of London), 2006. http://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/1445544/.
Abdelhadi, Amal M. "Libyan consumer aberrant behaviour: factors affecting its adoption." Thesis, Nottingham Trent University, 2012. http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.657616.
Al-Otaibi, O. S. "Shopping centre development and consumer behaviour in Kuwait." Thesis, University of Exeter, 1988. http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.234014.
Hamilton, Robert. "[Credit] scoring : predicting, understanding and explaining consumer behaviour." Thesis, Loughborough University, 2005. https://dspace.lboro.ac.uk/2134/13053.
Uncles, M. D. "Models of consumer shopping behaviour in urban areas." Thesis, University of Bristol, 1985. http://hdl.handle.net/1983/653c145a-2ac7-49a9-bd65-3bd88de90217.
Hasan, Maher Mohamad. "Factors influencing Consumer Behaviour on the Czech Market." Master's thesis, Vysoká škola ekonomická v Praze, 2009. http://www.nusl.cz/ntk/nusl-16370.
Foxall, Gordon R. "Consumer psychology in behavioural perspective : an evaluation of the contribution of the experimental analysis of behaviour to consumer research." Thesis, University of Strathclyde, 1989. http://oleg.lib.strath.ac.uk:80/R/?func=dbin-jump-full&object_id=21219.
Fu, Qingchen, and Yue Yuan. "Factors influencing Chinese consumer behavior purchasing clothes online in Sweden." Thesis, Högskolan i Gävle, Avdelningen för ekonomi, 2015. http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-19946.
Andersson, Johannes, Martin Blomkvist, and Mattias Holmberg. "Blog Marketing - A consumer perspective." Thesis, Jönköping University, JIBS, EMM (Entrepreneurship, Marketing, Management), 2007. http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-891.
The phenomenon of blogs is growing rapidly and is expected to increase even in a more rapid pace (Technorati, 2006, November 6). As Wright (2006) discuss; blogs provides a new way of communicating with customers, as customers want to be talked with, not to. Companies have newly started to pay attention to this and as a result, the concept of blog marketing has been born. The little research that has been done on blog marketing has been done from a company perspective. However, no or little research has yet considered how consumers use blogs. In order to use blogs as a communication tool, it is of huge importance for companies to understand how consumers use blogs in their decision making. Hence the purpose is;
“To explore how and why consumers use blogs in their decision making process“
In order to answer this purpose we conducted nine interviews on young adults, as previous research suggests that this population use blogs the most (Tremayne, 2007). From the collected data a qualitative analyze was made in which the empirical findings was analyzed with support of the theoretical framework.
From the analysis we found that consumers use blogs throughout their decision making. Within the consumers’ decision making, collaborative blogs was mostly used as the consumers could get more input from a larger audience and because this type of blog tended to cover a specific topic of interest for the consumers. Consumers were found mainly writing in the blogs when they had knowledge to contribute with or when they needed information that they could not otherwise find in the blogs.
We also noticed that consumers turned to groups they belonged to, so called normative group, or they turned to groups that they did not belong to, so called comparative groups. These groups influenced the consumer by providing them with knowledge and by giving them positive and negative confirmation on their choice of purchase. However normative groups also persuaded the consumer to buy products in order to belong to the group.
Besides this, a pattern of characteristics of the individuals that the consumer blogged with were noticed. Consumers wanted user experiences and thus the vast majority of these individuals they turned to, seemed to be consumers themselves, with relevant product experiences. The consumers also seem to blog more with certain individuals, whose opinions were valued more. These individuals often shared the latest information on products.
Lastly we found that consumers seemed to be selective when reading blog posts. The blog posts needed to contain detailed- and up-to-date information. Moreover, consumers wanted blog post to be written by other consumers because they saw them as more credible then companies. The consumers also chose to read blog posts that show similarities be-tween the consumer and the blogger in terms of either usage pattern of product or preference for product choices.
Home » Blog » Dissertation » Topics » Consumer Behaviour » Consumer Behaviour Dissertation Topics (28 Examples) For Research
Consumer Behaviour Dissertation Topics (28 Examples) For Research
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Some of the most interesting consumer behaviour dissertation topics are listed on this site. The list of dissertation topics on consumer behaviour is developed based on emerging concepts and ideas in the field of business and marketing. Consumer behaviour is a vast area to study and has gained the attention of researchers belonging to different […]
Some of the most interesting dissertation topics on consumer behaviour are listed on this site. The list of dissertation topics on consumer behaviour is developed based on emerging concepts and ideas in the field of business and marketing. Consumer behaviour is a vast area to study and has gained the attention of researchers belonging to different fields.
The project topics on consumer behaviour and research topics on consumer behaviour are listed down, and we can also help in completing projects according to your requirements. You can explore the dissertation, project, and research topics to carry out your study.
A list of Dissertation Topics on Consumer Behaviour
How online shopping consumer behaviour affects the high-street shopping patterns in the UK?
Examining the differences between male and female customer psychologies.
Analysing how advertising stimulates excessing consumption patterns.
To conduct a literature review on the importance of understanding customer needs.
Exploring the differences in consumer buying patterns considering different consumer characteristics.
Are the consumers willing to pay a premium for convenience?
Comparing the factors influencing consumer behaviour related to clothing brands in the UK.
Evaluating the country of origin effects on consumer buying behaviour.
Studying the impact of brand association on consumer buying behaviour in the sports industry.
Examining the impact of advertising media on consumer purchasing behaviour related to food and beverage products.
To explore the factors affecting consumer’s purchase decisions in the UK’s retail market.
A quantitative study on how online shopping trends have affected the profitability of leading retailers in the UK – A case study of Tesco.
Studying the impact of trends in consumer’s food behaviour contributing to the development of marketing strategies in the fashion industry.
A review of twenty-five years research of the consumer behaviour study in different markets.
Does e-marketing influence consumer purchase decisions?
Analysing and comparing the strategies used by luxury brands to influence consumer behaviour.
Examining the role of information technology in revolutionising the marketer’s approach to motivate and influence consumers.
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A PROJECT REPORT On CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR IN ONLINE SHOPPING
IOSR Journals publish within 3 days
The purpose of these paper is to identify the attributes of online grocery shopping which has been the motivational factors of customers buying groceries online. To meet the objectives of the study, semi structured formal interviews were conducted with online grocery consumers, who are aware and purchase grocery products from online stores in and around Bangalore City in Karnataka. Convenience sampling techniques was used to collect primary data from online grocery consumers who were happened to be the employees, who are aware, use and purchase grocery products from online grocery stores, working in seven software companies by administering a structured non-disguised questionnaire to online grocery consumers. The data analysis and results were based on 183 usable questionnaires duly filled up by the online retail grocery consumers who actively participated in marketing survey. Descriptive statistical tools (Mean, Standard Deviations and cross tabulations), exploratory factor analysis and inferential statistical techniques such as Chi-square analysis, Correlation, multiple Regression were applied to test the formulated hypotheses from conceptual framework. The seven determinants are convenience, security, trust, service support, flexible transaction, personalized attention, price promotions are having significant influence on consumers online grocery buying behavior.
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