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- A Passage to India
E. M. Forster
- Literature Notes
- The British Raj in India
- Book Summary
- Character List
- Summary and Analysis
- Part I: Chapters 1-3
- Part I: Chapters 4-6
- Part I: Chapters 7-8
- Part I: Chapters 9-11
- Part II: Chapters 12-16
- Part II: Chapters 17-24
- Part II: Chapters 25-32
- Part III: Chapters 33-37
- Character Analysis
- Doctor Aziz
- Adela Quested
- Cyril Fielding
- Ronny Heaslop
- Professor Godbole
- The Turtons
- The Missionaries
- E. M. Forster Biography
- Critical Essays
- General Meaning of A Passage to India
- Nature in A Passage to India
- Mysticism in A Passage to India
- Structure of A Passage to India
- Forster's Writing Technique
- Full Glossary for A Passage to India
- Essay Questions
- Cite this Literature Note
Critical Essays The British Raj in India
India was accustomed to invaders by the time the English arrived in the seventeenth century. Beginning with the great Indo-Aryan invasion (2400-1500 B.C.), the natives of the Indian subcontinent had seen parts of their land overrun by conquering armies of Huns, Arabs, Persians, Tartars, and Greeks. Buddhists, Hindus, and Moslems had ruled over parts of the vast country. None had succeeded in ruling all of India — none until Great Britain came onto the scene.
The English arrived at an opportune time, during the disintegration of the Mogul Empire, which had controlled most of India from 1526 until the death of Aurangzeb in 1707. As the empire dissolved, wars for power between Marathas, Persians, and Sikhs began. The English took advantage of these conflicts.
The English did not come as invaders or conquerors; they came as traders. When the British East India Company was formed in 1600, its agents were in competition with the French and Portuguese traders who had preceded them. Whereas the other European traders kept aloof from Indian affairs, the English became involved in them. Trade was their most important consideration, but fortifications and garrisons were necessary to insure security. Warring princes were very interested in obtaining European arms and military skills for their own purposes and willingly paid for them with cash, credit, or grants of land.
In this way power was gradually gained by the British East India Company until in 1757 Robert Clive gained control of India in the Battle of Plassey. In 1774 Warren Hastings became the first governor-general of India; during his regime the foundations of the civil service system were laid and a system of law courts was organized. The power was still in the hands of the East India Company; the company agents extended their control and obtained the right to collect taxes.
The Sepoy Rebellion in 1857 was an attempt by the Mogul emperor to regain power, and it showed a desire on the part of Indians to win back control of their own country. The rebellion, which lacked organization, support, and leadership, left widespread bitterness. In 1858 the British government took over rule of India, with power in the hands of the British Parliament. Great Britain indirectly controlled various territories, known as "Indian States," where the rulers were rewarded for support during the rebellion: titles were conferred, autonomy was granted, and protection against possible revolts was assured.
In 1885 the Indian National Congress was formed. Little more than a debating society, it did represent every geographical area and all religious groups and castes. In 1906 the Moslem League was formed to advance the cause of Mohammedanism in India.
From 1858 to 1914 England firmly established its rule over the country. English governors at the head of each province were responsible to the governor-general (or viceroy) who was appointed by the King of England and responsible to Parliament. In 1877 Queen Victoria was declared Empress of India.
In return for helping Great Britain in World War 1, Indians were promised a share in their own government. This was far from independence, for repressive measures were directed against India. More Indians, however, were elected to the legislature and Indians, for the first time, sat on the Viceroy's Council. There was a constant struggle for independence. The Amritsar Massacre in 1919 indicated the extent of unrest and trouble among the Indians.
India was guaranteed independence before it agreed to help the Allies in World War II. In 1946 Clement Atlee, Prime Minister of Great Britain, offered complete independence as soon as Indian leaders could agree on a form of government that could manage a free India. By 1947 it was clear that only partition could resolve the conflict among the Indian peoples. India and Pakistan became dominions in the British Commonwealth of Nations. In 1949, the new constitution declared the Union of India to be a sovereign democratic republic.
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79 British Empire Essay Topic Ideas & Examples
🏆 best british empire topic ideas & essay examples, 📌 simple & easy british empire essay titles, 👍 good essay topics on british empire, ❓ british empire essay questions.
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Essay on British India
The British entered India as traders and their primary objective was to earn profits by carrying on trade in India.
In order to earn maximum profits from Indian trade and commerce and to develop monopoly of trade and commerce they competed with other European powers.
By the beginning of the middle of the 18th century, the British crippled the French interests in India and became a dominant trading power.
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The British also developed political interest to push in their monopoly of trade and commerce and initiated the process of expanding their political power in Bengal by the victory in the battle of Plassey and obtained the power of Diwani by the victory of Buxar through the treaty of Allahabad of 1765.
From then on till 1857, the British East India Company through wars, diplomacy and administrative measures made it a policy to obtain more and more of economic benefits by fleecing the Indian farmer, artisan and small and medium traders. This process is called colonialism and India became a colony of the British.
This colonialism bled the Indians and made India a de-industrialized power. In this span of seventy-five years from 1772 to 1857, the process and pattern of colonialism underwent different stages because the Charter Act of 1813 made by the British Parliament and Crown abolished the monopoly of the British East India Company and opened the gates of trade and commerce to every British citizen.
Further, by Charter Act of 1833, the Governor General of Bengal became the Governor General of India with control over the presidencies of Bombay and Madras and the British citizens were permitted to own property in India and thereby we come across British landlords and planters of tea, coffee, indigo and cotton and also British capitalists investing surplus capital in Colonial India. Both these measures hastened the process of draining of the wealth of India by the colonialists with their colonial policies.
Along with the colonialist measures, the British introduced ideology of mercantilism, orientalism, evangelicalism, utilitarianism and liberalism to justify their colonialist policies in India. In the name of ‘improvement’, ‘progress’ and ‘Whiteman’s burden’ the British administrators made it their avowed objective to introduce British laws and revenue measures into India. Added to the above ideological and philosophical tenets, the modernization process of Dalhousie also acted as the last straw on the camel’s back, and the substance of colonialism remained the same throughout the period of seventy-five years.
The colonial administrative apparatus from top to bottom was controlled by the Crown and Parliament through their Acts and Charter Acts. The British East India Company enjoyed a unique position at England as King George III patronized it and its friends – fought with the help of the parliament. The British decided to control the company’s Indian administration in the interest of Britain’s influential elite group as a whole. The company was allowed to have monopoly “of the trade and Directors of the company” were given the control of Indian administration.
Before we take up in detail the administrative set-up of the colonial administrative apparatus, we have to bear in mind the fact that the pre-colonial India had well established administrative structure at different levels – centre, provincial and local, suited to the needs and demands of the time, relevant to the socio-economic formations. Another factor to be noted is that all the earlier invaders who established their power in India like the Indo-Greeks to Sakas, the Kushans and the Muslims added their principles of administration and modified the administrative structure and thus we notice the process of continuity and change in our administration in theory and practice.
The major factor of difference to be noticed is that the British East India Company replaced the old Indian administrative policies and introduced their system of law, justice, education, revenue and intellectual and social theories, in India. All these changes created a new value system. We also notice an evolution of the colonial administrative apparatus as per the reforms introduced by the earliest regulating Act of 1773 and ending with the Government of India Act of 1858.
The regulating Act of 1773 introduced provisions for the effective supervision of the executive of the company. It introduced changes in the constitution of the Court of directors of the company and the company affairs were put under the control of the government.
The Governor of Bengal was made the Governor General of Bengal and a council with four members was constituted. The Governor General and council was given authority to supervise the presidencies of Bombay and Madras and the presidencies were brought under the control of Governor General in the council of Bengal. This Act provided for a Supreme Court of justice at Calcutta to take care of the justice of Europeans, employees and citizens of Calcutta.
The Governor General in council was empowered to make laws for Bengal. The Pitt’s India Act established a board of control with six members of whom two were to be cabinet ministers. This board was given power over the activities of the Court of directors. This Act provided three members to the Governor General in council and the Governor General was given a casting vote.
The importance of the Pitt’s India Act lies in the fact of laying the foundation for a centralized administration, a process which reached its climax towards the end of the 19th century and it tightened the control of parliament over the company. In 1786, the Presidencies were divided into districts and collectors were appointed.
A revenue board was created with four members with the right to manage the treasury. The Charter Act of 1793 gave powers to the Governor General to override his council and also empowered him to exercise effective control over the Presidencies. Through this Act the British introduced the concept of a civil law enacted by a secular human agency, i.e., the government and applied universally in place of the personal rule of the past rulers.
It is an important change to be noticed by everyone. The Charter Act of 1813 allowed the British subjects, access to Indian shore with their ships. By now the company’s power spread over the whole of India except the Punjab, Nepal and the Sindh. To whatever political and economical philosophy the British subscribed, every Britisher was interested in the stability and security of the British territorial power in India. The most important development to be recorded is the deprival of the monopoly of trade and commerce of the British East India Company and throwing open the trade of India to all the British citizens. The East India Company was allowed to have monopoly of trade with China.
Owing to the rapid growth of industrial revolution in Great Britain, the British followed laissez-faire philosophy in India which ultimately benefited the British industrialists and capitalists at the cost of the Indian farmers and artisans. There was a great demand in India for the abolition of the company rule and assumption of authority by the crown.
In this backdrop the Charter Act of 1833 was passed which made the Governor General of Bengal, the Governor General of India. The president of the board of control became the minister of India and the board of control was given the power to supervise Indian affairs on behalf of the crown. Bombay, Madras and Bengal regions were placed under the direct rule of the Governor General in Council of India.
Central government was given the power to exercise full control over revenue and expenditure of the British territories in India. The Governor General in Council was given legislative powers over the rest of the Indian presidencies which are applicable to everyone in India. By this Act, a new member by name law member was added to the executive council and the strength rose to four. Lord Macaulay, the new law member played a very crucial role in influencing the educational policy of the British.
The number of members of the councils of the presidencies was reduced to two. Bombay and Madras were to keep their separate armies under the commander-in-chief and were kept under the control of the central government. The laws of India were codified by this Act through a law commission appointed by the Governor General. As a result of their effort, the Indian penal code and codes of civil and commercial law were enacted.
The most significant aspect of this Act theoretically was abolishing discrimination towards Indians in appointments to the British East India Company, and it was more violated by non-implementation and it provided for Indians a sheet anchor towards agitations for equality of treatment to Indians. In the next two decades the political consciousness of Indians increased due to the introduction of Western education and realization among the Indians.
Raja Ram Mohan Roy, the Bombay Association and the Madras Native Association submitted petitions to the parliamentary select committee demanding for the end of the reactionary rule of the company. By 1853 Charter Act, one more member was added to the executive council of Governor General to enact laws. The consent of the Governor General was mandatory for all legislative proposals. They added one more member from each province to the central legislative body. The Chief
Justice of the Supreme Court of Calcutta was also made the ex officio member of the legislative council. The legislative council’s membership was limited to 12 the Governor General, Commander-in-Chief, four members of Governor General’s council and six legislative members. Thus, this Act separated the legislative body from the executive body and this legislative body became an Anglo-Indian House of Commons.
The 1857 Great Revolt opened the eyes of the British and made it clear how the Indians hated the British rule for all their evil deeds and an attempt was made by the British to rectify their blunder by the Government of India Act of 1858. The Act replaced the British East India Company as ruler and transferred the powers to the crown along with the army. It abolished the Court of directors and the Board of Control. Their place was filled up by the secretary of state and the Indian council. They were given the powers to rule in the name of Her Majesty. But yet the ultimate power rested with the Parliament.
India Council should consist of 15 members and it was to be an advisory body to the secretary of state. The Governor General is designated as Viceroy or Crown’s representative and the Government of India’s strings were in London.
The administrative structure that evolved in India from 1773 to 1858 was the result of the initiatives of many British administrators, thinkers and philosophers. As already indicated, the earliest influence on the thinking of British administrators and thinkers was their idea of improvement or progress. This process was initiated by Cornwallis by introducing the permanent land revenue settlements.
Between 1830 and 1840, when Bentinckwasthe Governor General of India the initiatives of Benthamite reforms based on utilitarianism and Charles Grant’s idea of evangelicalism and the British interests of monopoly of trade and maximum profits created the framework of administrative machinery and structure in India. Thus, the British administration in India was motivated by the maintenance of law and order and the perpetuation of the British regime.
The British depended on three pillars, of civil service, the army and the police to achieve their objective. The term ‘Civil Service’ was first used in India by the company to distinguish military and ecclesiastical personnel from civil employees. In the beginning they were commercial-oriented but later on they became public servants.
The civil service was graded from the beginning as apprentices, writers, factors, junior merchants and then finally senior merchants. High officers in India were selected from among the senior merchants. This system of grading continued till 1839. It is Cornwallis who increased the salaries of the civil servants and debarred them from taking bribes.
It is Wellesley who introduced training for civil servants. For a long time, the civil servants were appointed through the process of patronage and in 1833, the selection through limited competition was introduced and by 1853 they selected civil servants through public competition and in 1858 the Civil Service Commission was started for the process of selection of civil servants. The chief officer in the district was the Collector and he was assisted by a Tahsildar, who was a native.
The Collector had both magisterial and chief police functions. By these changes the Collector obtained total authority over the districts. In between the Collector and the Tahsildar, the post of Deputy Collector was created.
It is Cornwallis who initiated the police system. Till then, the police functions were performed by the local Zamindars. The army was also disbanded along with stripping of the police functions of the Zamindars. The police force was organized into Thanas, headed by a Darogha, who was a native and these daroghas were kept under the supervision of the criminal judges. The post of district Superintendent of Police was created to head the police set-up in the district and sometime later the Collector controlled the police also.
The judicial system was one of the main pillars of administrative structure and framework of the British in India. It is Lord Cornwallis, who started building up of the administrative machinery in India, It is he who separated the judicial functions from the revenue functions and laid foundation for the judicial system. Broadly the structure of the judicial system is divided as follows: in civil cases Sadar Diwani Adalat followed by provincial courts followed by district courts presided over by a district magistrate from civil service was introduced.
A category of subordinate courts presided over by Indian judges called Munsiff and Amins was created. In criminal cases Sadar Nizamat Adalat in Calcutta and Sadar Faujdari Adalat in Madras and Bombay happened to be the highest, followed by the court of circuit presided over by civil servants followed by local courts presided over by Indian magistrates who are called principal Sadar Amins in Madras Presidency.
First, all these courts in hierarchical order were experimented in Bengal. Both the Sadar Diwani Adalt and Sadar Nizam Adah were located in Calcutta as the highest civil and criminal courts. The provincial courts of appeal both in civil and criminal cases, (circuit courts) were established in the towns of Calcutta, Dacca, Murshidabad and Patna.
While the British occupied the superior position, the Indians occupied subordinate positions such as Munisiffs, Amins, the Quazis and the Pandits advising the judges in the Hindu and the Muhammadan laws. In subsequent years, the same was extended to other states and after some time a whole network of laws through the process of enactment of laws and codification of old laws was developed. By the time of Bentinck, the Indian penal code and Indian criminal procedure code were prepared.
The entire judicial system was based on the notions of the ‘rule of law’ and ‘equality before law’ of the British. But in practice, the judicial system was not at all beneficial to the Indians as it became very costly and lengthy and Indians failed to comprehend the laws. To give an example of the lengthy process, the case in Madras Presidency may be quoted where a Zamindar went to a court of law in 1832 to settle inheritance and debt suits and the final judgment was delivered in 1896, i.e., after 64 years.
In spite of the above demerits the judicial system created a consciousness of oneness. Thus, what we see in India as a result of the measures, administrative machinery was a network of laws applicable throughout the country and a vast administrative structure to implement the laws. In nature, the structure was modern and pan-Indian in its spread, while the administrative structure served the purpose of maintaining law and order in India from the British view point, it served as a ground to protest and challenge the authority of the British in India.
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The British Raj: The Effect Of The British Rule In India
Show More The British Raj was the colonial and official rule of the British Empire in India between 1858 and 1947. The British rule had started unofficial when the East India Company ruled large parts of India with its private armies, exercising military power and assuming administrative functions. Company rule in India began effectively in 1757 and lasted till 1858 when, following the Indian Rebellion (1857), the Government of India Act 1858 led to the British Crown assuming direct control of India in the form of the new British Raj . Hence, the effect of the British rule can be seen even before 1858. My main hypothesis is that the British rule had a direct impact on the culture, heritage and social issues of in India during their rule by introducing …show more content… They introduced the western idea of everyone capable of achieving anything so long as they had the passion for it and were willing to put in effort in order to achieve their dreams. Whereas in India, there was the caste system believe in which it was considered that lower caste people did not deserve education, being married to someone of higher caste, job opportunities and even basic respect. There was a group of lower caste people called the ‘untouchables’ who were treated worse than animals. The British severely criticised the caste system and practice of untouchability. During that time frame, people were forbidden to marry anyone that was not the same caste as them and if anyone were to do anything of such sort, their family would never forgive them for it. Children and youth were brainwashed from young to only love and interact with people of the same caste that there were almost no inter-caste/inter-communal marriages. Furthermore, people dare not proceed with inter-caste marriage due to the fear of their family, friends and society. In 1872, a law was introduced that sanctioned inter-caste and inter-communal marriages. Even upon the passing of the law, the inter-caste marriages were not so popular till the early 2000s. Nowadays, the caste system is still prevalent in rural areas but in urbanised cities, people are given jobs based on their merit and ability and no longer based on their caste and
Compare and contrast the contributions of classical china.
Classical China made various contributions in many areas such as, the areas of political institutions, religion, culture, economy, and society. The Qin and Han dynasties were agricultural states that valued ancestors, had a uniform tax system, a strict code of law, and a bureaucracy. The Han bureaucracy consisted of upperclassmen and people who could pass the civil service examination. Emperor Wudi established this exam, that tested law and Chinese literature. Emperor Wudi also established a training school for bureaucrats.…
Dbq Essay On British Imperialism
But not only that but the British also ended female infanticide, which basically meant that you could kill your child if it was a girl and not get in trouble. The British also helped the people of India by increasing everyone’s life expectancy with medicines that fought off smallpox and malaria. Document 2 attempts to rebuttal this by bringing up famines which killed millions. However famines are almost unavoidable, they happen to everyone in sometime in history.…
Examples Of British Imperialism
The power of the British empire was able to put down rebellion with minimal struggle, overcome the expense, and reap the numerous benefits that dictating India brought. The chapter of Imperialism in British history was an important one, as it shaped British policy for over a century. Britain’s triumph over India benefitted Britain through gleaning them resources and an ally during the world wars. With minimal resources used during the conquest, the reward highly exceeded the cost.…
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This shows that India created positive standards of living under British rule and it also highlights the key idea of ethnocentrism. The British judged India on their lifestyles, so they decided to improve it for the benefit of the people. In addition, in Document 6, the British made many improvements such as ending slavery, establishing a court system, educating officials how to administer their country, and also creating an education system (Document6). This also shows that the British positively influenced the Africans’ lives. However, they also did many negative and harsh things.…
Apush Empire Dbq Analysis
An empire is a group of countries controlled by one ruler or one government. Throughout history, empires transform its surrounding nations — changing the economics, politics, and societies during their rise and more notably their fall. Empires such as the Roman and British Empires faced a variety of problems that led to their decline. The fall of these empires influenced changes in nearby societies and regions.…
The Effects Of British Imperialism In India
Imperialism was a country’s means of expanding their power, which often resulted in negative effects for the countries deemed inferior. As time progressed, intentions seemed to sway from the original goal. Though coined as the White Man’s Burden, imperialism typically burdened the countries it “helped”; dominating those with weaker economies, exerting its power internationally, and causing harmful backlash from indigenous people. British imperialism in India is a perfect example of how a powerful country was capable of bending another under its control. Great Britain created and maintained an expansive array of products, which helped form an economic backbone.…
Cultural Differences In British Imperialism
The blatant ignorance due to the assumed cultural superiority on the part of the British towards Hindu rituals shows how important tolerance towards different belief systems is and how evidently lacking it was in this situation. The acceptance of self-immolation by widows in Indian society is one that makes a great deal of sense considering the belief system that is Hinduism. Different religions and cultural backgrounds lead to different beliefs as to what is moral and what is not, when the British encounter different morals then their own there was no attempt at understanding, despite the very good cultural and religious reasons behind the morals of Indian…
Effects Of British Imperialism
With the idea of “Imperial power” they weren 't thinking of the society at all. They were in it for all of the wrong reasons, some were involved for selfish gain as well. Education could have been expanded the knowledge of said Empire, making its relevancy rise. The focus on Imperialism wasn 't spread out in any sense that Britain gained anything influential in proving this was deemed a good thing, it had simply been an “idea” that hadn 't played a dominant role. Another mistake had been all of the misleading information.…
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Throughout history, many nations have been subjected to imperialism. In particular, India and Africa have both seen their fair share of being ruled by another nation. Both these two regions had differing imperial experiences, much to do the aims of the imperialize to the independence movements indorsed by the native people. But, the imperial experience in India was much less destructive and more effective than the one in Africa.…
Positive And Negative Effects Of British Imperialism In India
They caused millions of deaths due to famines, and froms the late 17th century and the early 19th century (keep in mind this was the time frame of the British Raj) there were roughly 35 famines, were as previously per century there were no more than three, not to mention how much death they caused by acts of violence(Doc 11). This shows that although the British improved health and helped fight diseases they cause much death through famine and physical violence upon the people of India. Overall the social effect that the British had on India was negative, they stole from ancient sacred ruins and caused many…
Effects Of Imperialism In India
Ghandi's campaign for independence went on, with his encouragement of peaceful protest and criticism of British administration and taxes. In 1921, Ghandi called for all Indians to boycott paying taxes on farming tools to the British, a strategy to have a negative effect on the economy. His non-cooperation campaign, despite its nonviolent aims, periodically became violent, and Ghandi was imprisoned in 1922 for instigating the movement. He was released two years later. The movement, however, was quite successful in terms of uniting the country in a movement under one leader (Masselos, 138, 1972), joined by their resentment of British rule.…
The Raj: The Role Of The British Woman In India
The better-off Indian castes went to the finest English-speaking schools and stayed loyal to the Brits. They joined the British armies and performed their civil duties. Some even helped the British to rule over their less fortunate fellow Indians. They had become fully emerged in the western culture. The British man was very successful in his conquering of India however; he would have not been able to conquer without the help of the British woman.…
The Second Wave Of Colonialism And The Ideas Of Imperium Universalis
Politically they created deals through bribes, intimidation and advanced technology to insure that the leaders of India worked for them and depended on them, while not having to rule directly, essentially, ruling through and by the local leaders. Militarily this is also similar; in India more the two-thirds of the British military personal were Indians under British officers (Crash Course). In this time period, this became the new…
British Imperialism: The Pros And Cons Of British Rule
During the late 1800s, Western European nations like Great Britain began to use the term imperialism, to justify using their powers over weaker countries around the world. Two countries who were impacted by imperialism were Nigeria and India. Imperialism was very beneficial for the European and American powers, but had a negative impact on the countries who faced this which would lead to issues. One example that gives insight to how India was impacted by Britain’s imperialism, is Dadabhai Naoroji’s speech, “The Pros and Cons of British Rule.” Naoroji, a man born into a prosperous family, left his math career so he can fight for better conditions for India.…
Decolonization Of British India Essay
Decolonization of British India In the 20th century, technology was integrating the world web. Politics brought mainly disintegrations reflected in World War I and II. Moreover, the industrial powers involved in those wars lost their empires. A larger burst of decolonization came after 1943, when colonies started to fight for their dependency under the tensions of total war, the diffusion of information in general and the art of political mobilization.…
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British Raj Essays
British raj imperialism.
The British Raj attempted to colonize India in an organized fashion while utilizing its luxury, wealth and pleasure. However, that wasn’t always the case. A majority of the time, the British Raj faced political confusion, revolts, and extreme racism towards both British and Indian people. These conflicts were hidden by the common stereotype that India was a realm of spice, wealth, and glory. Suggesting the British Raj was beneficial to the Indian subcontinent would be an indistinct opposition. To
How Did The British Raj Affect India
The Raj of the Influencers India is an exquisite nation shaped by the lush farmlands of Punjab, soaring mountain peaks of the Himalayas, arid terrains of the Thar Desert, and many more exceptional elements. The country is known for its beauty, but the people of India have seen the frightful and unattractive side of India not many years ago. India was greatly influenced by the ruling of the British Raj as they completely reconstructed the government as we know today. The British Raj has affected
E M Forster and the British Raj in a Passage to India
dimensions. Among these writers E.M. Forster made a mark in the literature of his age through his last novel A Passage to India (1924), which was entirely different from Forster's other novels in that it dealt with the political occupation of India by the British, a colonial domination that ended soon after the publication of this novel. Forster, a liberal and humanist in outlook, emphasised the importance of love and understanding at the personal level in this novel. Edward Morgan Forster was born in London
Analysis of the Film Passage of India
the 1920s. The film shows India under the British Raj during a time of animosity and the Indians’ anti-imperialist attitude. Furthermore, the film displays themes of prejudice and India on its journey of becoming its own independent nation. “A Passage to India” has a powerful message of the racism in India during the time of the British Raj and the message shines through vivid imagery and a thrilling plot. A short synopsis of the film is two educated British women travel by boat to India. When they
The Indian Mutiny of 1857
Indians mutinied. The factors which will be assessed include the British East India Company’s expansionist economic policies, cultural and religious clashes including British evangelism, and comparatively poor treatment of Indian Sepoys within the British army. Interviews and modern analysis from British and South Asian sources on the subject will be assessed. An interview with Dr. Hassan and “Raj: the Making and Unmaking of British India” a book by James Lawrence will be evaluated for their limitations
The Impact of Sepoy Revolution on India's Movement
This investigation seeks to discover whether or not the Sepoy revolution in 1857 had a sufficient impact on India’s rise to independence and separation from the British Empire. The Sepoy revolution was a revolution of the Sepoy soldiers in 1857, and complete independence from the British Empire was not achieved by Indians until 1947. Therefore, did the Sepoy revolution catalyze their rise to independence, or was independence inevitable? The impact of the Sepoy Revolution will be found by looking
Imperialism In Pakistan
individual independence were being fought against the British in unison. The Muslim League, led by their President Muhammad Ali Jinnah, was aiming to create an Islamic nation state from the removal of Britain in the region (Britannica). The Indian National Congress had the goal of Hindu-Indian independence and was led by President Dadabhai Naoroji (Robinson). Both groups were fighting the British leadership, but for their own goals. When the British gave in to the pressure that the nationalists were
Essay On Pakistani Army
this ethnic division. The Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a relatively new nation, having only gained independence from British India in 1947. Britain ruled the Indian subcontinent for a little less than 350 years prior to Pakistan’s independence. This included time during the rule of the British Raj, as well as the British East India Company prior to that. The rule of the British raj in the Indian subcontinent ended in 1947 through independence for India and Pakistan. Pakistan’s entire history has
The history of British India
The history of British India is remembered for its controversial events surrounding Indian nationalism. The seemingly indestructible empire was brought down by Indian nationalists following years of reforms and suppressions. Daniel Headrick’s article, A Double-Edged Sword: Communications and Imperial Control in India, provides insight into how and why the Indians were able to attain dominance over an apparently impregnable empire. This paper will examine Headrick’s specific argument about the significance
The Indian Independence Movement
India was granted independence from the British on 15 August 1947. Her to path independence was not because of one person or just one movement. It was rather a collection of multiple events which were both violent and nonviolent in nature. In essence the Indian Independence Movement lasted nearly a century starting with the Sepoy rebellion(1857) to the formation of the Indian National Congress to the Salt Satyagraha(1929) to the Quit India Movement (1942) and finally Independence in the 1947. In
Indian Indepdendence and Mahatma Ghandi
World War I was making the British busy. Many people question why Gandhi did not break apart from the British while they were vulnerable, but the answer is simple. Gandhi vowed to not take advantage of his opponents troubles. Instead of fighting the British, Gandhi influenced people. He used satyagraha to change inequities between Indians. For example, Gandhi persuaded landlords to stop forcing their tenant farmers to pay increased rent and mill owners to peacefully settle a strike. Gandhi's goal
Jinnah's Responsible For The Partition Of India
Jalal ,the author of ‘The Sole Spokesman’ provides some arguments in favour of Jinnah’s efforts for Hindu Muslim Unity. “The Khilafat Movement” was launched in India by the Indian Muslims in support of the Calif or the ottoman emperor against the British. Mahatma Gandhi extended support to this movement so as to unite Hindus and Muslims for his Non-cooperation movement.This decision of Gandhi was opposed by Jinnah (Jalal 1999). According to Jalal (1999), Jinnah
Historical Context of The Jewel in the Crown
demonstrates that the elements of life and love are colorless and timeless and that arrogance and hate are universal. Through a historically accurate setting using imaginary characters we are shown the fictionalized city of Mayapore, India during the British Raj and told the "story of a rape, of the events that led up to it and followed it and of the place in which it happened" (Scott 3). The story is relayed to us, in the most part, through an unnamed narrator that began his quest for answers, concerning
imperialist society commanded Orwell to enforce this injustice: “I was stuck between my hatred of the empire I served and my rage against the evil-spirited little beasts who tried to make my job impossible. With one part of my mind I thought of the British Raj as an unbreakable tyranny…with another part I thought the greatest joy in the world would be to drive a bayonet into a Buddhist priest’s guts. Feelings like these are normal by-products of imperialism” (qtd. in Lewis 41). Obviously, imperialism
Analysis Of Train To Pakistan By Khushwat Singi
Khushwant Singh’s “Train to Pakistan” Depicted Tracks of Multicultural Milieu Abstract: The present paper tried to explore Khushwant Singh’s views on effect of partition and role of multicultural set up in India. India is known for its cultural diversity in the world map and maintaining unity. There are hundreds together caste, creed, belief and traditions being observed by the people of India. Many Indian and foreign writers depicted cultural diversity and conflict between two major religions in
Sikh Restitution: Martyrdom Of Juggut Singh
of lives that was lost and could have been prevented. Born in 1915 and lived in Lahore, Punjab Singh had first-hand experience with the events that followed the partition of India, which should have been “the joyful culmination of decades of anti-British struggle [and instead] became a shameful debacle as Muslims, Hindus and Sikhs turned on each other in a fury of religious bigotry” (Brians 47-8). Though he was fortunate
A Life Without Religion: A World Without Religion
grief than well. Just think about it. How many wars fought on this planet, are not due to religion? Furthermore, why do you think we have countries and borderlines? Let us for example look at India. After the Second World War, the British Empire decided to decolonize British India. The enormous country was split up into three parts because of conflicts due to religion. The Hindus, Muslims, and Buddhists did not manage to agree, and live together as one nation in peace. The majority of the former colony
The Partition of India
by the British might likewise part what was known as British India into two dissimilar nations whose borders were controlled by the religious aggregations that most thickly populated the regions. The Union of India (later Republic of India) might be mainstream yet with a Hindu dominance, Muslims might control the Dominion of Pakistan (later isolated further still into Pakistan and Bangladesh.) The Partition of India occurred in the fallout of World War II, when both Great Britain and British India
Mohammad Ali Jinnah: Early Life: Quaid-E-Azam
stepped into politics in 1905. He joined the platform of the Indian National Congress. Mohammad Ali Jinnah went to England with Gopal Krishna Gokhale in that year, as a member of a Congress delegation for the cause of India Self-government during the British elections. After one year, he performed his choles as a Secretary of Dadabhai Noaroji, who was at that time was the Indian National Congress President. His duties as the secretary was considered as a great honour for a rising and promising politician
Could Violence Have Been Avoided in India's Rebellion of 1857 and Its Partition in 1947
religions were under attack. The rebellion broke out on May 10, 1857 at Meerut when Indian soldiers rebelled and killed the British colonel because he had ordered the execution of Indian soldiers who refused to use the new rifles that were created. The soldiers marched to Delhi and they declared Bahadur Shah Zafar the revolt leader. Hindu and Muslim soldiers fought against the British soldiers that came. In the end, this rebellion failed miserably. The EIC had important allies, which is the reason that
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Topic: Colonization , Business , Society , Economics , India , England , Commerce , Trade
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In the 8th century, several significant events occurred in the world. One of these events is the industrial revolution which occurred in England and extended to the rest part of Europe. The industrial revolution resulted in the invention of new sea and trade routes. The route to India was discovered in 1498 by the Portuguese and was referred to as Vasco DA Gama. As a result European and British traders came to India for trading purposes.The industrial revolution led to an increase in demand for raw materials for factories in Britain. Meanwhile, the British needed a market to sell their product and India offered a platform to accomplish their needs. India experienced an internal power struggle in 18the century, which led to a decline of power of the Mughal empire. This provided a great opportunity for the British leaders to establish their hold over Indian territory. In order to achieve their objectives, they started wars, forced treaties, annexations and formed alliances with various regional powers to colonize India. Therefore, the paper will be focusing on the British Raj in India and how it has affected the country. The British colonization in India was more practical than other colonial powers because its motivation was economic and not evangelical (Thompson and Garratt, 1999, PP. 24). They westernized India only to a limited scope attain a monopolistic trading position as well as a market for their finished goods. The colonization of India was the main element in the world power structure based on the geography, logistics and military manpower. British Raj was able to westernize India because of the Indians were not united. However, the British was not averse to Indian economic development, whether it increased their markets, but refused to assist in areas which brought the conflict with their own economic interest and political security. For instance, British rule did not offer protection to the Indian textile until its main competitor became Japan rather than Manchester and they refused to further technical education (Richard, 2012, PP.327). Therefore, the British rule managed to affect the Indian life significantly. The British Raj had great effect on the Indian army. British officials restructured the Indian army to prevent future mutinies. To establish the most remarkable instruments of war in British hands, the disbanded all Indian artillery units. They discharged all regular European soldiers and provided India with battalions of the regular British army. British officials also changed the ethnic composition of the Indian army dramatically. However, the traumatic recollection of uprising Indian troops killing British officers shook their confidence in all non-European solders. This is so because they recruited sepoys from regions that had yet to face the complete impact of the economic and social dislocations generated by Imperial rule. The Raj also bestowed significant irrigation projects in these regions to reduce the chance that Sepoy grievances over its agrarian policies might spark further unrest (Ledes, 2000, PP. 62). British officials sought to apply the evident lessons of the mutiny by making the new Raj more responsive to conservative forces in Indian society. The reformers left the Utilitarians’ Anglicization experiment, placed new restrictions on Christian evangelism and sought to co-opt and reinforce Indian customs and traditions. The Raj had little use of the Indian educated and commercial classes, which had failed to convince the general population of the value of British rule (Mahajan, 2001, PP. 54). The British Raj had great effect on the Indian agriculture. The British policy led to the introduction of a significant number of commercial crops such as indigo, tea, opium, Cotton and coffee among others. Several commercial crops were introduced with diverse intentions. For instance, the Indian opium was employed to equalize the trade of Chinese tea with Britain to capture the china market. Its market was completely controlled by British traders which did not give Indian producer to collect profits. The British Raj forced Indians to produce indigo and sell it on conditions dictated by them. It was sent to England and utilized as a dyeing agent for that British town produced. However, the cultivation of Indigo made the Indian land infertile which made farmers not to grow it. Commercialization of agriculture also promoted the speed of transfer of ownership which increased the number of landless workers. This contributed to an increase of traders and merchants who came to exploit the situation. As a result the peasant depended on them to sell their produce during the harvest period. Since the peasants shifted to commercial crops, the stable crop production reduced which led to famines. The was a significant drain of wealth from India to British because of economic policies which placed financial burdens on the Indians. These economic policies developed by the British Raj managed to alter the social structure of Indian society (Traill, 2000, PP. 35). The British Raj led to the rise of the new money-lending class in India. This is so because they demanded excessive revenue, which forced peasant to receive loans from creditors. These creditors exploited the peasants by charging them high interest rates. They employed unfair method and the policy introduced by the British Raj was meant to benefit moneylenders who were merchants and traders. Mostly, peasants were unable to pay back the debt with complete interest, which made these moneylenders acquire their land (Sandria, 2003, PP. Meanwhile, the significant impact of the British Raj in India was the rise of the new middle class. This was because of the increased British commercial interests, which create opportunities for a few Indian people who acted as the intermediaries and agents of the British Raj. These Indians made vast fortunes who contributed to the formation of a middle class. This class of landowners replaced the peasant who lost ownership of their land. This led to land aristocracy, which was created after the permanent settlement was introduced. These Indians received English education and became the new elite who got the job opportunities from the British. The Indian society experienced significant change such as the introduction of law courts, commercial agencies and government leaders among others. However, the English people who were highly educated obtained the vital patronage of their colonial rulers. Therefore, British Raj also created a new professional and service-holding middle class besides those with landed interests (Iyer, 2010, PP. 697). The British Raj had great effect on the Indian society and culture. This is so because when they came into India its society experienced several changes. During the colonization some social practices such as child marriage, rigid caste system, female infanticide, polygamy and sati among others became rampant (Parsons, 1999, PP.117). These practices were seen immoral and going against human dignity. For instance, women were discriminated and became disadvantage gender in the society. Likewise, they were denied access to development opportunities to enhance their status. The education was made available the men who belonged to the upper castes. British Raj also brought ideas such as equality, liberty, human right and freedom from the Renaissance, which changed some society completely. The British Raj led to reform movements, which was attributed to visionary Indians such as Raja Ram Mohan Roy, Pandita Ramabai among others (Burke and Quraishi, 2004, PP. 57). These movements were meant to promote social unity and achieve fraternity, equality as well as liberty. For instance, several reforms were achieved, such as the abolition of sati and child marriages. This is so because these reform movements adversely opposed the caste, particularly the practice of untouchability. The movements reforms led to women empowerment where they were allowed to receive education and job opportunities (Klein, 2008, PP. 734). Therefore, the British Raj in India affected Indians significantly. It led to great changes in social, political and economic institutions. For instance, some changes which were introduced to reinforce the British political and trading interests brought culture transformation. The cultural and judiciary changes that occurred during colonization continue to affect Indians life. The rails, the club life, imperial buildings and parliament are significant impact of the British colonization in India. Several commercial crops that were introduced has resulted in food such as tea, bread and cake among others. Likewise, several costumes such as trousers and ties seen in the urban India were adopted during the colonial period. The Indian armed forces also adopted the British training and culture. The English language in India is also a legacy of British colonization and continue to be the lingua Franca when seeking employment in India. Therefore, the coming of British Raj in India had a great impact on social, political and economic institutions.
Burke, S. M., & Quraishi, S. 2004. The British Raj in India: An historical review. Karachi [u.a.: Oxford University Press. Iyer, L. 2010. Direct versus Indirect Colonial Rule in India: Long-Term Consequences.Review of Economics and Statistics, 92(4), 693-713. Klein, I. 2008. British Reforms, Commercial, Agriculture, and Agrarian Distress in India. Historian, 70 (4), 732-752. Ledes, E. 2000. The British in India. Magazine Antiques, 139(1), 60-67. Mahajan, S. 2001. Raj: The Making and Unmaking of British India. Indian Historical Review, 65 (3), 54-57. Parsons, T. 1999. The British imperial century: 1815-1914 : a world history perspective. Lanham [u.a.: Rowman & Littlefield. Richard, B. 2012. Colonial Justice in British India: White Violence and the Rule of Law. Asian Affairs, 43 (2), 325-327. Sandria, F. 2003. The Raj: India and the British 1600-1947. Historian, 65 (3), 56-60. Thompson, E., & Garratt, G. T. 1999. History of British rule in India. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers. Traill, E. 2000. The British Rule in India. Lutheran Church Review, 32(19), 33-40.
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