MLA 8th ed. Style Guide: Dissertations, Theses
- Art, Photography, Music
- Business Resources
- Dissertations, Theses
- Emails, Social Media
- Film, Television, Video
- Journal, Newspaper, & Magazine Articles
- Legal Sources
- Parenthetical (in-text) Citations
- Web Sites, Blogs
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Citations for dissertations/master's theses should include the following:
1. Name of Author
2. Title of dissertation/thesis (italicized)
3. Date of Publication
5. Institution granting the degree (optional)
6. Description of the work (optional)
7. Database and URL if accessed through a database or repository
Sample Citation - Dissertations
The institution granting the degree and description of the work are optional. If you accessed the work online, include that information.
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Purdue Online Writing Lab College of Liberal Arts
MLA In-Text Citations: The Basics
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MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook (9 th ed.), offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page.
Guidelines for referring to the works of others in your text using MLA style are covered throughout the MLA Handbook and in chapter 7 of the MLA Style Manual . Both books provide extensive examples, so it's a good idea to consult them if you want to become even more familiar with MLA guidelines or if you have a particular reference question.
Basic in-text citation rules
In MLA Style, referring to the works of others in your text is done using parenthetical citations . This method involves providing relevant source information in parentheses whenever a sentence uses a quotation or paraphrase. Usually, the simplest way to do this is to put all of the source information in parentheses at the end of the sentence (i.e., just before the period). However, as the examples below will illustrate, there are situations where it makes sense to put the parenthetical elsewhere in the sentence, or even to leave information out.
- The source information required in a parenthetical citation depends (1) upon the source medium (e.g. print, web, DVD) and (2) upon the source’s entry on the Works Cited page.
- Any source information that you provide in-text must correspond to the source information on the Works Cited page. More specifically, whatever signal word or phrase you provide to your readers in the text must be the first thing that appears on the left-hand margin of the corresponding entry on the Works Cited page.
In-text citations: Author-page style
MLA format follows the author-page method of in-text citation. This means that the author's last name and the page number(s) from which the quotation or paraphrase is taken must appear in the text, and a complete reference should appear on your Works Cited page. The author's name may appear either in the sentence itself or in parentheses following the quotation or paraphrase, but the page number(s) should always appear in the parentheses, not in the text of your sentence. For example:
Both citations in the examples above, (263) and (Wordsworth 263), tell readers that the information in the sentence can be located on page 263 of a work by an author named Wordsworth. If readers want more information about this source, they can turn to the Works Cited page, where, under the name of Wordsworth, they would find the following information:
Wordsworth, William. Lyrical Ballads . Oxford UP, 1967.
In-text citations for print sources with known author
For print sources like books, magazines, scholarly journal articles, and newspapers, provide a signal word or phrase (usually the author’s last name) and a page number. If you provide the signal word/phrase in the sentence, you do not need to include it in the parenthetical citation.
These examples must correspond to an entry that begins with Burke, which will be the first thing that appears on the left-hand margin of an entry on the Works Cited page:
Burke, Kenneth. Language as Symbolic Action: Essays on Life, Literature, and Method . University of California Press, 1966.
In-text citations for print sources by a corporate author
When a source has a corporate author, it is acceptable to use the name of the corporation followed by the page number for the in-text citation. You should also use abbreviations (e.g., nat'l for national) where appropriate, so as to avoid interrupting the flow of reading with overly long parenthetical citations.
In-text citations for sources with non-standard labeling systems
If a source uses a labeling or numbering system other than page numbers, such as a script or poetry, precede the citation with said label. When citing a poem, for instance, the parenthetical would begin with the word “line”, and then the line number or range. For example, the examination of William Blake’s poem “The Tyger” would be cited as such:
The speaker makes an ardent call for the exploration of the connection between the violence of nature and the divinity of creation. “In what distant deeps or skies. / Burnt the fire of thine eyes," they ask in reference to the tiger as they attempt to reconcile their intimidation with their relationship to creationism (lines 5-6).
Longer labels, such as chapters (ch.) and scenes (sc.), should be abbreviated.
In-text citations for print sources with no known author
When a source has no known author, use a shortened title of the work instead of an author name, following these guidelines.
Place the title in quotation marks if it's a short work (such as an article) or italicize it if it's a longer work (e.g. plays, books, television shows, entire Web sites) and provide a page number if it is available.
Titles longer than a standard noun phrase should be shortened into a noun phrase by excluding articles. For example, To the Lighthouse would be shortened to Lighthouse .
If the title cannot be easily shortened into a noun phrase, the title should be cut after the first clause, phrase, or punctuation:
In this example, since the reader does not know the author of the article, an abbreviated title appears in the parenthetical citation, and the full title of the article appears first at the left-hand margin of its respective entry on the Works Cited page. Thus, the writer includes the title in quotation marks as the signal phrase in the parenthetical citation in order to lead the reader directly to the source on the Works Cited page. The Works Cited entry appears as follows:
"The Impact of Global Warming in North America." Global Warming: Early Signs . 1999. www.climatehotmap.org/. Accessed 23 Mar. 2009.
If the title of the work begins with a quotation mark, such as a title that refers to another work, that quote or quoted title can be used as the shortened title. The single quotation marks must be included in the parenthetical, rather than the double quotation.
Parenthetical citations and Works Cited pages, used in conjunction, allow readers to know which sources you consulted in writing your essay, so that they can either verify your interpretation of the sources or use them in their own scholarly work.
Author-page citation for classic and literary works with multiple editions
Page numbers are always required, but additional citation information can help literary scholars, who may have a different edition of a classic work, like Marx and Engels's The Communist Manifesto . In such cases, give the page number of your edition (making sure the edition is listed in your Works Cited page, of course) followed by a semicolon, and then the appropriate abbreviations for volume (vol.), book (bk.), part (pt.), chapter (ch.), section (sec.), or paragraph (par.). For example:
Author-page citation for works in an anthology, periodical, or collection
When you cite a work that appears inside a larger source (for instance, an article in a periodical or an essay in a collection), cite the author of the internal source (i.e., the article or essay). For example, to cite Albert Einstein's article "A Brief Outline of the Theory of Relativity," which was published in Nature in 1921, you might write something like this:
See also our page on documenting periodicals in the Works Cited .
Citing authors with same last names
Sometimes more information is necessary to identify the source from which a quotation is taken. For instance, if two or more authors have the same last name, provide both authors' first initials (or even the authors' full name if different authors share initials) in your citation. For example:
Citing a work by multiple authors
For a source with two authors, list the authors’ last names in the text or in the parenthetical citation:
Corresponding Works Cited entry:
Best, David, and Sharon Marcus. “Surface Reading: An Introduction.” Representations , vol. 108, no. 1, Fall 2009, pp. 1-21. JSTOR, doi:10.1525/rep.2009.108.1.1
For a source with three or more authors, list only the first author’s last name, and replace the additional names with et al.
Franck, Caroline, et al. “Agricultural Subsidies and the American Obesity Epidemic.” American Journal of Preventative Medicine , vol. 45, no. 3, Sept. 2013, pp. 327-333.
Citing multiple works by the same author
If you cite more than one work by an author, include a shortened title for the particular work from which you are quoting to distinguish it from the others. Put short titles of books in italics and short titles of articles in quotation marks.
Citing two articles by the same author :
Citing two books by the same author :
Additionally, if the author's name is not mentioned in the sentence, format your citation with the author's name followed by a comma, followed by a shortened title of the work, and, when appropriate, the page number(s):
Citing multivolume works
If you cite from different volumes of a multivolume work, always include the volume number followed by a colon. Put a space after the colon, then provide the page number(s). (If you only cite from one volume, provide only the page number in parentheses.)
Citing the Bible
In your first parenthetical citation, you want to make clear which Bible you're using (and underline or italicize the title), as each version varies in its translation, followed by book (do not italicize or underline), chapter, and verse. For example:
If future references employ the same edition of the Bible you’re using, list only the book, chapter, and verse in the parenthetical citation:
John of Patmos echoes this passage when describing his vision (Rev. 4.6-8).
Citing indirect sources
Sometimes you may have to use an indirect source. An indirect source is a source cited within another source. For such indirect quotations, use "qtd. in" to indicate the source you actually consulted. For example:
Note that, in most cases, a responsible researcher will attempt to find the original source, rather than citing an indirect source.
Citing transcripts, plays, or screenplays
Sources that take the form of a dialogue involving two or more participants have special guidelines for their quotation and citation. Each line of dialogue should begin with the speaker's name written in all capitals and indented half an inch. A period follows the name (e.g., JAMES.) . After the period, write the dialogue. Each successive line after the first should receive an additional indentation. When another person begins speaking, start a new line with that person's name indented only half an inch. Repeat this pattern each time the speaker changes. You can include stage directions in the quote if they appear in the original source.
Conclude with a parenthetical that explains where to find the excerpt in the source. Usually, the author and title of the source can be given in a signal phrase before quoting the excerpt, so the concluding parenthetical will often just contain location information like page numbers or act/scene indicators.
Here is an example from O'Neill's The Iceman Cometh.
WILLIE. (Pleadingly) Give me a drink, Rocky. Harry said it was all right. God, I need a drink.
ROCKY. Den grab it. It's right under your nose.
WILLIE. (Avidly) Thanks. (He takes the bottle with both twitching hands and tilts it to his lips and gulps down the whiskey in big swallows.) (1.1)
Citing non-print or sources from the Internet
With more and more scholarly work published on the Internet, you may have to cite sources you found in digital environments. While many sources on the Internet should not be used for scholarly work (reference the OWL's Evaluating Sources of Information resource), some Web sources are perfectly acceptable for research. When creating in-text citations for electronic, film, or Internet sources, remember that your citation must reference the source on your Works Cited page.
Sometimes writers are confused with how to craft parenthetical citations for electronic sources because of the absence of page numbers. However, these sorts of entries often do not require a page number in the parenthetical citation. For electronic and Internet sources, follow the following guidelines:
- Include in the text the first item that appears in the Work Cited entry that corresponds to the citation (e.g. author name, article name, website name, film name).
- Do not provide paragraph numbers or page numbers based on your Web browser’s print preview function.
- Unless you must list the Web site name in the signal phrase in order to get the reader to the appropriate entry, do not include URLs in-text. Only provide partial URLs such as when the name of the site includes, for example, a domain name, like CNN.com or Forbes.com, as opposed to writing out http://www.cnn.com or http://www.forbes.com.
Miscellaneous non-print sources
Two types of non-print sources you may encounter are films and lectures/presentations:
In the two examples above “Herzog” (a film’s director) and “Yates” (a presentor) lead the reader to the first item in each citation’s respective entry on the Works Cited page:
Herzog, Werner, dir. Fitzcarraldo . Perf. Klaus Kinski. Filmverlag der Autoren, 1982.
Yates, Jane. "Invention in Rhetoric and Composition." Gaps Addressed: Future Work in Rhetoric and Composition, CCCC, Palmer House Hilton, 2002. Address.
Electronic sources may include web pages and online news or magazine articles:
In the first example (an online magazine article), the writer has chosen not to include the author name in-text; however, two entries from the same author appear in the Works Cited. Thus, the writer includes both the author’s last name and the article title in the parenthetical citation in order to lead the reader to the appropriate entry on the Works Cited page (see below).
In the second example (a web page), a parenthetical citation is not necessary because the page does not list an author, and the title of the article, “MLA Formatting and Style Guide,” is used as a signal phrase within the sentence. If the title of the article was not named in the sentence, an abbreviated version would appear in a parenthetical citation at the end of the sentence. Both corresponding Works Cited entries are as follows:
Taylor, Rumsey. "Fitzcarraldo." Slant , 13 Jun. 2003, www.slantmagazine.com/film/review/fitzcarraldo/. Accessed 29 Sep. 2009.
"MLA Formatting and Style Guide." The Purdue OWL , 2 Aug. 2016, owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/01/. Accessed 2 April 2018.
To cite multiple sources in the same parenthetical reference, separate the citations by a semi-colon:
Time-based media sources
When creating in-text citations for media that has a runtime, such as a movie or podcast, include the range of hours, minutes and seconds you plan to reference. For example: (00:02:15-00:02:35).
When a citation is not needed
Common sense and ethics should determine your need for documenting sources. You do not need to give sources for familiar proverbs, well-known quotations, or common knowledge (For example, it is expected that U.S. citizens know that George Washington was the first President.). Remember that citing sources is a rhetorical task, and, as such, can vary based on your audience. If you’re writing for an expert audience of a scholarly journal, for example, you may need to deal with expectations of what constitutes “common knowledge” that differ from common norms.
The MLA Handbook describes how to cite many different kinds of authors and content creators. However, you may occasionally encounter a source or author category that the handbook does not describe, making the best way to proceed can be unclear.
In these cases, it's typically acceptable to apply the general principles of MLA citation to the new kind of source in a way that's consistent and sensible. A good way to do this is to simply use the standard MLA directions for a type of source that resembles the source you want to cite.
You may also want to investigate whether a third-party organization has provided directions for how to cite this kind of source. For example, Norquest College provides guidelines for citing Indigenous Elders and Knowledge Keepers —an author category that does not appear in the MLA Handbook . In cases like this, however, it's a good idea to ask your instructor or supervisor whether using third-party citation guidelines might present problems.
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- Knowledge Base
Student's Guide to MLA Style (2021) | Citation & Format
To cite sources in MLA style, you need
- In-text citations that give the author’s last name and a page number.
- A list of Works Cited that gives full details of every source.
Make sure your paper also adheres to MLA format : one-inch margins, double spacing, and indented paragraphs, with an MLA style heading on the first page.
Table of contents
Mla works cited list, the nine core elements of mla citations, mla in-text citations, free lecture slides, frequently asked questions about mla style.
The Works Cited list is where you give full details of all sources you have cited in the text. Other citation styles sometimes call this the “reference list” or “bibliography.” An annotated bibliography is slightly different.
Author . “Source Title.” Container Title , Other contributors , Version , Number , Publisher , Publication date , Location .
Begin each source entry with the name of the author(s) or creator(s). The name of the first author is always inverted (Last name, First name).
When a source has two authors, the second author’s name is shown in the normal order (First name Last name).
For sources with three or more authors, state only the first author’s name, followed by “ et al. ”
The author of a source is not necessarily a person; it can also be an organization. If so, simply use the name of the organization.
However, if the organization is both the author and publisher , start with the title of the source instead.
MLA author element
Always include the full title of the source, including subtitles (separated by a colon and space).
Use title case—capitalize all words apart from conjunctions , prepositions , and articles . If there is no title, give a short description of the source, with normal sentence case capitalization.
The styling of the title depends on the type of source:
- Italics when the source is self-contained (e.g. a whole book, movie or website).
- Quotation marks when the source is part of a larger whole (e.g. a chapter of a book , a page on a website, or an article in a journal).
- No styling when describing a source without a title.
A container is the larger work that the source you’re citing appears in. For example, a chapter is part of a book, a page is part of a website, and an article is part of a journal.
If the source you’re citing is a self-contained whole (e.g. a whole book), leave out this element.
The container title is always italicized.
Elements 3 (container title) to 9 (location) all provide information about the container.
Sources with two containers
A source can also have two containers. If you watched an episode of a TV show on Netflix, the show title is the first container and Netflix is the second container. If you accessed a journal article through the database JSTOR, the journal name is the first container and JSTOR is the second container.
In most cases, only the title and location (often the URL or DOI ) of the second container are included in the source entry. This is because databases like JSTOR don’t have relevant contributors, versions, publishers, or publication dates.
- Datta, Hannes, et al. “The Challenge of Retaining Customers Acquired with Free Trials”. Journal of Marketing Research , vol. 52, no. 2, Apr. 2015, pp. 217–234. JSTOR , www.jstor.org/stable/43832354.
Pay attention to the punctuation. The author and source title elements each end with a period. Elements within a container are separated by commas, and a period is used to close the container.
4. Other contributors
Contributors are added right after the container title and always end with a comma. Use a description like “translated by,” “directed by,” or “illustrated by” to indicate the role of the contributor. For example:
- Latour, Bruno. Politics of Nature: How to Bring the Sciences into Democracy . Translated by Catherine Porter, Harvard UP, 2004.
When a source has three or more contributors with the same role, include the name of the first contributor followed by “et al.”
If there are no other relevant contributors, leave out this element.
When there is more than one version of a source, you should include the version you used. For example, a second-edition book , an expanded version of a collection, or a director’s cut of a movie would require the version to be included:
- Porter, Michael E. Competitive Strategy: Techniques for Analyzing Industries and Competitors . 2nd ed. , Simon and Schuster, 1998.
- Columbus, Chris, director. Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets . director’s cut, Warner Bros., 2002.
Sources such as journal articles (“vol. 18”), magazines (“no. 25”) and TV shows (“season 3, episode 5”) are often numbered. If your source has numbered parts, include this in the source entry:
- Wieseke, Jan, et al. “Willing to Pay More, Eager to Pay Less: The Role of Customer Loyalty in Price Negotiations.” Journal of Marketing , vol. 68, no. 6, 2014, pp. 17–37.
It is also possible for a source to have an edition, volume, and number. Just separate them using commas.
Book and movie citations always include the publisher element. The publisher is the company responsible for producing and distributing the source—usually a book publisher (e.g. Macmillan or Oxford UP ) or a movie production company (e.g. Paramount Pictures or Warner Bros ).
Note that “University Press” is abbreviated to “UP” in a Works Cited entry. For example, the University of Minnesota Press becomes “U of Minnesota P”; Oxford University Press becomes “Oxford UP.”
When not to add a publisher Sometimes the publisher is already included elsewhere in the source entry, such as in the container title or author element. For example, the publisher of a website is often the same as the website name. In this case, omit the publisher element.
You generally don’t need to include a publisher for the following source types:
- Newspapers and magazines
- Platforms like YouTube, Netflix, or JSTOR
8. Publication date
When available, always include the publication year . If you also know the month, day, or even time of publication, you can include this if it helps the reader to locate the source. Date ranges are also possible. For example:
- 25 Jan. 2019
- 14 Aug. 2017, 4:45 p.m.
- Jan. 2017–Apr. 2018
Multiple publication dates If there is more than one publication date, use the one that is most relevant to your research and take the date of the edition that you have used.
No date When a source does not state a publication date, add the date on which you accessed the information. For example: Accessed 22 Sep. 2018 .
What you include in the location element depends on the type of source you are citing:
- Book chapter : Page range of the chapter (e.g. pp. 164–180. )
- Web page : URL, without “https://” (e.g. www.scribbr.com/mla-style/quick-guide/. )
- Journal article : DOI , with “https://”—or stable URL, without: (e.g. https://doi.org/10.1080/02626667.2018.1560449. or www.jstor.org/stable/43832354. )
- Physical object or live event : Name of the location and city (e.g. Moscone Center, San Francisco. or The Museum of Modern Art, New York. )
Prevent plagiarism. Run a free check.
MLA in-text citations are brief references in the body of your document which direct your reader to the full reference in the Works Cited list. You must include an in-text citation whenever you quote or paraphrase a source.
A standard MLA in-text citation includes the author’s last name and a page number in parentheses. The page number refers to the exact location of the quote or information that you are citing:
- 66% of voters disagree with the policy (Smith 13) .
If the author is already named in the sentence, you only need to include the page number in parentheses:
- According to Smith , 66% of voters disagree with the policy (13) .
For a source with two authors, include the last names of both authors. If a source has three or more authors, only include the last name of the first author, followed by “et al.” if in parentheses or “and colleagues” if in the text.
- Smith and Morrison claim that “MLA is the second most popular citation style” (17) .
- According to Reynolds and colleagues , social and demographic circumstances still have a major effect on job prospects (17–19) .
If a source does not state a specific author, the in-text citation should match the first word(s) of the Works Cited entry, whether that’s an organization name or the source title.
Format titles the same as they appear in the Works Cited, with italics or quotation marks. Use the full title if mentioned in the text itself, but an abbreviated title if included in parentheses.
- The article “New Ways to Slow Down Global Warming” claims that . . . (4).
- Reducing carbon emissions slows down climate change (“New Ways” 4) .
No page number
If a source has no page numbers, but is divided into numbered sections (e.g. chapters or numbered paragraphs), use these instead:
- Morrison has shown that there is a great need for . . . (par. 38) .
- Reynolds devotes a chapter to the rise of poverty in some states in the US (ch. 6) .
For audiovisual sources (such as YouTube videos ), use a timestamp:
- In his recent video, Smith argues that climate change should be the main political priority of all governments today (03:15–05:21) .
If there is no numbering system in the original source, include only the author’s name in your citation.
Are you a teacher or professor looking to introduce your students to MLA style? Download our free introductory lecture slides, available for Google Slides and Microsoft PowerPoint.
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MLA Style is the second most used citation style (after APA ). It is mainly used by students and researchers in humanities fields such as literature, languages, and philosophy.
The MLA Handbook is currently in its 9th edition , published in 2021.
This quick guide to MLA style explains the latest guidelines for citing sources and formatting papers according to MLA.
A standard MLA Works Cited entry is structured as follows:
Only include information that is available for and relevant to your source.
The fastest and most accurate way to create MLA citations is by using Scribbr’s MLA Citation Generator .
Search by book title, page URL, or journal DOI to automatically generate flawless citations, or cite manually using the simple citation forms.
If information about your source is not available, you can either leave it out of the MLA citation or replace it with something else, depending on the type of information.
- No author : Start with the source title.
- No title : Provide a description of the source.
- No date : Provide an access date for online sources; omit for other sources.
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- Hours and Locations
MLA Citation Style Quick-Guide
This quick-guide is for the new, 8th edition of MLA issued in June 2016.
MLA Works Cited Page Sources contain the following core elements:
The following are examples of entries for some sources you may use in your research:
PRINT SOURCES PRINT BOOK:
Author Last name, First. Title of Book . Version, Publisher, Publication date.
Toffler, Alvin. The Third Wave . Bantam, 1981.
Two authors: Gilbert, Sandra M., and Susan Gubar. The Madwoman in the Attic: The Woman Writer and the Nineteenth Century Literary Imagination . Yale UP, 1979.
Three or more authors: Wysocki, Anne Frances, et al. Writing New Media: Theory and Applications for Expanding the Teaching of Composition . Utah State UP, 2004.
Edited PRINT BOOK:
Last name, First name, editor. Title . Publisher, Publication date.
Nunberg, Geoffrey, editor. The Future of the Book . U of California P, 1996.
ESSAY IN EDITED PRINT BOOK:
Author Last name, First. “Essay title.” Book Title , edited by First name, Last name, Publisher, Publication date, Location. Twain, Mark. “Corn-Pone Opinions.” The Best American Essays of the Century , edited by Joyce Carol Oates and Robert Atwan, Houghton Mifflin, 2000, pp. 1-5.
ARTICLE IN A PRINT SCHOLARLY JOURNAL (OR MAGAZINE) (not obtained from a database):
Mizejeweski, Linda. “Feminism, Post-feminism, Liz Lemonism: Comedy and Gender Politics on 30 Rock.” Genders , vol. 55, no. 3, 2012, pp. 13-20.
ARTICLE IN A PRINT NEWSPAPER:
Author Last Name, First. “Article Title.” Newspaper Title , Publication date, Location. Jeromack, Paul. “This Once, a David of the Art World Does Goliath a Favor.” New York Times , 13 July 2002, pp. 30-39.
ONLINE SOURCES ARTICLE IN AN ONLINE NEWSPAPER OR NEWS SERVICE:
Author Last Name, First. “Article Title.” Newspaper Title , Publication date, Location.
Samuelson, Robert J. “Are You a ‘Work Martyr’?’” Washington Post . 19 June 2016, www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/are-you-a-work-martyr/2016/06/19/d4cb30e8-34a2-11e6-8758- d58e76e11b12_story.html?hpid=hp_no-name_opinion-card-d%3Ahomepage%2Fstory.
ARTICLE IN A SCHOLARLY JOURNAL, ACCESSED FROM AN ONLINE DATABASE:
Author Last name, First. “Title of Article.” Title of Journal , Volume number, Issue number, Publication date, Location. Database, DOI (preferred) or URL (without http://)
Hensley, Jeffrey. “Trinity and freedom: A response to Molnar.” Scottish Journal of Theology , vol. 61, no. 1, 2008, pp. 83-95. ProQuest, doi: dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0036930607003857
WEB PAGE, BLOG, ETC:
Author Last name, First. “Title of Page.” Title of Site , Publication Date, URL (without http://), Date accessed.
Hollmichel, Stefanie. “The Reading Brain: Differences between Digital and Print.” So Many Books , 2003-13, www.somanybooksblog.com/2013.04/25/the-reading-brain-differences-between-digital-and-print/. Accessed 17 June 2016.
ENTIRE WEB SITE:
Last Name, First name, editors [if given]. Title of Site . Name of sponsoring institution or organization, URL (without http://). Date accessed.
Disney Channel . The Walt Disney Company, www.disneychannel.disney.com. Accessed 20 June 2016. GOVERNMENT, CORPORATE, OR ORGANIZATION WEB SITE:
Largest entity, smaller entity, smallest entity. Title of Website , Organization or Agency, URL (without http://). Date Accessed. United States, Congress, House of Representatives. The United States House of Representatives, www.house.gov. Accessed 20 June 2016.
Author Last name, First. “Subject line of e-mail.” Received by First name Last name, Date.
Brown, Barry. “Virtual Reality.” Received by Mitch Bernstein, 25 Jan. 2006.
Author Last name, First name, role. Title of Television Show , Production Company, Year TV show began. Kuzui, Fran Rubel, director. Buffy the Vampire Slayer , Twentieth Century Fox, 1992.
Episode Title. Television Show , created by, performance by, Season #, Episode #, Production company, Year aired. “Hush.” Buffy the Vampire Slayer , created by Joss Whedon, performance by Sarah Michelle Gellar, season 4, episode 10, Mutant Enemy, 1999.
Note : If generally referencing a television episode, you do not need to put creator or performer in the citation. On the other hand, if you’re focusing specifically on a director or performer throughout a television show, include name of director or performer at beginning of citation.
TELEVISION EPISODE OBTAINED FROM STREAMING SITE
Episode Title. Television Show , Season #, Episode #, Publisher, Date originally aired. Streaming site, URL (without http://). “Under the Gun.” Pretty Little Liars , season 4, episode 6, ABC Family, 16 July 2013. Hulu, www.hulu.com/watch/511318.
Author Last name, First. Title of Artwork. Year, Museum Name (if applicable), Location.
Mackintosh, Charles Rennie. Chair of Stained Oak. 1897-1900, Victoria and Albert Museum, London.
Author Last name, First. "Title of Song." Title of Album , Production Company, Publication date, URL (without http://). Beyoncé. “Pretty Hurts.” Beyoncé , Parkwood Entertainment, 2013, www.beyonce.com/album/beyonce/?media_view=songs
MLA In-Text Citations
Below are examples of how to write your in-text citations when you present an idea in your paper that is not your own. You should include in-text citations for summaries, paraphrases, and quotations. All in-text citations should correspond to a citation on your Works Cited page.
A “signal phrase” introduces a quotation in order to help the reader understand why it is important and how it fits into the rest of the paper. In the first example below, “Robertson maintains that...” is the signal phrase.
IF THE AUTHOR IS NAMED IN A SIGNAL PHRASE:
If the author is named while introducing the quotation, or if the author can be easily assumed from surrounding material (as is often the case in literature papers), then only a page number is necessary in your citation:
Robertson maintains that “in the appreciation of medieval art the attitude of the observer is of primary importance...” (136).
According to Alvin Toffler, there have been two periods of revolutionary change in history: the agricultural revolution and the industrial revolution (10).
IF THE AUTHOR IS NOT NAMED IN A SIGNAL PHRASE:
It may be true that “in the appreciation of medieval art the attitude of the observer is of primary importance...” (Robertson 136).
There have been two periods of revolutionary change in history: the agricultural revolution and the industrial revolution (Toffler 10).
IF USING TWO OR MORE WORKS BY THE SAME AUTHOR:
In Double Vision, Northrop Frye claims that one’s death is not a unique experience, for “every moment we have lived through, we have also died out of into another order” (85).
The above example includes the article title in the signal phrase, and therefore only a page number is necessary in the citation. In the example below, the title of the article is not used, and so a recognizable abbreviation of the title belongs within the citation.
For Northrop Frye, one’s death is not a unique experience, for “every moment we have lived through, we have also died out of into another order ( Double Vision 85).
IF USING AN INTERNET OR ELECTRONIC SOURCE WITH NO AUTHOR OR PAGE NUMBER:
Use the complete title in the signal phrase or an abbreviated title in the citation: (“Trinity and freedom” 2).
Page Number Unknown: If the page number is unknown, omit it from your in-text citation: (Smith).
The following source was referenced: Modern Language Association of America. MLA Handbook. 8th ed. MLA, 2016.
How do I format a thesis or dissertation in MLA style?
Note: This post relates to content in the eighth edition of the MLA Handbook . For up-to-date guidance, see the ninth edition of the MLA Handbook .
The MLA Handbook does not provide guidelines for formatting a thesis or dissertation—or for preparing the parts of such a project, like a preface, dedication, or acknowledgments page—because most schools maintain their own formatting requirements. Although the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing , out of print since 2016, summarized some of these requirements, it did so only in a very general way.
Writers of theses and dissertations should follow any guidelines their schools provide. If a school does not provide such guidelines, a successfully defended dissertation in the writer’s department might provide an example to follow.
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Guide on How to Cite a Thesis or Dissertation in MLA
Students and homework are synonymous in learning institutions today. Any high school or college student is no stranger to the different writing styles used when writing thesis and dissertations . However, you shouldn’t worry if you’re unfamiliar with these writing styles, as you’ll learn about them during your academic career. However, one format stands out among the various writing styles for being relatively easier to follow and implement. This article will discuss this commonly used MLA format and answer the question on how to cite a thesis paper MLA, “where does the thesis go in MLA format?” and, more so, the MLA format for thesis papers. Let’s begin.
What Is the MLA Dissertation Citation Background?
Who uses mla thesis formatting, how do you write a title page in thesis mla format, does a thesis mla format contain a summary, is mla dissertation citation complicated, does mla thesis format simplify your project, why use mla thesis citation, why your examiner wants a good mla citation thesis, advantages of using mla cite dissertation, we can help you cite a thesis mla.
Many students search “how to cite thesis MLA” or ” how to cite dissertation MLA” on the internet but don’t know what those three letters stand for. The letter MLA stands for Modern Language Association , an organization of language or literature scholars. This organization is responsible for publishing various journals in the Ph.D. format.
Perhaps this organization is mainly known for the general writing guidelines that its publication editors came up with. It all started when some literature scholars acknowledged the need of having a standard format for papers. They then came up with this format and asked their students to present their thesis statements in MLA format.
The thesis MLA format, MLA cite thesis, or citing a dissertation MLA may be a common writing style; however, it’s commonly used in the liberal arts and humanities. Here are the disciplines in which writers use the thesis MLA format example in their writing:
- Cultural studies
- Literary criticism
- Foreign languages
- English literature
Another advantage of citing dissertation MLA is the simplicity of making a title page. Unlike in other formats where the requirements for a title page are complicated, you only need your name, course name, instructor’s name, and the date. Remember to use the Times New Roman font with a measurement of 12 and double-space your work when using an MLA dissertation cite.
When using an MLA citation thesis or citing a thesis using this format, a summary is not necessary for other writing styles. Writing a summary is a task that many students find challenging or tedious as it is meant to be a stand-alone paper from your original assignment. However, when citing a dissertation MLA, the summary is not required, thus saving the student time and energy spent working on another paper.
Citing a thesis MLA or an MLA citation dissertation is easy to cite and reference your sources. MLA is simpler than other writing styles, such as the Harvard or Chicago style, where you must use complicated methods of citing and referencing your sources. Additionally, the reader can follow through with your ideas and identify your sources easily without turning pages or following certain numbers.
It’s also simpler to write your bibliography or works cited when using the MLA format as its only requirement is that the sources need to be in Alphabetical order.
This format aims to make students’ work clear and easy to follow by creating a framework for standardized methods of citations. An MLA thesis format example also creates a framework for putting down your bibliography with the help of a cite master at the end of the essay. This format also makes it easier to follow a paper through well-known cues. These cues help with easy referencing outsourced information.
When learning how to cite a master’s thesis MLA or how to cite a thesis in MLA, it’s important to learn why the format is the most common style for students online. Here are some of the reasons why you should use the MLA format thesis in your dissertation:
- To help you get a better grade, follow the required citation format in your MLA works cited thesis.
- To show your knowledge or skill by demonstrating that you are conversant with various methods of citing references.
- To show where you borrowed your ideas from, thus, preventing plagiarism.
The simple MLA rules have morphed into the guidelines used by all students worldwide in their MLA thesis statements. Examiners want you to follow the right MLA format for your thesis paper because:
- It enables them to follow through with your ideas and helps them find specific areas of your paper easily.
- It shows the student’s ability to present a professionally done paper and your knowledge of the writing style.
As previously mentioned, the MLA citation thesis format is students’ most common writing style. There are several benefits of using the MLA thesis style that make students type “how to cite a thesis MLA” or “how to cite a dissertation MLA” on their browsers.
Here are some of the advantages of how to cite a thesis using MLA format:
- Has no operating head: Unlike the headers required when you cite a dissertation APA, the process of putting a header is not applicable in MLA. This makes formatting your assignments much easier than it would use other formats.
- Fewer rules to follow: Unlike its counterparts, such as the Chicago or APA writing style, citing a dissertation, MLA has far fewer rules to remember. This makes it easier for students to cite thesis MLA correctly. Its simplicity makes it the best-suited writing style for those writing lengthy essays.
Do you need help citing a dissertation MLA or any other academic service, including writing a thesis statement in MLA format? If so, look no further, as we have a team full of experts ready to help you out with your thesis or dissertation. You can get in touch with us any day of the week for an MLA thesis example or the answer to “do you include Ph.D. in MLA citation?”
In your quest to learn how to format a thesis, how to cite a thesis, or how to cite a thesis, remember that MLA format is best suited for those who have never used writing styles before. You can always refer to us and we will help you with your Ph.D. formatting using the MLA format for help.
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- How To Cite A Dissertation And Master’s Thesis In MLA 8 With Examples
How to Cite a Dissertation and Master’s Thesis in MLA 8 with Examples
Students pursuing a bachelor’s, master’s, or doctoral diploma and writing papers in MLA 8 must prepare to undertake unique academic projects before completing their studies. For bachelor’s and master’s students, the project is writing a thesis, while for doctoral students, it is a dissertation. Basically, this academic project in MLA 8 aims to allow students to demonstrate to themselves, their supervisors, the university, and the public that their knowledge levels have expanded during their time at the university. In this sense, both a thesis and a dissertation in MLA 8 mark the end of a student’s time at the university and entry into another higher learning level or the job market. Hence, students need to learn how to cite a dissertation and Master’s thesis in MLA 8 by reviewing the main rules discussed in this simple guide.
General Aspects of Citing a Dissertation and Master’s Thesis in MLA 8
In higher education, students undertake various activities to advance their academic qualifications. Basically, one of these activities is the writing of a dissertation or Master’s thesis in MLA 8. In particular, it is defined as a single educational project for students in undergraduate or postgraduate studies that accounts for a significant part of their degree. Also, a dissertation is known as a thesis in some contexts, meaning that both are interrelated. While a dissertation is a written project, students sometimes undergo an oral examination to prove their points and defend their work in front of assessors. In turn, it is standard practice in many universities that assessors of students’ oral presentations to be professors.
Purpose of a Dissertation and Master’s Thesis
The primary purpose of writing a dissertation and Master’s thesis in MLA 8 is to allow undergraduate and postgraduate students to demonstrate their ability to explore and present scientific findings on a topic. In this case, the academic project provides students a platform upon which they show they have become significantly knowledgeable during their years at the university. Generally, the length of an undergraduate dissertation or Master’s thesis in MLA 8 is a maximum of 12, 000 words, while a postgraduate one does not exceed 25,000 words. Hence, writing a dissertation or Master’s thesis in MLA 8 is the most complicated academic project that students undertake during their lifetime at the university.
Contents of a Dissertation in MLA 8
The general characteristic of a dissertation and Master’s thesis in MLA 8 is that it differs from standard essays and other writing projects that students undertake by capturing specific information. Depending on the format of the paper, a student should ensure their dissertation has:
- a title page;
- a copyright page;
- an abstract;
- optional dedication, acknowledgments, and preface pages;
- a table of contents that covers page numbers of headings and subheadings;
- a list of tables, figures, or illustrations;
- a list of abbreviations (if applicable);
- a list of symbols (if applicable);
- chapters throughout the main body;
- an appendix page;
- Works Cited page, References, Bibliography, or List of References.
Types of Dissertations
The three main types of dissertations are an undergraduate thesis, a Master’s thesis, and a doctoral dissertation . Basically, the core difference between a Master’s thesis and a dissertation is that the former marks the completion of an undergraduate or Master’s program, while the latter marks the end of a doctoral program. Consequently, a thesis paper is a student’s compilation of research, denoting an advanced level of knowledge since the day the person joined the undergraduate or master’s program to the day of completion. On the other hand, writing a dissertation in MLA 8 is a doctoral student’s compilation of knowledge that advances knowledge and theories in a specific field. Hence, a dissertation is an academic project that allows students to use what they have learned to develop new concepts in a discipline.
Structural Differences in Citing a Dissertation in MLA 8
Based on the difference in purpose, it stands to reason that citing a Master’s thesis differs from a dissertation in structure by considering the MLA 8 format. In a Master’s thesis, a student researches a topic, analyzes different sources, and comments on the information gathered. Basically, this commenting entails discussing how the information researched relates to the particular subject under investigation. Therefore, a Master’s thesis showcases a student’s ability to think critically about a topic and knowledgeably discuss the information and to expand upon a topic relevant to a specialty area they wish to pursue as a profession. In contrast, a dissertation showcases a student’s ability to use others’ research as a guide in developing and proving a new theory or concept. Hence, the bulk of the information in a Master’s thesis is borrowed, while, in a dissertation, the bulk of the information is attributable to the student.
Citing a Dissertation in MLA 8
When writing academic texts, such as essays, students sometimes cite dissertations in MLA 8 as sources of essential, relevant knowledge. Basically, such citations intend to provide student’s arguments with a strong foundation. Therefore, learning to cite a dissertation in MLA 8 is a critical academic exercise. In this case, the core elements that a student should capture in a citation of a dissertation in MLA 8 are the name of the author, the title, and the date of publication. However, other optional components include the name of the institution granting the degree and a description of the work. Hence, a typical citation in the MLA 8 format indicates:
- the author’s name;
- an italicized title;
- the date of publication;
- the university granting the degree;
- a description of the work;
- the database or URL (if available);
- the date of access (if available).
1. Author’s Name
The first element in citing a dissertation in MLA 8 is the name of the author of the dissertation. Basically, the name should start with the last name, a comma, and then the first and middle names (if any). In this case, students should complete this citation with a period. Moreover, a student gets the author’s name from the publication, which can be accessed as a print, on an online database, or on a web page.
2. The Title
The title of the dissertation or Master’s thesis in MLA 8 is the second element in the citation. Basically, students should capture both the title and subtitle, if any, separating both with a colon. Also, they should use a title case, meaning that all the words in the title should be capitalized, and italics when writing the title, ending it with a period or a question mark, whatever applies. Just like the name, a student can access the dissertation title from the publication in its print form, in an online database, or from a web page.
3. Date of Publication
The third element in citing a dissertation in MLA 8 is the date when the dissertation is published. Basically, a student can find this information by looking at the dissertation title, which can be found in the dissertation in its print form, on an online database, or from a web page. Moreover, the date can appear on the backside of the title page in the case of a printed dissertation. In turn, students should end the citation with a period.
4. Name of the Institution
As an academic project in undergraduate and postgraduate studies, a dissertation is affiliated with the university that grants the student a degree. In this case, the university’s name is the fourth element in the citation of a dissertation. Like most of the information about a dissertation, a student can access the name of the institution by accessing the dissertation in its print form, in an online database, or from a webpage. In turn, students should complete the MLA citation with a comma.
5. Status of Publishing
When citing a dissertation in MLA 8, a student should indicate whether it is an undergraduate thesis, a master’s thesis, or a doctoral dissertation. In the case of a Master’s thesis, students should use the word “thesis,” indicating whether it is an undergraduate or a master’s. In the case of a dissertation, students should write it in its short form – Diss. Also, scholars can access this information by accessing the publication in its print form, in an online database, or from a webpage.
6. Dissertation Scenarios
Three scenarios involve a dissertation – unpublished dissertation, database-based dissertation, and online-based dissertation. Basically, the significant difference between these scenarios is based on exposure. Ideally, an unpublished dissertation has limited exposure, as it is only the student, the supervisor, and the university reserves copies. In contrast, both a database- and an online-based dissertation have broad exposures.
Citing an Unpublished Dissertation in MLA 8
When an undergraduate, postgraduate, or doctoral student writes a dissertation in MLA 8, entities that gain access to the work are the student, the dissertation supervisor, and the university library. In some cases, a copy is made for the archive. Also, an unpublished dissertation is rarely widely read. In that case, after serving its purpose of helping a student gain a degree, this type of discourse fades into obscurity.
After students gain degrees, it is recommendable that they publish their dissertation to protect their work from fading into obscurity. Basically, a published dissertation is often found in peer-reviewed databases, but it can also be found online. In this case, publishing a dissertation in a database ensures it gains the critical title of peer-reviewed academic work, meaning that it is widely read and used as a reference in various works.
Sometimes, students can publish their dissertations and make them accessible through the online platform and not a database. For example, the Internet has become home to publishers of academic content, especially those who desire to have their work freely accessible to students and other consumers. Basically, such dissertations help to broaden the reach of the publication while expanding the influence of the author. In this case, authors reach a significant number of people and get feedback from influential academics. As a result, such reach and relationships help authors to find access to journal and book publishing.
Scheme of Citing a Dissertation and Master’s Thesis in MLA 8
The scheme of an MLA 8 citation denotes its format, the way it must appear in both in-text and Works Cited citations. As stated above, the MLA 8 format must capture both core elements (author’s name, the title, date of publication) and optional elements (the name of the institution and a description of the work). However, for unpublished dissertations, there is no date of publication. As a result, for the three scenarios described above, the structure of the MLA 8 citation for a dissertation or Master’s thesis would be as follows:
1. Unpublished Dissertation:
Last Name, First and Middle Names. “Title of the Dissertation.” University, Dissertation or Master’s Thesis.
Dong, Yu Ren. “Non-Native Graduate Students’ Thesis/Dissertation Writing in Science: Self-Reports by Students and Their Advisors from Two U.S. Institutions.” 1998. Queens College, Ph.D. Dissertation.
2. Database-Based Published Dissertation:
Last, First and Middle Names. Title of Dissertation. Dissertation or Master’s Thesis, University, Date of Publication. Name of Database. Accessed Date.
Dong, Yu Ren. Non-Native Graduate Students’ Thesis/Dissertation Writing in Science: Self-Reports by Students and Their Advisors from Two U.S. Institutions. Master’s Thesis, Queens College, 1998. Elsevier Dissertations and Theses. Accessed on 31 July 2020.
3. Online-Based Dissertation:
Last, First and Middle Names. Title of Dissertation . Dissertation or Master’s Thesis, University, Date of publication, Link. Date accessed.
Dong, Yu Ren. Non-Native Graduate Students’ Thesis/Dissertation Writing in Science: Self-Reports by Students and Their Advisors from Two U.S. Institutions. Master’s Thesis, Queens College, 1998, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0889490697000549. Accessed on 31 July 2020.
Note : these examples are based on a peer-reviewed scholarly article, while such samples serve only for learning purposes.
Summing Up on How to Cite a Dissertation and Master’s Thesis in MLA 8
Students in higher education (undergraduate, postgraduate, and doctoral studies) undertake a single academic project to mark the end of their studies. Basically, this project is a dissertation, which is also known as a Master’s thesis. Despite the differences in purpose and structure between these two notions, they provide insight into students’ grasp of knowledge during their years at the university. When citing a dissertation and Master’s thesis, a student should determine which scenario best describes the work. In this case, the three primary scenarios are unpublished dissertations, database-based published dissertations, and online-based published dissertations. On differences, the title of an unpublished dissertation is put under quotes, while that of the other two scenarios is italicized. Also, the date noted in an unpublished dissertation denotes the year it is written.
Despite the stated differences, a student should note the following tips when citing a dissertation:
- The author’s full name.
- Which scenario best describes the dissertation.
- The year the dissertation was published.
- The title of the dissertation.
- The type of degree- undergraduate or post-graduate (master’s or doctoral).
- Whether the work is a thesis or a dissertation.
- The name of the institution awarding the degree.
- The name of the database (for database-based dissertation) or the URL (for an online-based dissertation).
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MLA 9th Edition Style Guide: Dissertation/Thesis
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Njus, Jesse. Performing the Passion: A Study on the Nature of Medieval Acting . 2010. Northwestern U,
MA thesis. ProQuest , search.proquest.com/docview/305212264?accountid=7432.
PhD dissertation. ProQuest , search.proquest.com/docview/305212264?accountid=7432.
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MLA Format Citation Full Guide
MLA is a common academic formatting style developed by the Modern Language Association. It is widely used in academic papers in humanities and as a guideline for referencing original sources. In this article, our essay writer service have prepared a complete guide to cite sources according to the MLA 8th edition.
Depending on the type of the source, its specific characteristics (e.g. unknown author’s name), and other factors, citations in MLA style may differ by their form. Further into this MLA 8 citation guide, we are going to go over all the types of sources and cases, and provide clear examples of proper referencing. But first, let’s look at core elements that are typically included in every MLA style citation:
Author name(s). “Title of the Source”. Title of container, other contributors, version, numbers, publisher, publication date, location.
Now, let’s see the specific rules that apply to each of the core elements of an MLA citation.
- Always put the surname first, then separate it by a comma and list the first name and any initials (for example, Black, Jacob K.)
- If the author is unknown, you can use the name of the organization responsible or start with the title of the source (for example, The Modern Language Association. “Works Cited: A Quick Guide”... or “Works Cited: A Quick Guide”...)
- When there are 2 authors, put the first author’s name in inverted form, and follow it with the other author’s name in regular form (for example, Black, Jacob K., and Chris Thorn)
- If there are 3 or more authors, put the first author’s name in inverted form and follow it with “et al” (for example, Black, Jacob K., et al)
- You are allowed to mention online usernames or pseudonyms instead of real names (for example, Pewresearch or Digiday)
- You can also include the names of translators or editors here, but their names should be followed by their relevant titles – “editor” or “translator” (for example, Black, Jacob K., editor or Thorn, Chris, translator)
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Title of the Source
- Put the title in quotation marks when the source is part of a short work (for example, a short article)
- Larger works such as books, television shows, and websites should be italicized
- If the source’s title is unknown, replace it in your citation with a brief description, without quotation marks and not italicized (for example, Website Home Page, Review Covering Multiple Books, etc.)
Title of Container
- Can include multiple container titles when necessary
- Only list the most relevant contributors to your work
- Before the name of each contributor, specify his/her role (for example, produced by Jacob Black)
- Refers to a specific edition, version, or revision of the source
- This part of the citation should all be in lower case
- This element refers to sources that appear in a sequence, for example, TV seasons or episodes, issues, and volumes
- When there are multiple publishers, they all need to be listed in the citation and separated with a slash (/)
Example: Oxford University Press/Cambridge University Press
- The information you provide here depends on the source’s type
- If there is more than one publication date (e.g. the source was numerously republished) you only need to cite the date of publication of the one you have used
- In certain cases, it is appropriate to cite a date range
Depending on the type of source, this element can stand for:
- Printed source – page number(s)
- Online source – URL
- DVD – disk number
- Object – place it is held
- Performance – city and/or venue
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MLA Referencing: In-Text Citations
An in-text citation refers to the use of a direct quote or a paraphrase of information taken from another source in the body of the text. In-text citations are used to add value to your work and support your ideas.
General rules for each MLA in-text citation:
- It should correspond to its relevant reference from the works cited page.
- Every citation should contain the author’s last name and the page (or range of pages) where the specific quote or information is found in the original source.
- The author’s name can either be a part of the sentence or included in parentheses directly after the quote.
- The page number or numbers should be included in parentheses after the quote, either alone or following the author’s last name.
Example of a citation where the author’s name is a part of the sentence: To portray the attitude towards women in the American society of the ’20s, Fitzgerald has his character Daisy say “And I hope she'll be a fool — that's the best thing a girl can be in this world, a beautiful little fool” (21).
Example of a citation that doesn’t mention the author’s name in the sentence: In the novel, we see a phrase that depicts the attitude towards women in the American society of the 20's “And I hope she'll be a fool — that's the best thing a girl can be in this world, a beautiful little fool” (Fitzgerald 21).
Now, let’s take a look at how an MLA in-text citation is formed in different cases:
More than One Author
When there are 2-3 authors, you can list all the names, followed by the page number in parentheses.
MLA in text citation example: “Everything goes away, Jack Sawyer, like the moon. Everything comes back, like the moon” (King, Steven, and Straub 78).
When there are more than 3 authors, only list the last name of the first one and type “et al.”
MLA in text citation example: “He’d thought about it, why mundane kids might come to the Academy. Mundanes would have to choose to give up their parents, their families, their former lives. Unless, of course, they already had no parents and no families” (Clare et al. 39).
If the author of the source is unknown, instead of stating his last name in parentheses after the quote: make the entire title italicized, put the article or webpage in quotation marks, or the shortened title within quotation marks.
Example: In the novel Diary of an Oxygen Thief, the feeling of deep satisfaction after an obviously wrong or immoral action is described with the quote: “It’s like when you hear serial killers say they feel no regret, no remorse for all the people they killed. I was like that. Loved it.” (5)
If you didn’t include the book’s name in the sentence:
Example: In the novel ( Diary of an Oxygen Thief 5 ).
Example: According to the “MLA Citation Guide” “…” (4) or: (“MLA Citation Guide” 4)
Authors With Multiple Cited Works
If you refer to multiple works of the same author, include the author’s name and a shortened title of the particular source, along with the page number.
Example: (Fitzgerald, I’d Die for You 35)
Authors With the Same Surname
In case you refer to several works whose authors have the same surnames, when making in-text citations, put an initial before the author’s last name.
Example: (B. MacDonald 17) and (J. MacDonald 56)
No Page Number
When you are making a citation and don’t know the exact page number, use other metrics such as chapters or paragraphs.
Example: (MacDonald, ch. 4).
When there are no numbered patterns at all, mention only the name of the author.
Citing a Quote or Parenthetical
In this scenario, type “qtd. in” before the author’s name.
Example: (qtd. in Fitzgerald 65)
Citing Audio-Visual Sources
When referring to audio-visual sources, instead of the page number, you need to indicate a time stamp in the following format – hh:mm:ss.
Example: (Mitchell 01:22:12)
How to Cite Different Source Types
While the MLA Works Cited page might have highly variable entries based on their source types, in-text citations mostly look similar. The biggest change applies when the author is not known, or if the cited source is not printed. Below is a comprehensive guide on how to cite sources in MLA based on their type.
How to Cite Books in MLA Format
- Authors’ names — when there are 2 authors, only the first one’s name needs to be inverted. The next one should be introduced by the word “and” and be in standard form. When there are more than 3 authors, you only need to indicate the first one (last and then first name) and put “et al” after it.
- Title — all words (except for small words) should start with capitalized letters, and the whole title needs to be italicized.
- Title of containers, contributors, versions, and numbers are optional elements. This information should be provided if it is valuable and relevant to the reader.
The standard MLA book citation format is as follows:
Author’s last name, first name. Title . Title of container, Contributors, Version, Numbers, Publisher, Year of Publication.
Example: Fitzgerald, F. Scott. The Great Gatsby. Scribner, 2004.
How to Cite Edited and Translated Books in MLA Format
If you refer to a book that was edited or translated, there are two ways to indicate this in your citation:
- List the translator or editor in the author’s name section and specify their role (e.g. “editor” or “translator”). Choose this method if your work focuses on translation or editing.
- Add the names of translators or editors in the contributors' section of the citation.
Here are two formats you can follow:
1.Last name, first name, translator/editor. Title . Title of container, Contributors, Version, Number, Publisher, Year of publication.
Example: Clarke, Alan R, translator. The Alchemist. By Paulo Coelho, HarperCollins, 1993.
2.Last name, first name. Title . Title of container, edited/translated by Contributors, Version, Number, Publisher, Year of publication.
Example: Coelho, Paulo. The Alchemist. Translated by A. Clarke, HarperCollins, 1993.
How to Cite E-Books in MLA Format
To cite an e-book, you should use the standard format for book citations and specify the e-book identity in the version section. Follow this template:
Author’s last name, first name. Title . Title of container, Contributors, edition, e-book Number, Publisher, Year of Publication.
Example: Troy, Ben N., et al. A Guide to Citation. 2nd ed, e-book, New York Publishers, 2010.
How to Cite Articles in MLA Format
Use the following format to cite articles from different sources, including journals, magazines, and newspapers:
Name of Author(s). “Article Title”. Title of Container, contributors, version, numbers, date of publication, location, Title of database, DOI or URL
Things to keep in mind:
- Title — the title of the article is put in quotation marks and does not need to be italicized.
- Title of container – here, you need to provide the name of the source (e.g. newspaper, magazine, or journal) where the article was published. It has to be italicized.
- Version — this section refers to types within each section of the publication.
- Numbers — in this section, you need to specify the issue number (no.) or volume number (vo.).
- Date of publication — for newspapers and magazines, specify the day, month, and year (e.g. 9 December 2012). And for journals, mention only the season and year (e.g. June 2018).
- Location — this section is devoted to the article’s page number(s).
- Title of database, DOI or URL — only included for online articles.
Online example: Bradshaw, Peter. “Oscars 2020 predictions: who will win?”. The Guardian , 7 Feb 2020, https://www.theguardian.com/film/2020/feb/07/oscars-2020-winners-losers-predictions-peter-bradshaw.
Journal example: Gringe, Lea. “Science Fiction Works for the Development of the Aerospace Sector.” The Popularisation of Space , vol. 41, Aug. 2017, pp. 42-47.
Magazine/Newspaper example: Smith, John. “Obama inaugurated as President.” Time , 21 Jan. 2009: 21-23. Print.
How to Cite Non-Print Material
While most of your references will probably be printed sources like books, articles, and others, in some cases you may also need to cite alternative non-print materials. In this part of our guide, we will focus on the general rules of citing different non-print sources and will provide a clear MLA citation example for each.
Image in MLA Format
Standard structure: Author’s last name, other names. “Title of Image”. Website Title , contributors, reproduction, number, date, URL.
Example: Gilpin, Laura. “Terraced Houses, Acoma Pueblo, New Mexico.” Library of Congress , Reproduction no. LC-USZ62-102170, 1939, https://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/90716883/.
Film in MLA Format
Standard structure: Director’s name, director. “Title of film”. Contributors, Distributor , year of release. Medium
Please note: although this standard structure typically works, in some cases you may swap the title and name of the director in the case that your work focuses more on the film rather than on its director: “Title of film”. Directed by director name, contributors, Distributor , year of release. Medium
Also, note that mentioning the medium is not required in MLA 8, but you are allowed to mention it since it is useful information for the reader. If the film is taken from the Web, replace the medium with its relevant URL.
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Example: Hitchcock, Alfred, director. “Psycho”. Performances by Anthony Perkins and Janet Leigh, Paramount Pictures , 1960, DVD
TV Series in MLA Format
Standard structure: “Episode Title”. Program Title , created by Name, contributors, season number, episode number. Network, Year of Publication.
Example: “A Knight of the Seven Kingdoms.” Game of Thrones , written by Bryan Cogman, directed by David Nutter, season 8, episode 2, HBO, 2019
Music in MLA Format
Standard structure: Author’s name(s). “Title of the Track”. Title of the Album , other contributors, version, Record Label, Year of Publication
Example: Lady Gaga and Bradley Cooper. “Shallow.” A Star Is Born , Interscope, 2018.
How to Cite a Web Page in MLA Format
Standard structure: Author’s last name, first name or organization title. “Title of page/document”. Title of overall webpage , date, URL.
Example: Woodford, Kate. “Outlooks and Forecasts (The Language of Predictions)”. A Blog from Cambridge Dictionary , 5 Feb 2020, https://dictionaryblog.cambridge.org/2020/02/05/outlooks-and-forecasts-the-language-of-predictions/.
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How to cite a PhD thesis in MLA
To cite a PhD thesis in a reference entry in MLA style 9th edition include the following elements:
- Author(s) name: Give the last name and name as presented in the source (e. g. Watson, John). For two authors, reverse only the first name, followed by ‘and’ and the second name in normal order (e. g. Watson, John, and John Watson). For three or more authors, list the first name followed by et al. (e. g. Watson, John, et al.)
- Thesis title: Titles are italicized when independent. If part of a larger source add quotation marks and do not italize.
- Year of publication: Give the year of publication as presented in the source.
- University: Give the name of the institution.
- Degree: Type of degree.
Here is the basic format for a reference list entry of a PhD thesis in MLA style 9th edition:
Author(s) name . Thesis title . Year of publication . University , Degree .
Take a look at our works cited examples that demonstrate the MLA style guidelines in action:
A PhD thesis with one author
Confait, Marina Fatima . Maximising the contributions of PHD graduates to national development: the case of the Seychelles . 2018 . Edith Cowan U , PhD thesis .
Bowkett, David . Investigating the ligandability of plant homeodomains . 2015 . Oxford U , PhD thesis .
This citation style guide is based on the MLA Handbook (9 th edition).
More useful guides
- MLA 8th ed. Style Guide: Dissertations, Theses
- MLA, 8th Edition: Master's Thesis or Project
- How do I cite a dissertation in MLA style?
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Cite a dissertation in MLA style
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Use the following template or our MLA Citation Generator to cite a dissertation. For help with other source types, like books, PDFs, or websites, check out our other guides. To have your reference list or bibliography automatically made for you, try our free citation generator .
Place this part in your bibliography or reference list at the end of your assignment.
Place this part right after the quote or reference to the source in your assignment.
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- How to cite a Presentation or lecture in MLA style
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Works Cited | In-Text Citations | Bibliography | Annotated Bibliography | Website | Book | Journal | YouTube | View all MLA Citation Examples
APA Format Guide
Get the facts on citing and writing in APA format with our comprehensive guides. Formatting instructions, in-text citation and reference examples, and sample papers provide you with the tools you need to style your paper in APA.
Reference Page | In-Text Citations | Annotated Bibliography | Website | Books | Journal | YouTube | View all APA citation Examples
Chicago Format Guide
Looking to format your paper in Chicago style and not sure where to start? Our guide provides everything you need! Learn the basics and fundamentals to creating references and footnotes in Chicago format. With numerous examples and visuals, you’ll be citing in Chicago style in no time.
Footnotes | Website | Book | Journal
Harvard Referencing Guide
Learn the requirements to properly reference your paper in Harvard style. The guides we have provide the basics and fundamentals to give credit to the sources used in your work.
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MLA Style is from the Modern Language Association . It is commonly used in language and literature disciplines .
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These are the general pieces of information that MLA suggests including in each Works Cited entry. In your citation, the elements should be listed in the following order: Author. Title of source. Title of container, Other contributors, Version, Number, Publisher, Publication date, Location.
To cite a dissertation, include in the entry the author, title, and date of publication as core elements. As an optional element, list the institution granting the degree and a description of the work. Njus, Jesse. Performing the Passion: A Study on the Nature of Medieval Acting. 2010. Northwestern U, PhD dissertation.
Scribbr's free MLA Citation Generator can help you cite your sources in MLA Style. All you need is the website URL, book ISBN, or journal article DOI, and the citation generator does the rest. Generate accurate MLA citations with Scribbr Webpage Book Video Journal article Online news article Cite
The formatting for thesis and dissertation citations is largely the same. However, you should be sure to include the type of degree after the publication year as supplemental information. For instance, state if the source you are citing is an undergraduate thesis or a PhD dissertation. MLA Thesis and Dissertation Citation Structure (print)
Citations for dissertations/master's theses should include the following: 1. Name of Author 2. Title of dissertation/thesis (italicized) 3. Date of Publication 5. Institution granting the degree (optional) 6. Description of the work (optional) 7. Database and URL if accessed through a database or repository Sample Citation - Dissertations
MLA format follows the author-page method of in-text citation. This means that the author's last name and the page number (s) from which the quotation or paraphrase is taken must appear in the text, and a complete reference should appear on your Works Cited page.
To cite sources in MLA style, you need In-text citations that give the author's last name and a page number. A list of Works Cited that gives full details of every source. Make sure your paper also adheres to MLA format: one-inch margins, double spacing, and indented paragraphs, with an MLA style heading on the first page.
Use the complete title in the signal phrase or an abbreviated title in the citation: ("Trinity and freedom" 2). Page Number Unknown: If the page number is unknown, omit it from your in-text citation: (Smith). The following source was referenced: Modern Language Association of America. MLA Handbook. 8th ed. MLA, 2016.
The MLA Handbook does not provide guidelines for formatting a thesis or dissertation—or for preparing the parts of such a project, like a preface, dedication, or acknowledgments page—because most schools maintain their own formatting requirements. Although the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing, out of print since 2016, summarized some of these requirements, it …
Another advantage of citing dissertation MLA is the simplicity of making a title page. Unlike in other formats where the requirements for a title page are complicated, you only need your name, course name, instructor's name, and the date. Remember to use the Times New Roman font with a measurement of 12 and double-space your work when using ...
To cite a dissertation in a reference entry in MLA style 8th edition include the following elements: Author (s) name: Give the last name and name as presented in the source (e. g. Watson, John). For two authors, reverse only the first name, followed by 'and' and the second name in normal order (e. g. Watson, John, and John Watson).
When citing a dissertation in MLA 8, a student should indicate whether it is an undergraduate thesis, a master's thesis, or a doctoral dissertation. In the case of a Master's thesis, students should use the word "thesis," indicating whether it is an undergraduate or a master's.
MLA 9th Edition Style Guide: Dissertation/Thesis. This guide will assist you in formatting in-text citations and a Works Cited list in the current MLA style. Home; Updates and changes Toggle Dropdown. Generic Section Labels ; ... 9th edition, bibliography, in-text citation, Modern Language Association, reference list, style manual, works cited ...
MLA in text citation example: "Everything goes away, Jack Sawyer, like the moon. Everything comes back, like the moon" (King, Steven, and Straub 78). When there are more than 3 authors, only list the last name of the first one and type "et al.".
To cite a PhD thesis in a reference entry in MLA style 9th edition include the following elements: Author (s) name: Give the last name and name as presented in the source (e. g. Watson, John). For two authors, reverse only the first name, followed by 'and' and the second name in normal order (e. g. Watson, John, and John Watson).
Harvard. Use the following template or our MLA Citation Generator to cite a dissertation. For help with other source types, like books, PDFs, or websites, check out our other guides. To have your reference list or bibliography automatically made for you, try our free citation generator.
This is the total package when it comes to MLA format. Our easy to read guides come complete with examples and step-by-step instructions to format your full and in-text citations, paper, and works cited in MLA style. There's even information on annotated bibliographies.
MLA Style - Citation and Documentation (Excelsior OWL) MLA Style resources from the Excelsior Online Writing Lab. MLA Manual MLA Handbook by The Modern Language; The Modern Language Association of America. Call Number: LB2369 .M52 2021. ISBN: 9781603293518. Publication Date: 2021-04-06 ...
Discover how to cite Wikipedia in MLA, APA, and Chicago formats with examples. Find whether a Wikipedia citation is the right fit for your paper. Give us feedback X Services ... Essay Help Write My Essay Dissertation Essay Writers for Hire Term Papers Pay For Essay Research Papers Application Essay Scholarship Essay Coursework.