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To be made up of:
- Year of submission (in round brackets).
- Title of thesis (in italics).
- Degree statement.
- Degree-awarding body.
- Available at: URL.
- (Accessed: date).
Smith, E. R. C. (2019). Conduits of invasive species into the UK: the angling route? Ph. D. Thesis. University College London. Available at: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10072700 (Accessed: 20 May 2021).
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- Basic format to reference an unpublished thesis
Referencing theses: Examples
Basic format to reference a thesis.
The basics of a Reference List entry for an unpublished thesis:
- Author. The surname is followed by first initials.
- Title (in single inverted commas).
- Level of Thesis.
Example of unpublished thesis: Kyei-Nimakoh, M 2017, ‘Management and referral of obstetric complications: a study in the upper east region of Ghana ’, PhD thesis, Victoria University, Melbourne.
- A thesis can come in a number of formats, i.e. they can be published, unpublished or retrieved from a database.
- The principles when referencing a thesis are similar to those employed when referencing a book.
- The example above is for an unpublished thesis, examples for an online or a published thesis can be found below.
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How to Cite a Dissertation in Harvard Style
Published by Alaxendra Bets at August 27th, 2021 , Revised On September 25, 2023
What is a Dissertation?
In the UK, countries of Western Europe, as well as New Zealand and Australia, the term ‘ dissertation ’ is used instead of a ‘thesis.’ The majority of the remaining countries in the world prefer to use ‘thesis’ instead of ‘dissertation.’
Both represent the same thing, though: a full-length, academic piece of writing that students must submit after their undergraduate, post-graduate (Master), or PhD studies.
More specifically, a dissertation can refer to:
- Large-scale research as part of a degree.
- An article based on a small-scale study as part of a degree.
- A review of another study, research or an accumulation of both.
- Other full-length body texts are a requirement of the student’s degree program, no matter which level it is.
1. Basic Format
In Harvard, the following in-text citation format is used for the dissertation:
(Author Surname, Year Published)
For example, ‘Occasionally the talent for drawing passes beyond mere picture-copying and shows the presence of a real artistic capacity of no mean order. (Darius, 2014)’
In Harvard, the following reference list entry format is used for the dissertation:
Author Surname, Author Initials. (Year Published). Title of the dissertation in italics. Level. Institution Name.
For example, reference list entry for the above source would be:
Darius, H. (2014). Running head: SAVANT SYNDROME – THEORIES AND EMPIRICAL FINDINGS . University of Skövde, University of Turku.
However, a slightly different format is also used in some institutions. According to that, in-text citations are done in the following way:
Author surname Year, p.#
For instance, Exelby (1997, p. 3) described the process … OR … processing gold (Exelby 1997, p. 3).
But in the case of reference list entries, these ‘other’ institutions recommend naming the dissertation title not in italics but in single quotation marks. The format would then be:
Author Surname, Initials Year of Publication, ‘Title of thesis in single quotation marks’, Award, Institution issuing degree, Location of the institution.
So, according to this format, the above example’s reference list entry would be:
Exelby, HRA 1997, ‘Aspects of Gold and Mineral Liberation’, PhD thesis, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld.
Whichever format is followed largely depends on one’s institutional guidelines. The format specified by the university is the one that should be followed. Furthermore, it should be followed consistently throughout a manuscript.
2. Citing a Dissertation Published Online
The format for both in-text and reference list entries is the same for online and print dissertations. For example:
- In-text citation: (Ram 2012) OR (Ram 2011, p. 130)
- Reference list entry: Ram, R 2012, ‘Development of the International Financial Reporting Standard for Small and Medium-sized Entities’, PhD thesis, The University of Sydney, viewed 23 May 2014, <http://hdl.handle.net/2123/8208>.
An important point to note: While referencing dissertations published online, the URL may or may not be enclosed within < > symbols. Whichever format is chosen, it should be used consistently throughout the text.
3. Citing an Unpublished Dissertation
This type of dissertation also uses the same formatting for in-text and reference list entries in Harvard style. For example:
- In-text citation: (Sakunasingha 2006) OR (Sakunasingha 2006, p. 36)
- Reference list entry: Sakunasingha, B 2006, ‘An empirical study into factors influencing the use of value-based management tools’, DBA thesis, Southern Cross University, Lismore, NSW.
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How do i cite my dissertation.
To cite your dissertation, follow your chosen citation style (e.g., APA, MLA). Generally, include author name, year, title, and source details. For APA: Author. (Year). Title. Source. For MLA: Author. “Title.” Degree, University, Year.
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Cite a Thesis in Harvard
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Reference : Author, Initial. (Year of submission) Title of thesis . Degree statement. Degree-awarding body.
Example : Allen, S. J. (2009) The social and moral fibre of Celtic Tiger Ireland . Unpublished PhD thesis. University College Dublin.
- Author Last name (Year)
- (Author Last name, Year)
- Allen (2009) disagrees with this…..
- As argued elsewhere (Allen, 2009)….
Still unsure what in-text citation and referencing mean? Check here .
Still unsure why you need to reference all this information? Check here .
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This guide offers advice on using the Harvard referencing style, which is an author-date style, of which there are many versions. The Harvard style used at Monash University is based on the Australian Government’s Style Manual , referred to throughout this document as the Style Manual. The Style Manual was updated in 2020 and is available online.
Two of the main reasons why we use referencing styles are to acknowledge our sources and to give readers the information they need to find the sources for themselves. This requires two elements: citations and a reference list. In an author-date style such as Harvard, citations within the text include the author’s surname and the publication year. Each in-text citation has a corresponding entry in the reference list. The reference list entries include the author’s name and the publication year, the title, and the publication details. More guidance and examples related to Harvard citations and references are included in the following pages of this guide.
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Two or more works cited at one point in the text
If two or more works by different authors or authoring bodies are cited at one point in the text, use a semi-colon to separate them:
(Larsen 2000; Malinowski 1999)
The authors should be listed in alphabetical order.
Two or three authors or authoring bodies
When citing a work by two or three authors or authoring bodies, cite the names in the order in which they appear on the title page:
(Malinowski, Miller & Gupta 1995)
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All you need to know about citations
How to cite an online thesis in Harvard
To cite an online thesis in a reference entry in Harvard style include the following elements:
- Author(s) of the online thesis: Give the last name and initials (e. g. Watson, J.) of up to three authors with the last name preceded by 'and'. For four authors or more include the first name followed by et al., unless your institution requires referencing of all named authors.
- Year of submission: Give the year in round brackets.
- Title of the online thesis: Give the title as presented in the source. Only the first letter of the first word and proper nouns are capitalized.
- Degree description: Type of degree.
- Degree-awarding institution: Give the name of the institution.
- URL: Give the full URL of the web page including the protocol (http:// or https://).
- Date of access: Give the day month and year.
Here is the basic format for a reference list entry of an online thesis in Harvard style:
Author(s) of the online thesis . ( Year of submission ) Title of the online thesis . Degree description . Degree-awarding institution . Available at: URL (Accessed: Date of access ).
Take a look at our reference list examples that demonstrate the Harvard style guidelines in action:
A master's thesis found in an online platform
Bauger, L . ( 2011 ) Personality, Passion, Self-esteem and Psychological Well-being among Junior Elite Athletes in Norway . Master's Thesis . University of Tromsø . Available at: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/29a9/ef96c34e577211246b83b11813a2585033c5.pdf (Accessed: 5 July 2018 ).
A PhD thesis found in an online platform
Confait, M. F . ( 2018 ) Maximising the contributions of PHD graduates to national development: the case of the Seychelles . PhD thesis . Edith Cowan University . Available at: Retrieved from https://ro.ecu.edu.au/theses/2060"> (Accessed: 5 June 2019 ).
This citation style guide is based on the Cite Them Right (10 th edition) Harvard referencing guide.
More useful guides
- Harvard Referencing: Theses
- Referencing with Harvard: Thesis or dissertation
- Citing and referencing: Theses/Dissertations
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- MLA: how to cite an online newspaper article
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Dissertation (thesis): how to cite in Harvard style?
Create a spot-on reference in harvard.
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According to the Harvard citation style, the same template is used for referencing a master's thesis and a doctoral dissertation in a list of bibliographic references:
Author , ( year ). Title . Work type , University .
NB: Fill in the 'Work type' field the type of work and the academic grade, for instance, 'Ph.D. thesis'.
If the text of the work can be accessed online, use the following template for your reference:
Author , ( year ). Title . Work type , University . [Viewed date viewed ]. Available from: URL
NB: The text '[online]' is not given after the title of the work, in contrast to the references to a book , a journal article , etc.
Examples in a list of references
Middleton, H. J., (2020). *ABA syncretism patterns in pronominal morphology . Ph.D. thesis, University College London. [Viewed 12 January 2021]. Available from: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10105591/
Reed, B. H., (1992). The genetic analysis of endoreduplication in Drosophila melanogaster. Ph.D. thesis, University of Cambridge.
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- What is APA Style (7th ed.)?
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- What is MLA Style (8th ed.)?
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- When neither the author nor the page number is mentioned in the body of the sentence, you should include both the author’s last name and the page number in the parenthetical citation.
Colleges and universities need to create policies that foster inclusion for low-income students (Jack 24).
- When the author’s name is mentioned in the sentence, you should include only the page number in your parenthetical citation.
As Anthony Jack argues, colleges and universities need to create policies that foster inclusion for low-income students (24).
- If the source you are writing about does not have page numbers, or if you consulted an e-book version of the source, you should include only the author’s name in the parenthetical citation:
Colleges and universities need to create policies that foster inclusion for low-income students (Jack).
- If you mention the author in the body of the sentence and there is no page number in the source, you should not include a parenthetical citation.
As Anthony Jack argues, colleges and universities need to create policies that foster inclusion for low-income students.
- If you are referring to an entire work rather than a specific page, you do not need to include a page number.
In The Privileged Poor, Anthony Jack describes many obstacles that low-income students face at selective colleges and universities.
- If you are referring to a source that has no listed author, you should include the title (or a shortened version of the title) in your parenthetical citation.
Harvard College promises “to educate the citizens and citizen-leaders for our society” (“Mission, Vision, & History”).
- If you are referring to a source that has two authors, you should include both authors in your parenthetical citation.
The researchers tested whether an intervention during the first year of college could improve student well-being (Walton and Cohen 1448).
- If you refer to a source that has more than two authors, you should include the first author’s name followed by et al. ( Et al. is an abbreviation for et alia which means “and others” in Latin.) When you use et al. in a citation, you should not put it in italics.
The researchers studied more than 12,000 students who were interested in STEM fields (LaCosse et al. 8).
- If you refer to more than one source by the same author in your paper, you should include the title (or a shortened version of the title) in your parenthetical citation so that readers will know which source to look for in your Works Cited list. If you mention the author’s name in the sentence, you only need to include the title and page number. If you mention the author and title in the sentence, you only need to include the page number.
Colleges and universities need to create policies that foster inclusion for low-income students (Jack, Privileged Poor 24).
According to Anthony Jack, colleges and universities need to create policies that foster inclusion for low-income students ( Privileged Poor 24).
As Anthony Jack writes in Privileged Poor, colleges and universities need to create policies that foster inclusion for low-income students (24).
- If you want to credit multiple authors for making the same point, you can include them all in one parenthetical citation.
Students who possess cultural capital, measured by proxies like involvement in literature, art, and classical music, tend to perform better in school (Bourdieu and Passeron; Dumais; Orr).
- If you refer to a source that includes line numbers in the margins, numbered paragraphs, numbered chapters, or numbered sections rather than page numbers, you should include the number in your parenthetical citation, along with “line,” “ch./ chs.,” or “sec./secs.” You can include stable numbering like chapters even when there are no stable page numbers (as in an e-book). You should separate “line” or other designation from the work’s title or author’s name with a comma. If the source does not include this type of numbering, you should not include it either.
We learn that when he went to the store to buy clothes for his son, “a frantic inspection of the boys’ department revealed no suits to fit the new-born Button” (Fitzgerald, ch.2).
- If you are citing a play, you should include the act and scene along with line numbers (for verse) or page numbers, followed by act and scene, (for prose).
Guildenstern tells Hamlet that “there has been much throwing about of brains” (Shakespeare, 2.2. 381-382).
Chris is in this mindset when he says, “a couple minutes, and your whole life changes, that’s it. It’s gone” (Nottage, 13; act 1, scene1).
- If you are referring to a video or audio recording that contains time stamps, you should include the time in your parenthetical citation to make it easy for your readers to find the part of the recording that you are citing.
In the Stranger Things official trailer, the audience knows that something unusual is going to happen from the moment the boys get on their bicycles to ride off into the night (0:16).
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- Harvard In-Text Citation | A Complete Guide & Examples
Harvard In-Text Citation | A Complete Guide & Examples
Published on 30 April 2020 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on 5 May 2022.
An in-text citation should appear wherever you quote or paraphrase a source in your writing, pointing your reader to the full reference .
In Harvard style , citations appear in brackets in the text. An in-text citation consists of the last name of the author, the year of publication, and a page number if relevant.
Up to three authors are included in Harvard in-text citations. If there are four or more authors, the citation is shortened with et al .
Table of contents
Including page numbers in citations, where to place harvard in-text citations, citing sources with missing information, frequently asked questions about harvard in-text citations.
When you quote directly from a source or paraphrase a specific passage, your in-text citation must include a page number to specify where the relevant passage is located.
Use ‘p.’ for a single page and ‘pp.’ for a page range:
- Meanwhile, another commentator asserts that the economy is ‘on the downturn’ (Singh, 2015, p. 13 ).
- Wilson (2015, pp. 12–14 ) makes an argument for the efficacy of the technique.
If you are summarising the general argument of a source or paraphrasing ideas that recur throughout the text, no page number is needed.
Prevent plagiarism, run a free check.
When incorporating citations into your text, you can either name the author directly in the text or only include the author’s name in brackets.
Naming the author in the text
When you name the author in the sentence itself, the year and (if relevant) page number are typically given in brackets straight after the name:
Naming the author directly in your sentence is the best approach when you want to critique or comment on the source.
Naming the author in brackets
When you you haven’t mentioned the author’s name in your sentence, include it inside the brackets. The citation is generally placed after the relevant quote or paraphrase, or at the end of the sentence, before the full stop:
Multiple citations can be included in one place, listed in order of publication year and separated by semicolons:
This type of citation is useful when you want to support a claim or summarise the overall findings of sources.
Common mistakes with in-text citations
In-text citations in brackets should not appear as the subject of your sentences. Anything that’s essential to the meaning of a sentence should be written outside the brackets:
- (Smith, 2019) argues that…
- Smith (2019) argues that…
Similarly, don’t repeat the author’s name in the bracketed citation and in the sentence itself:
- As Caulfield (Caulfield, 2020) writes…
- As Caulfield (2020) writes…
Sometimes you won’t have access to all the source information you need for an in-text citation. Here’s what to do if you’re missing the publication date, author’s name, or page numbers for a source.
If a source doesn’t list a clear publication date, as is sometimes the case with online sources or historical documents, replace the date with the words ‘no date’:
When it’s not clear who the author of a source is, you’ll sometimes be able to substitute a corporate author – the group or organisation responsible for the publication:
When there’s no corporate author to cite, you can use the title of the source in place of the author’s name:
No page numbers
If you quote from a source without page numbers, such as a website, you can just omit this information if it’s a short text – it should be easy enough to find the quote without it.
If you quote from a longer source without page numbers, it’s best to find an alternate location marker, such as a paragraph number or subheading, and include that:
A Harvard in-text citation should appear in brackets every time you quote, paraphrase, or refer to information from a source.
The citation can appear immediately after the quotation or paraphrase, or at the end of the sentence. If you’re quoting, place the citation outside of the quotation marks but before any other punctuation like a comma or full stop.
In Harvard referencing, up to three author names are included in an in-text citation or reference list entry. When there are four or more authors, include only the first, followed by ‘ et al. ’
In Harvard style , when you quote directly from a source that includes page numbers, your in-text citation must include a page number. For example: (Smith, 2014, p. 33).
You can also include page numbers to point the reader towards a passage that you paraphrased . If you refer to the general ideas or findings of the source as a whole, you don’t need to include a page number.
When you want to use a quote but can’t access the original source, you can cite it indirectly. In the in-text citation , first mention the source you want to refer to, and then the source in which you found it. For example:
It’s advisable to avoid indirect citations wherever possible, because they suggest you don’t have full knowledge of the sources you’re citing. Only use an indirect citation if you can’t reasonably gain access to the original source.
In Harvard style referencing , to distinguish between two sources by the same author that were published in the same year, you add a different letter after the year for each source:
- (Smith, 2019a)
- (Smith, 2019b)
Add ‘a’ to the first one you cite, ‘b’ to the second, and so on. Do the same in your bibliography or reference list .
Cite this Scribbr article
If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the ‘Cite this Scribbr article’ button to automatically add the citation to our free Reference Generator.
Caulfield, J. (2022, May 05). Harvard In-Text Citation | A Complete Guide & Examples. Scribbr. Retrieved 9 November 2023, from https://www.scribbr.co.uk/referencing/harvard-in-text-citation/
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If you're trying to determine what source to choose or what you should cite, read on for FAQs and helpful answers.
I'm citing a book, article, video, photo, etc., that I found online. Does that mean it's a "website"?
If you can classify your source as something other than a website/web page, choose that as your source. Be as specific as possible. Most times, the source citation form will give you the option to cite the source as something found online (see tabs at the top of the citation form).
- E-book -- choose "Book"
- Online newspaper article -- choose "Newspaper"
- Digital photo -- choose "Photo"
What's the difference between an "Online database" and a "Journal"?
In research, a journal is a scholarly or academic periodical featuring articles written by experts. These articles are reviewed by fellow experts (peer-reviewed) before being published.
An online database is an electronic collection of information. They are searchable and most databases found at your library provide credible, published content. Depending on the database, it might also let you access information in various formats (e.g., journals, videos, books, newspapers, etc.).
This means an online database could have several journals.
- Journals -- Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), PLOS One, New Scientist, Ecology Letters
- Online databases --- Academic One File, Britannica Academic, EBSCOHost, Facts on File
I'm still not sure what source I have. What should I do?
Scroll through our long list of source options and make your best educated guess. If you're still unsure, choose "Miscellaneous."
If there is no author, can I still cite a source?
Yes! It's always better to cite a source, even if you're unsure of all the source details. Also, not everything has an indicated author so it's ok to leave an author out in those cases. When this happens, most citation styles will list the source by its title instead of the author's last name.
I only need to cite one source, right?
A well-balanced paper usually cites several sources; often in different formats (e.g., books, journals, interviews, etc.). There isn't an exact number of sources that is ideal, but try to have more than a couple sources listed.
Also, you should cite everything you've consulted or mentioned in your paper. It's the ethical thing to do.
If I have a full citation at the end of my paper, do I really need to make in-text citations (e.g., parenthetical citations, footnotes, etc.)?
Yes, absolutely! Showing where you got certain ideas or points in your paper will help support any arguments you make. Including in-text citations is also ethical — give credit where it is due.
I heard that "common knowledge" does NOT need to be cited. What is it?
Common knowledge is general information that you can assume a normal individual would know without needing to consult a source. Yes, you do not necessarily need to cite common knowledge. However, if you are unsure if you should cite a fact or source, err on the side of caution and cite it.
- London is the capital of England
- A penguin is a bird
- The moon orbits the Earth
- Water freezes at 0 degrees Celsius
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Harvard University Theses, Dissertations, and Prize Papers
The Harvard University Archives ’ collection of theses, dissertations, and prize papers document the wide range of academic research undertaken by Harvard students over the course of the University’s history.
Beyond their value as pieces of original research, these collections document the history of American higher education, chronicling both the growth of Harvard as a major research institution as well as the development of numerous academic fields. They are also an important source of biographical information, offering insight into the academic careers of the authors.
Spanning from the ‘theses and quaestiones’ of the 17th and 18th centuries to the current yearly output of student research, they include both the first Harvard Ph.D. dissertation (by William Byerly, Ph.D . 1873) and the dissertation of the first woman to earn a doctorate from Harvard ( Lorna Myrtle Hodgkinson , Ed.D. 1922).
Other highlights include:
- The collection of Mathematical theses, 1782-1839
- The 1895 Ph.D. dissertation of W.E.B. Du Bois, The suppression of the African slave trade in the United States, 1638-1871
- Ph.D. dissertations of astronomer Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin (Ph.D. 1925) and physicist John Hasbrouck Van Vleck (Ph.D. 1922)
- Undergraduate honors theses of novelist John Updike (A.B. 1954), filmmaker Terrence Malick (A.B. 1966), and U.S. poet laureate Tracy Smith (A.B. 1994)
- Undergraduate prize papers and dissertations of philosophers Ralph Waldo Emerson (A.B. 1821), George Santayana (Ph.D. 1889), and W.V. Quine (Ph.D. 1932)
- Undergraduate honors theses of U.S. President John F. Kennedy (A.B. 1940) and Chief Justice John Roberts (A.B. 1976)
What does a prize-winning thesis look like?
If you're a Harvard undergraduate writing your own thesis, it can be helpful to review recent prize-winning theses. The Harvard University Archives has made available for digital lending all of the Thomas Hoopes Prize winners from the 2019-2021 academic years.
Accessing These Materials
How to access materials at the Harvard University Archives
How to find and request dissertations, in person or virtually
How to find and request undergraduate honors theses
How to find and request Thomas Temple Hoopes Prize papers
How to find and request Bowdoin Prize papers
- email: Email
- Phone number 617-495-2461
Harvard faculty personal and professional archives, harvard student life collections: arts, sports, politics and social life, access materials at the harvard university archives.