Autism - List of Essay Samples And Topic Ideas
Autism, or Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), refers to a broad range of conditions characterized by challenges with social skills, repetitive behaviors, speech, and nonverbal communication. Essays could explore the causes, symptoms, and treatment of autism, the experiences of individuals with autism, and societal understanding and acceptance of autism. We’ve gathered an extensive assortment of free essay samples on the topic of Autism you can find at Papersowl. You can use our samples for inspiration to write your own essay, research paper, or just to explore a new topic for yourself.
The Complexity of Autism
Autism spectrum disorder is a complex disease that affects the developmental and speech capabilities of adolescents that carries with them to adulthood. It is distinctly apparent when the child is still very young and able to be diagnosed from about a year and a half old onwards. Although the disease cannot be pinpointed to one specific area of the brain, it is believed to stem from a glitchy gene that makes the child more susceptible to developing autism, oxygen deprivation […]
911 Telecommunicators Response to Autism
Autism is becoming more prevalent every day. The Center for Disease Control and Prevention released new statistics in 2018. Nationally, 1 in 59 children have autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and boys are 4 (four) times more likely to have autism than girls. 1 in 37 boys and 1 in 151 girls were found to have autism. These are incredibly high statistics that will affect our communities across the United States We, as Telecommunicators, need to know how to understand and […]
The Unique Parenting Challenges are Faced by the Parents of Special Children
Introduction For typical children, parenting experiences are shared by other parents whereas the unique parenting challenges are faced by the parents of special children. Mobility and Inclusion of the parents as well as children are affected many a times. Even though careful analysis often reveals abilities, habitual tendency to perceive the disabilities from society’s part often hinders effective normalization and proper rehabilitation. All impose severe identity crisis and role restrictions even in knowledgeable parents.. In some conditions, as in the […]
How Different Types of Assistive Technology Can Help Children with Autism
I. Introduction An anonymous speaker once said, “some people with Autism may not be able to speak or answer to their name, but they can still hear your words and feel your kindness.” Approximately thirty percent of people diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder never learn to speak more than a few words (Forman & Rudy, 2018). Fortunately in today’s society, new technologies have made it possible for these individuals to communicate and socialize with others. Purpose The primary focus of […]
Representation of Autism in the Netflix TV Show “Atypical”
In the first season of the TV show “Atypical”, the viewer meets the Gardner family, a seemingly normal family with an autistic teenage son, Sam, as the focus. This show failed initially to deviate from typical portrayals of autistic people on screens, as a white male, intellectually gifted, and seemingly unrelatable, although it seemed to try. Sam acts in ways that seem almost unbelievable for even someone with autism to, such as when he declares his love for someone else […]
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Defining Altruism Issue
In current society, it can be justified that the level of autonomy directly influences the amount of altruism an autistic adolescent implements. Defining Altruism: When it comes to the comprehension of socialization within the development of behaviors in adolescents, altruism is vital. Although there is no true altruism, more or less altruism can be determined based upon the involuntary actions and behaviors of an individual. In the absence of motivation, altruism cannot transpire. An altruist must have the inherent belief […]
Raising a Child with Autism
All impose severe identity crisis and role restrictions even in knowledgeable parents.. In some conditions, as in the case of physical challenges, the child needs physical reassurance and support from the parents against those conditions of cognitive deficits in which the demands are always parent’s constant attention and feedback. As far as autism is concerned, the child’s deficits are many namely social, emotional, communicational, sensual, as well as behavioral. Symptoms are usually identified between one and two years of age. […]
Maternal Immune Activation and Gut Microbiota in Autism Spectrum Disorder
Maternal immune activation (MIA) is correlated with the development of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). It is also suspected that autism may be a disease involving the gut’s impact on the immune and nervous systems3. Viral infection in women during pregnancy is correlated with a higher frequency of ASD in their offspring1. To investigate this correlation, poly (I:C), a synthetic double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), is injected intraperitoneally in rodents to model human MIA1-4. Studies with this model found that pregnant mice subjected […]
Virtual Reality in Regards to Health and how it Can be Life-Changing
Exploring Virtual Reality in Health Diego Leon Professor Ron Frazier October 29, 2018, Introduction When most individuals think of technology involving computers, they think it can solely involve two of the five senses we humans have – vision (sight) and hearing (audition). But what if we could interact with more than two sensorial channels? Virtual reality deals with just that. Virtual reality is defined as a “high-end user interface that involves real-time simulation and interaction through […]
Autism in Japanese Manga and its Significance on Current Progression in J-pop Culture
Abstract In this paper I will explore and examine Autism in Manga, the social and cultural context of Autism in Manga, its movement, and importance of Tobe Keiko’s, “With the Light.” Manga is a huge part of Japanese culture and can be appreciated by so many different people. There are different types of Manga that have been specifically produced for that type of audience. In this paper, I will address the less talked about, women’s Manga or also known as […]
Cultural Stereotypes and Autism Disorder
“It’s the fastest growing developmental disability, autism” (Murray, 2008, p.2). “It is a complex neurological disorder that impedes or prevents effective verbal communication, effective social interaction, and appropriate behavior” (Ennis-Cole, Durodoye, & Harris, 2013). “Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a lifelong disorder that may have comorbid conditions like attention deficit disorder (ADD)/attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety disorder, stereotypical and self-stimulatory behaviors, insomnia, intellectual disabilities, obsessive compulsive disorder, seizure disorder/epilepsy, Tourette syndrome, Tic disorders, gastrointestinal problems, and other conditions. Another certainty, […]
An Overview of the Five Deadly Diseases that Affect the Human Brain
There are hundreds of diseases that affect the brain. Every day, we fight these diseases just as vehemently as they afflict their carriers. Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's, depression, autism, and strokes are just five of the most lethal and debilitating diseases that afflict human brains. Parkinson's disease alone claims up to 18,000 lives a year (Hagerman 1). But what is it? Parkinson's disease occurs when a brain chemical called dopamine begins to die in a region that facilitates muscle movement. Consequently, […]
Autism Spectrum Disorder
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a group of developmental disorders that challenges a child’s skills in social interaction, communication, and behavior. ASD’s collective signs and symptoms may include: making little eye contact, repetitive behaviors, parallel play, unexplainable temper tantrums, misunderstanding of nonverbal cues, focused interests, and/or sensory overload. Positive symptoms of ASD may reflect above-average intelligence, excellence in math, science, or art, and the ability to learn things in detail. A question that many parent has is whAlthough an individual […]
Autism: Characteristics, Diagnosis, and Understanding
The prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder has nearly doubled in recent years, and the numbers are staggering: nearly 1 in every 59 children are diagnosed with autism in the United States alone. Yet, there are so many questions surrounding the complexity and increase in diagnoses of this condition that affects so many in such diverse ways. (Autism Speaks) How autism originates in the first place and its impact on communication, both verbal and nonverbal, are questions that need to be […]
Trouble with Social Aspects and People on the Autism Spectrum
Autism in childhood starts as early as age two, and symptoms will become more severe as children continue into elementary school. When a child goes to a psychiatrist, they will work on social development. Adolescence with autism struggle when attempting to project others pain. For example, my brother has Asperger's and when I have a bone graph done on my hand, he could not stop touching my hand. He needed constant reminders to not touch and remind him of when […]
Speech Therapist for Autism
Abstract Autism Spectrum Disorder is a condition that consists of various challenges to an individual such as social skills, nonverbal communication, repetitive behaviors and difficulties with speech. So far doctors have not been able to find out what causes autism although it is believed that it involves both environmental and genetic factors. Autism can usually be detected at an early age, therefore giving the patient and therapist an early start to improve their verbal skills. Speech language pathologists also known […]
My Personal Experience of Getting to Know Asperger’s Syndrome
The beginning of this paper covers the history of Asperger’s Syndrome, followed by an explanation of what Asperger’s is. The history provides detailed insights into Hans Asperger and Leo Kanner, and their relationship to each other. Their work has significantly enriched our understanding of the research surrounding Autism and Asperger’s Syndrome. The paper also discusses the process leading to Asperger’s becoming a recognized diagnosis, including the contributions of Lorna Wing and Ulta Frita. Furthermore, it traces Asperger’s entry into the […]
Growing up with Autism
Autism is a profound spectrum disorder; symptoms, as well as severity, range. It is one of the fastest-growing developmental disorders in America. For every 68 children born in the United States, 1 is diagnosed with a neurological development disorder that impairs their ability to interact and communicate on what we constitute as normal levels. Autism is multifaceted; it affects the brain development of millions worldwide. Not only are those diagnosed on the Autism Spectrum facing difficulties, but the family members […]
Rain Man and Autism
The film Rain man was released into theaters in 1988 and was awarded many awards along with an Academy Award. The movie starts off by showing Charlie who works as a car salesman, attempting to close on a deal involving four Lamborghinis. Charlie decides to drive with his girlfriend Susanna to ensure that this deal goes through. On the drive over Charlie receives a call telling him that his father has just passed away. Charlie and his girlfriend go his […]
Autism and Assistive Technology for Autistic Children
Autism is a complex neurobehavioral condition that is found in a person from early childhood days where the person faces difficulty in communicating with another person. It is also known as ASD or Autism Spectrum Disorder. It is a spectrum disorder because its effect varies from person to person. This is caused due to some changes that happen during early brain development. It is suggested that it may arise from abnormalities in parts of the brain that interpret sensory input […]
Understanding Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a cognitive disability that affects a person’s “communication, social, verbal, and motor skills” . The umbrella term of ASD created in 2013 by the American Psychiatric Association that covered 5 separate autism diagnosis and combined them into one umbrella term, the previous terms being Autistic Disorder, Rett syndrome, Asperger’s Disorder, Childhood disintegrative Disorder, and Pervasive Developmental Disorders. The word spectrum in the diagnosis refers to the fact that the disability does not manifest itself in […]
The Evolution of Autism Diagnosis: from Misunderstanding to Scientific Approach
Autism has come a long way from the early 1980s when it was rarely diagnosed to today where 100 out 10,000 kids are diagnosed. Autism is defined as a developmental disorder that affects communication and behavior (NIMH 2018). There are many aspects surrounding Autism and the underlying effects that play a role in Autism. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, people with Autism have “Difficulty with communication and interaction with other people Restricted interests and repetitive […]
Autism Spectrum Disorder and its Positive Effects
What would it feel like if you were constantly ignored or treated as though you have little usefulness? Many people experience this kind of treatment their entire lives. Long has it been assumed that people with mental disabilities such as Autism, were meant to be cared for but to never expect any value from them. Evil men such as Hitler even went so far as to kill them because he thought they had no use to society. However, there is […]
Effects of Autism
When he was eight years old, the parents of Joshua Dushack learned that their son was different. He had been diagnosed with Autism. According to the doctors, Joshua would never be able to read, write, talk, or go to school on his own. This might have been the case, had his parents accepted it. But his mother saw her son as a normal boy, and treated him as such. He did need some extra help in school, but because of […]
Do Vaccines Cause Autism
In a world of medicines and “mommy bloggers”, there is a controversy between pro-vaxxers and anti-vaxxers. The vaccination controversy cause an uproar for many people, understandably, it’s very polarized- you strongly believe in them or you strongly do not. For me, at the age of 15, I strongly believe in the Pro-Vaccine movement and I have data that can back me up. For starters, you may wonder ‘what is a vaccine’ or ‘how to do they work’. For a general […]
Kids with Autism
In this earth we have many different lifeforms. Animals, plants, insects, and people. Humans have populated the earth all throughout it. Some people are born healthy and some are born will disorders and illnesses and diseases. One of the disorders is Autism. Autism is constantly affecting the people who have it and the people around them all over the world. So what is Autism? Autism is a disorder that impairs the ability for social interaction and communication. It is very […]
Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders and ADHD
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex lifelong neurodevelopmental disorder that affects communication and behavior, generally diagnosed within the early stages of life. No two individuals living with Autism experience the same symptoms, as the type and severity varies with each case (Holland, 2018.). Autism has been around for hundreds of years, but the definition has evolved immensely. In 1943, scientists Leo Kanner and Hans Asperger conducted research on individuals with social and emotional deficits to better refine the definition […]
Autism Genes: Unveiling the Complexities
“Autism is a brain disorder that typically affects a person’s ability to communicate, form relationships with others and respond appropriately to the environment (www.childdevelopmentinfo.com).” There are different levels of autism. “There is the autistic disorder, Asperger's syndrome and pervasive developmental syndrome (www.asws.org).” According to (www.everydayhealth.com/autism/types), “Each situation is unique as there are many levels and severities of it. Many cases also include sensory difficulties. These can range from imaginary sights and sounds to other sensations.” There are many different characteristics […]
Is Autism a Kind of Brain Damage
Many people have different views about autism. Autism may be only one simple word, but with this one word comes many forms in the way it could affect people with this disability. Autism should not be looked down on as much as this disability is from others in society. It may seem as if it has more “cons” than “pros” as some call them, but if looked at from a better perspective, there could be more pros than cons and […]
Searching Employment Autism
Over the last 20 years, there has been an alarming increase for children who have been diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in the United States. According to the Centers for Disease Control, in the year 2000 1 in 159 children would be diagnosed with ASD. In the latest version of the study, the number has been reduced to 1 in 59 children will be diagnosed with ASD (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2018). This is a subject that […]
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Autism spectrum disorder, or ASD, is a worldwide phenomenon diagnosed primarily in children irrespective of gender, race, or physical fitness. The condition refers to changed patterns in brain development which affects how someone perceives the world, socializes, and communicates.
Often labeled as a mental illness, autism makes every day a struggle. Unfortunately, medicine and pharmacology haven’t found a cure to alleviate the condition due to the complexity of the disorder, the numerous causes, and the risk factors. We still lack scientific understanding and theories to help this population thrive and adapt to the environment.
If you are a medical, defectology, or psychology student, you’ve probably discussed the issue at length. Or you were assigned a research paper on autism spectrum disorder. Frequent essay topics on ASD include the prevalence of the condition, its symptoms, treatment, education of autistic kids, empathy, and dieting. Your college essay on autism can also examine the emotional and social nature of an autistic person.
Generally, your writing must contain a thesis statement that will hook your reader’s attention. Moreover, the introduction should reveal your views and present the problem. After arguing and counter-arguing the topic, don’t forget to give a summary of your standpoints in the conclusion.
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Autism and autism.
Autism is a global mental phenomenon that is present within the minds of many, no matter the race, gender, age, or physical health of the person. Autism is a mental illness that affects a person's mind, modifying their social contributions, work, and just everyday life making simple days a struggle. The mental illness known as autism affects all of the people with autism and the ones around them. With no cure arising in the near future, people must continue to adapt and learn how to help these people
Autism And What Is Autism
(What is Autism?). What is the answer to the reason why certain children are affected? Researchers say that epigenetics may be a critical answer to our questions. “Epigenetics is the mechanisms that turn individual genes on and off in a cell” (Hamilton). Our epigenetic genes form together into a cluster during a woman’s pregnancy that forms the baby. When these certain genes switch on and off, this causes some cells to become heart cells while others become brain cells essentially mixing up the organization
Autism, or autism spectrum disorder (ASD), is known as a complex developmental disability. It is a wide-spectrum disorder. This means no two people have exactly the same symptoms. It is “characterized, in varying degrees, by difficulties in social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication and repetitive behaviors.” (Autism Speaks Inc., 2014) “Children with characteristics of an ASD may have co-occurring conditions, including Fragile X syndrome (which cause mental retardation), tuberous sclerosis
Autism 1. Definition Autism- is a developmental disability significantly affecting verbal and nonverbal communication and social interaction, generally evident before the age of 3, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance. Other characteristics often associated with autism are engagement in repetitive activities and stereotyped movements, resistance to environmental change or change in daily routines, and unusual responses to sensory experiences. 2. Common Characteristics Inability
Autism In the United States, autism may affect up to 115,000 children between one and 15 years of age with an uncertain prevalence in adults (Rapin, 1998). Because of the high number of cases in the United States alone, testing has grown and encompasses many different ages and areas of autistic patients and their symptoms. Because of increased testing, researchers have found different options to meet the challenges autism presents. Testing has been administered before the knowledge of
What is Autism? Autism is a developmental disability that affects all areas of behavior and perception. Approximately 10 out of every 10,000 children are diagnosed with autism and four out of five are males. Autism is the third most common developmental disability, more common than Down Syndrome. Children with Autism are characterized by impairment in several areas of development such as: Cognitive, Language, Play/Socialization skills and exhibit many challenging behaviors. Behavior Patterns of
Autism Isolated in their own worlds, people with autism appear indifferent and remote. They are normally unable to form emotional bonds with others. Although people with this brain disorder can display a wide range of symptoms and disabilities, many are incapable of understanding other people's thoughts, feelings, and needs. Often, their language and intelligence do not fully develop. This makes communication and social relationships difficult. Many people with autism engage in repetitive activities
Autism Research Paper Autism is a neurological disorder that was identified by Dr. Leo Kanner 50 years ago. Autism can affect someone very mildly or severally and it can effect language, communication, and/or gross motor skills. It is the most devastating disorder a child could have and it also is devastating for the family. There is no medicine and no cure for autism but there are glutton free diets that help. People with autism can look normal but they lack communication skills and are withdrawn
Summary Paper AUTISM Autism is a disorder that impairs the development of a person's capacity to interact with, communicate with, and also maintain regular "normal" bonds with the outside world. This disorder was described in 1943 by Leo Kanner, an American psychologist. Autism is considered one of the more common developmental disabilities, and appears before the age of three. It is known to be four or five times more common in males than in females. It most cited statistic is that autism occurs in
What is autism? "Autism is a potentially severe neurological condition affecting social functioning, communication skills, reasoning, and behavior. It is considered a "spectrum disorder," meaning that the symptoms and characteristics of autism can present themselves in a variety of combinations, ranging from extremely mild to quite severe" (Fergus 2002 para.1). Autism was first reported in 1943 by a Dr. Leo Kanner of John Hopkins University. Dr Leo Kanner based his theory on 11 children who showed
Autism Autism is a complex developmental disability that typically appears during the first three years of life. This is the result of a neurological disorder that affects the functioning of the brain. Autism is four more times prevalent in boys than girls. Autism shows no racial, ethnic or social boundaries. Family income, lifestyle and educational levels do not affect the chance of autism's occurrence. Autism and its associated behaviors have been estimated to occur in as many and one in
AUTISM Autism is a life-long developmental disability that usually appears in the first three years of a child’s life. It interferes with normal development of the brain, preventing individuals with this rare disorder from understanding what they hear, sense, and observe. Although this severe disability is considered a child’s disability, autism is found in adults, interfering with normal social and emotional development. Anyone can acquire autism; it is put in place at birth. Boys, however
Autism “We start with an image—a tiny, golden child on hands and knees, circling round and round a spot on the floor in mysterious, self-absorbed delight. She does not look up, though she is smiling and laughing; she does not call our attention to the mysterious object of her pleasure. She does not see us at all. She and the spot are all there is, and though she is eighteen months old, an age for touching, tasting, pointing, pushing, exploring, she is doing none of these. She does not walk
Autism Autism is not a disease, but a developmental disorder of brain function. People with classical autism show three types of symptoms: impaired social interaction, problems with verbal and nonverbal communication and imagination, and unusual or severely limited activities and interests. Symptoms of autism usually appear during the first three years of childhood and continue throughout life. Although there is no cure, appropriate management may foster relatively normal development and reduce
Autism, also called: autism spectrum disorder. A serious developmental disorder that impairs the ability to communicate and interact. Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by social-interaction difficulties, communication challenges and a tendency to engage in repetitive behaviors. People with autism have a short attention span. However, symptoms and their severity vary widely across these three core areas. Taken together, they may result in relatively mild challenges for someone on
There are three well-known types of therapy that individuals with Autism often take advantage of. Many individuals have session in Occupational Therapy (O.T.). Occupational Therapists help individuals gain the tools that they need to do everyday things through therapy. Some therapy intervention programs include helping children with disabilities in the school setting. However, they often also help individuals recover from an accident and provide support for adults and other individuals. An occupational
Autism Autism or PPD (pervasive developmental disorder) is defined by the Columbia encyclopedia as a rare neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by the inability to relate to and perceive the environment in a realistic manner. The onset of the disorder is in infancy or early childhood, generally before the age of thirty months, and males are affected four times as often as females. Symptoms include impairment in social interaction, fixation on inanimate objects, inability to communicate
Autism is a genetic disorder that typically appears during the first three years of life. There has been five chromosomes thought to be directly connected to autism. The disorder is a complex developmental disability. Autism is the result of a neurological disorder that has an effect on normal brain functions, affecting development of the person’s communication and social interaction skills. There are many different ways to classify autism; by difficulties in social interaction, verbal and non-verbal
Autism is a pervasive developmental disorder of the brain that severely impacts socialization, communication, and may even cause obsessive or repetitive behaviors. Autism delays the brain's normal development, and is also correlated with a milder form of the syndrome known as a pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-N OS). Since it was first identified in 1943, there has been increasing rate in new diagnoses each year. Muhle, Trenracoste, and Rapin (2004) found that the rate
Essay On Autism
Autism Autism is a neurological developmental disability that affects a person’s behavior and communication skills (AutismResearchNetwork.org). Commonly, those with Autism are diagnosed very early in childhood. Autism is the fastest- growing developmental disability known, with its prevalence appearing in 1 out of every 68 births (www.autismspeaks.org). The autism spectrum is so large, ranging from mild to severe symptoms, that no two people diagnosed are alike. With autism being the most common
Autism is a neurological condition that is usually detected in the first three years of age of a child. People with autism typically display repetitive behavior and have problems with social interactions.
Autism and Its Symptoms
A group of neurodevelopmental disorders is classified under the umbrella term Autism spectrum disorder (ASD). According to the American Psychological Association (APA), children with this mental health condition experience difficulties with communication and social interaction. They also exhibit repetitive behaviors and have a restricted range of interests.
ASD usually manifests itself during early childhood and is more commonly seen in boys than in girls. Experts have failed to pin ASD down to one single cause, although genetics is known to have at least some influence. On the other hand, culture, race, or economic background have been found to have no bearing on the disorder. While cases of ASD appear to be on the rise, experts say that this could be due to more frequent and accurate diagnoses rather than an actual rise in the number of cases. Early diagnosis helps a person get the required support and can certainly improve their quality of life.
Here are some early signs to watch out for:
- Delayed or no speech (non-verbal)
- Repetitive language (words or sounds)
- Repetitive movement (flapping hands, tapping, etc.)
- Aberrant non-verbal communication (avoidance of eye contact, fewer facial expressions, speaking in a monotone, etc.)
- Preference for solitary play over playing with other children
- Preference for structured and predictable play over make-believe alternatives
- Upset by any kind of change
- Strong interest in a specific topic, toy, or object
Since autism is a spectrum disorder, the severity of symptoms varies from person to person. Some individuals with ASD could be highly communicative, even articulate, while others might eschew any form of verbal communication altogether. Similarly, some individuals with ASD lead “regular” lives with jobs and families while others are reclusive and uninterested in any form of social interaction. Not surprisingly, a wide range of IQs is found among people with ASD.
To read more about Autism and various interventions for people with ASD, scroll down for a comprehensive list of informative essays and research studies on Autism and ASD.
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Essay
Autism is a serious disorder that has the potential to disrupt the success of people living with it. This report shall set out to explore various aspects regarding this disorder. To this end, an overview of the symptoms, causes, diagnosis and treatment shall be offered. This shall aim at expanding our understanding regarding this disorder so as to enable us to be better prepared to handle it whenever the need arises.
Autism has been noted to be among the most prevalent childhood psychiatric disorder. Kuder (2003) denotes that in the USA, an estimated 2.1% of the population aged between 8 and 17 is affected by autism in its various forms.
Autism is manifested by varied behavior but it is chiefly characterized by inability to communicate, lingual deficits, lack of a sustained attention, low level of activity, temper tantrums, sleep disturbance, aggression inadequate motor control and other non-compliant behavior. These behaviors are detrimental to the social and educational endeavors of the people involved.
Biological and genetic aspects of autism Spectrum Disorders
Autism spectrum is a medical term that is used to describe children and adults who experience difficulties in motor coordination, socializing, communicating (verbal and non-verbal) and language acquisition (Tager-Flusberg, Paul and Lord, 2005). The authors describe autism as a neurological disorder that stems from the brain’s inability to carryout some functions normally.
The causes of Autism as well as the reasons why it affects lingual and communication skills are not entirely known though there is a close linkage between Autism and genetics.
Studies indicate that Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is inherited between family members. A study conducted by the American Psychiatric Association (2000) indicated that there is a 3-6% chance of getting autism amongst siblings.
However, Korvatska et al (2002) state that the difficulty experienced by scientists in pinpointing the genetic aspects of autism emanates from the lack of extended family histories. In most cases, autistic individual become more detached socially that they rarely marry or have children. As such, finding a family that has detailed genetic information regarding autism is difficult.
On a brighter note, twins have been used to explore the genetics behind autism (Beaudet, 2007). One study indicated an 82% likelihood of an autistic identical twin having the same disorder. This is in contrast to the 10% likelihood indicated by results from fraternal twins. More sophisticated studies have in the recent past concluded that 90% of autism related behavioral phenotypes are as a result of inherited genes (Happé & Ronald, 2008). This shows that there is a strong relationship between autism and genes.
Biologically, the root cause of autism has been difficult due to relative inability to access and study the brain systematically. However, technological innovations and advancements such as MRIs, CT scans and SPECT have made it possible to study the structure and functionality of the brain.
As a result, specialists have been able to deduce that majority of the brain’s structures play a pivotal role in the development of ASD. According to NIMH (2009, p. 1) they include but are not limited to “the cerebellum, cerebral cortex, limbic system, corpus callosum, basal ganglia, and brain stem”.
Similarly, other studies indicate that various neurotransmitters such as serotonin and epinephrine have a strong link to autism. The diagram below shows the biological basis of Autism Spectrum Disorder. It shows various structures of the brain and explains the functions that each play. Various symptoms of ASD are as a result of the structures’ inability to carry out their normal function.
A diagram showing brain structures linked to ASD
As mentioned earlier, the causes of ASD are not well known. However, researches conducted in this regard indicate that genetic, nutritional and environmental factors play a pivotal role in the development of the disorders. Results from numerous studies indicate that genetic factors predominate.
Others indicate that certain foods, infectious diseases, plastic and metallic extracts could cause autism. Similarly, smoking, alcohol, illicit drugs and some (mercury-based) childhood vaccines have also been attributed to causing autism. However, none of these causes are conclusive and more research needs to be conducted. This is to mean that the theory of causation regarding autism is not complete as yet.
Prevalence of ASD
The most recent survey conducted by center of disease control (CDC) indicated that autism rates have increased significantly over the past three decades. In most cases, studies indicate that autism is most prevalent among children. According to Rutter (2005), boys are four times more likely to be autistic than their female counterparts.
In addition, the author states that the symptoms of autism exhibit themselves from childbirth until three years of age. Parents are the most likely to discover these symptoms. As a result, they should ensure that they have their children checked at the onset of various abnormal behaviors.
Rutter (2005) asserts that the prevalence of autism disorder has been facilitated by ignorance and assumptions made by caretakers. In some cases, parents assume that their children are ‘slow and that they will develop as they grow up. However, this approach has proven to be costly since autism can best be handled as soon as it is detected.
Delaying makes it difficult to come up with remedies and coping mechanisms for both parents and the individuals having autism disorders. The main symptoms of this disorder include communication (verbal and non-verbal) difficulties, inability to develop and maintain relations with other people, abnormal lingual patterns and repetitive behaviors. Whenever any of these symptoms are discovered, it is highly recommended that medical or psychiatric assistance be sought.
Diagnosis of ASD
An early diagnosis of ASD is important since it enables the people involved to come up with effective interventions before its too late. Recent studies show that intensive interventions administered in a control environment for a minimum of two years during preschool leads to behavioral and social improvements among children with ASD.
Clinicians base their diagnosis depending on the behavioral traits exhibited by a child. For a diagnosis to be made, NIMH (2009) asserts that at least one of the symptoms associated with ASD must be present. This means that a patient must have abnormal patterns of communication, socialization and restrictive behaviors.
In most cases, the diagnosis is made through a two-stage process. The first stage is “a developmental screening normally conducted during the routine childhood check-ups, while the second one involves a more comprehensive behavioral analysis by a team of experts (NIMH, 2009, p. 1).” Below are the stages that are followed to diagnose ASD.
The American Psychiatric Association (2000) recommends that every parent should ensure that a developmental screening test is carried out for his/her child during the “well child” check-up. The author contends that screening plays a pivotal role in the early identification of ASD symptoms.
Due to its importance, there are various screening instruments that have been developed to facilitate the diagnosis process. They include but are not limited to Checklist of Autism in Toddlers (CHAT) and its modified version; M-CHAT. Similarly, the Screening Tool for Autism in Two-Year-Olds (STAT) as well as the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) have proven to be effective in diagnosing ASD in children aged between two years old and above four years old respectively.
According to Tadevosyan-Leyfer et al (2003), questionnaires given to parents provide important information during the diagnosis process. As such, some instruments rely on such responses while others depend on these responses as well as observations made by the caregiver. However, these screening instruments are not as effective as they should be when it comes to identifying mild ASD or Asperger syndrome. As a result, other screening instruments such as the Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ) and the Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test (CAST) among others have been developed so as to diagnose these forms of ASD (NIMH, 2009).
Comprehensive Diagnostic Evaluation
This is the second stage of diagnosis and it relies on the skills of a team of different experts such as psychologists, psychiatrists, neurologists, and therapists among others. This evaluation entails a comprehensive analysis of neural, genetic, cognitive and language testing in order to conclude whether a patient is suffering from autism or other behavioral disorders.
Some of the instruments used at this stage include: Autism Diagnosis Interview-Revised (ADI-R), which is a structured interview designed to test a child’s “communication, social interaction, restrictive behaviors and age-of-onset symptoms, and the Autism Diagnosis Observation Scheduling (ADOS-G), which is designed to identify abnormal, missing or delayed communication and social behaviors (NIMH, 2009, p. 1).”
The teams of experts that conduct this diagnosis determine the strengths and weaknesses of the child and recommend various treatment options that should be undertaken.
Treatment of ASD
According to Freitag (2007) there is no one-shoe-fits-all approach to treating ASD. However, specialists in this area seem to agree on the fact that early interventions are of great importance. Arguably, the best treatment is one that considers the interests of the patient, allows the patient to learn in accordance to his/her ability and causes no harm to the overall well being of the patient. With this in mind, there are specialized programs and treatments that have proven to be effective against ASD symptoms.
For starters, Applied Behavioral Analysis (ABA) is among the most used intervention in treating ASD (SAMHSA, 2011). Similarly, there are dietary and medical interventions that help suppress unwanted behaviors among autistic children (NIMH, 2009). In regard to learning, there are specialized educational programs that seek to enhance the socio-communicative, cognitive and language skills of autistic students.
It can be articulated from this report that Autism is a problem that needs to be focused on. With proper understanding as to what the condition entails, parents and practitioners are better armed to assist patients overcome the weaknesses brought about by the condition and therefore achieve successful lives.
From this study, it can be authoritatively stated that early diagnosis and treatment of Autism spectrum is necessary to increase the chances of success in learning for the child suffering from this disease. Whereas Autism is not curable, it can be managed so as to ensure that it is not disruptive to the life of the individual during his/her future endeavors.
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-IV-TR (fourth edition, text revision). Washington DC: American Psychiatric Association.
Beaudet, A. L. (2007). Autism: highly heritable but not inherited. Nat Med, 13(5): 534–6.
Freitag, C. M. (2007). The genetics of autistic disorders and its clinical relevance: a review of the literature. Mol Psychiatry. 12(1): 2–22.
Happé, F., & Ronald, A. (2008). The ‘fractionable autism triad’: a review of evidence from behavioral, genetic, cognitive and neural research. Neuropsychol Rev, 18(4): 287–304.
Korvatska, E et al. (2002). Genetic and immunologic considerations in autism. Neurobiology of Disease , 9: 107-125.
Kuder, S. (2003). Teaching Students with Language and Communication Disabilities. USA: Allyn and Bacon.
NIMH. (2009) Autism Spectrum Disorders (Pervasive Developmental Disorders) . Web.
Rutter, M. (2005). Incidence of autism spectrum disorders: changes over time and their meaning. Acta Paediatr. 94(1): 2–15.
SAMHSA. (2011). Autism Spectrum Disorders . Web.
Tadevosyan-Leyfer, O et al. (2003). A principal components analysis of the autism diagnostic interview-revised. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 42(7): 864-872.
Tager-Flusberg, H., & Lord, C. (2005). Language and Communication in Autism. Web.
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Autism Spectrum Disorder in Children and Adults Essay Sample
Autism Spectrum disorder is the specific pattern of behavioural disorder in a child or an adult. It shows a lack of social interaction and communication with others.
This essay will focus on the autism spectrum disorder in children mainly and the symptoms of such disorder in adults. We will thoroughly cover the symptoms, causes, diagnosis, and treatment therapies of autistic disorder in young children.
The word ‘spectrum’ means a wide range of variety of symptoms of an illness. Autism has a wide range of symptoms and is difficult to be diagnosed by even the child therapist or psychiatrist.
Autism disorder includes developmental disorder in children, Asperger’s syndrome, and childhood disintegrative disorder.
These symptoms or signs can easily be seen in after the first two years of a child. If these symptoms cannot be recognized by the parents or carers of the child they may create social insecurity in the behavior as he grows up into an adult.
Symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Children
- Children with autism spectrum disorder show signs of reduced eye contact with others as they lack confidence.
- They do not have a responsive behavior towards others and are mostly indifferent in their attitude towards their carers.
- There is also a lack of interactive and communication skills in such children as they are not expressive in their thoughts.
- They lack in social skills and cannot create relationships, strong bonds, and friendships with others. Such children usually have social anxiety and insecurity in their behavior whenever they need to interact with others.
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- Difficulty in learning is also faced by them as they come either in the category of high intelligence or low intelligence children.
- Their speech tone and volume of voice is high pitched, mostly loud and abnormal. They cannot easily arrange words and frame simple sentences while speaking to others.
- Such children with autism spectrum disorder have the problem of repeating of behavior and also lack any expressions on their faces. For example – They make blink their eyes repetitively or spin or bang the surface of the table constantly.
- Children with such disorders resist any physical touch by others and even like to play alone and not play with other children.
- The difficulty is faced when they need to interpret the nonverbal or facial expressions of a person and their gestures.
- Such children are usually sensitive to light and may even experience pain on exposure to any bright source of light.
- These children are nonorganized, messy, and clumsy.
- Self-harm or causing injury to themselves can be another trait in such children.
- Specific preferences in food is there in these children.
- They are mostly nonflexible or adaptive to even small changes in their life and fix their gaze for a long time on certain objects with focus.
Causes of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Children
There is no specific cause or cure for autism spectrum disorder in children. Diagnostic treatment of such a disorder is very difficult as it is a behavior disorder and not a physical disability. They have a wide range of symptoms that can be caused due to genetics or other factors. The cause of the disorder decides the complexity and severity of it.
- Genetics can be one of the prime causes of autism disorder in children. There can be either a genetic disorder from birth or any genetic mutations(changes) that takes place over a period of time. It can increase the risk of disorder and can cause communication and development disorders in children.
- Environmental factors may affect the pregnancy of a woman. Any dangerous environmental factors can cause medical complications during labor or in the brain development of the child.
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Diagnosis of symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Children
Disorders of the autism spectrum cannot be easily diagnosed by carers or parents. A child psychiatrist, child neurologist or pediatrician can only help a child with these symptoms.
Some of the ways through which autism disorder symptoms can be diagnosed are:-
- Genetic testing of a child to know if there is any disorder in genes.
- Taking medical or professional help of a child specialist or mental health specialist children to diagnose such symptoms.
- Take test of hearing, social behavior, and speech of the child.
- Observation of communication of such children with other children and people.
- Monitoring the daily activities and habits of the child.
Therapies or treatment of a child with Autism Spectrum Disorder
There is no permanent cure for this disorder but only effective measures can be taken to reduce its symptoms of it.
Early diagnosis of symptoms could help the child to cope with such behavior and social disorder. The early detection of symptoms can help the child in his later stages of life and adulthood.
Some of the therapies that are recommended by medical professionals to treat the symptoms are:-
Behavior and communication therapies
This therapy helps children to address their communication and social disabilities. It helps them to create strong social behaviour, emotional skills, language, and speech.
Applied behavior analysis helps in teaching new skills and concepts to children in handling social situations through a system of motivation.
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Therapies of Education
A highly structured educational programme can be established for such children with behavior disorders. Different types of teaching techniques to be introduced by the carers to improve the performance and progress of children. Intervention in a child’s behavior is important to improve his social skills.
Family should teach cultural values, the importance of human interaction, and skills of living. The family members should play with children to teach them social interaction, communication skills, and decision-making.
Symptoms can be reduced through medical treatment of children. Antidepressants and antipsychotic drugs and other prescribed medicines is given by the healthcare providers and doctors. It improves the hyper-activeness and anxiety of children.
Treatment of mental health issues of children
Children with autism disorder faces usually anxiety, sleep disorder, epilepsy, etc. A doctor or any professional care can help them to curb these mental health issues.
Therapy for the transition of autistic children to adulthood
When such children with disorders grow up to become adults they need to be made aware of their physical changes. They should be taught handling social situations, behavior control, facing challenges, and learning to be tolerant.
Symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Adults
- The mild difficulty is faced by adults with this disorder. They have difficulty in interpreting of facial expressions and body language of another person. It impacts their performance at the workplace.
- Face problems in initiating and holding on to a conversation with another person.
- They avoid direct eye contact with their boss or manager at work.
- They are good in certain specific areas of work but lack skills for other areas.
- Their co-employees find it difficult to interact with such people.
- Difficulty in the apprehension of monologue and difficult conversations.
- Sometimes such adults are found to be nonparticipative in certain social events.
- Difficulty in balancing and expressing emotions due to lack of emotional skills.
- Avoids office meetings and speaking in conferences as it requires a high level of social interaction.
- Repeat a task or behavior time and again as they doubt their accuracy in work.
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Human Development activities , positive aspects of child autism, cognitive theories of autism , adult needs , and occupational therapy are some of the topics closely related to autism spectrum disorder .
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Introduction Autism Essay
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Autism is most commonly described as a developmental disability that is diagnosed over a broad spectrum of impairment and identifiers; and within the first three to five years of life. The number of cases of ASD have steadily grown over the past several decades and can be seen in 1 in every 88 births (Ogletree, Morrow-Odom, &
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Autism Spectrum Disorders Essay
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An Introduction to Autism Spectrum Disorder Essay
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Emotion And Social Differences In The Autistic Brain
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In a conversion with an autistic person there may be less exchanging of thoughts, interests, ideas, and feelings, this can lead to a lack of empathy. In addition to, when it comes to humor, an autistic person may misinterpret jokes, this can lead to many social problems because they do not understand what others think, want or feel. Many people with autism experience sensitivity to stimuli. According to Psychology Today, this sensory processing disorder presents a major social challenge; the meeting of new people brings new sensory information such as smells, sounds, sights, and other types of input causing a surprise response. This can cause autistic people to avoid forming new friendships, relationships, or social…
Cause And Effect Essay On Autism
They may avoid eye contact or not respond to their name. It is also difficult for them to understand how others are feeling. Autism may cause repetitive and self-harming behavior (“Autism Fact…
The Challenges Of Having A Child With Autism
It is really difficult to take care of a person with autism. During our class we were lucky enough to have these two parents share their experience about their son named Marcus who was diagnosed in the spectrum for Autism. The mothers name was Sadie and the fathers name was Rodie I believe. Some of the potential difficulties of having a child with autism are because they have trouble with communication and socialization. Another reason that can be considered a potential difficulty is that they have restricted and repetitive behavior.…
- Asperger syndrome
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