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Thesis / dissertation formatting manual (2022).
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Appendices within Manuscript
Appendices may be included as part of the manuscript. These typically appear after the Bibliography or References section.
- List the Appendices in the Table of Contents
- Do not restart page numbering for your Appendices. For example, if the last page of your Bibliography is 195, your first Appendix page number should be 196.
Appendices as Supplemental Files
Electronic or audiovisual data may be included as Supplemental Files in an ETD submission. Your committee should agree that the information contained in the supplemental files is of such a character that a medium other than text is necessary.
When uploading your manuscript to ProQuest, there is a place to upload Supplemental Files separate from the main PDF upload (see screen capture below).
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- Research Paper Appendix | Example & Templates
Research Paper Appendix | Example & Templates
Published on 15 August 2022 by Kirsten Dingemanse and Tegan George. Revised on 25 October 2022.
An appendix is a supplementary document that facilitates your reader’s understanding of your research but is not essential to your core argument. Appendices are a useful tool for providing additional information or clarification in a research paper , dissertation , or thesis without making your final product too long.
Appendices help you provide more background information and nuance about your topic without disrupting your text with too many tables and figures or other distracting elements.
We’ve prepared some examples and templates for you, for inclusions such as research protocols, survey questions, and interview transcripts. All are worthy additions to an appendix. You can download these in the format of your choice below.
Download Word doc Download Google doc
Table of contents
What is an appendix in a research paper, what to include in an appendix, how to format an appendix, how to refer to an appendix, where to put your appendices, other components to consider, appendix checklist.
In the main body of your research paper, it’s important to provide clear and concise information that supports your argument and conclusions . However, after doing all that research, you’ll often find that you have a lot of other interesting information that you want to share with your reader.
While including it all in the body would make your paper too long and unwieldy, this is exactly what an appendix is for.
As a rule of thumb, any detailed information that is not immediately needed to make your point can go in an appendix. This helps to keep your main text focused but still allows you to include the information you want to include somewhere in your paper.
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An appendix can be used for different types of information, such as:
- Supplementary results : Research findings are often presented in different ways, but they don’t all need to go in your paper. The results most relevant to your research question should always appear in the main text, while less significant results (such as detailed descriptions of your sample or supplemental analyses that do not help answer your main question), can be put in an appendix.
- Statistical analyses : If you conducted statistical tests using software like Stata or R, you may also want to include the outputs of your analysis in an appendix.
- Further information on surveys or interviews : Written materials or transcripts related to things such as surveys and interviews can also be placed in an appendix.
You can opt to have one long appendix, but separating components (like interview transcripts, supplementary results, or surveys) into different appendices makes the information simpler to navigate.
Here are a few tips to keep in mind:
- Always start each appendix on a new page.
- Assign it both a number (or letter) and a clear title, such as ‘Appendix A. Interview transcripts’. This makes it easier for your reader to find the appendix, as well as for you to refer back to it in your main text.
- Number and title the individual elements within each appendix (e.g., ‘Transcripts’) to make it clear what you are referring to. Restart the numbering in each appendix at 1.
It is important that you refer to each of your appendices at least once in the main body of your paper. This can be done by mentioning the appendix and its number or letter, either in parentheses or within the main part of a sentence. It is also possible to refer to a particular component of an appendix.
Appendix B presents the correspondence exchanged with the fitness boutique. Example 2. Referring to an appendix component These results (see Appendix 2, Table 1) show that …
It is common to capitalise ‘Appendix’ when referring to a specific appendix, but it is not mandatory. The key is just to make sure that you are consistent throughout your entire paper, similarly to consistency in capitalising headings and titles in academic writing.
However, note that lowercase should always be used if you are referring to appendices in general. For instance, ‘The appendices to this paper include additional information about both the survey and the interviews.’
The simplest option is to add your appendices after the main body of your text, after you finish citing your sources in the citation style of your choice . If this is what you choose to do, simply continue with the next page number. Another option is to put the appendices in a separate document that is delivered with your dissertation.
Remember that any appendices should be listed in your paper’s table of contents .
There are a few other supplementary components related to appendices that you may want to consider. These include:
- List of abbreviations : If you use a lot of abbreviations or field-specific symbols in your dissertation, it can be helpful to create a list of abbreviations .
- Glossary : If you utilise many specialised or technical terms, it can also be helpful to create a glossary .
- Tables, figures and other graphics : You may find you have too many tables, figures, and other graphics (such as charts and illustrations) to include in the main body of your dissertation. If this is the case, consider adding a figure and table list .
All appendices contain information that is relevant, but not essential, to the main text.
Each appendix starts on a new page.
I have given each appendix a number and clear title.
I have assigned any specific sub-components (e.g., tables and figures) their own numbers and titles.
My appendices are easy to follow and clearly formatted.
I have referred to each appendix at least once in the main text.
Your appendices look great! Use the other checklists to further improve your thesis.
Cite this Scribbr article
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Dingemanse, K. & George, T. (2022, October 25). Research Paper Appendix | Example & Templates. Scribbr. Retrieved 13 November 2023, from https://www.scribbr.co.uk/thesis-dissertation/appendix/
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An appendix contains supplementary material that is not an essential part of the text itself but which may be helpful in providing a more comprehensive understanding of the research problem or it is information that is too cumbersome to be included in the body of the paper. A separate appendix should be used for each distinct topic or set of data and always have a title descriptive of its contents.
Tables, Appendices, Footnotes and Endnotes. The Writing Lab and The OWL. Purdue University.
Appendices are always supplementary to the research paper. As such, your study must be able to stand alone without the appendices, and the paper must contain all information including tables, diagrams, and results necessary to understand the research problem. The key point to remember when including an appendix or appendices is that the information is non-essential; if it were removed, the reader would still be able to comprehend the significance, validity , and implications of your research.
It is appropriate to include appendices for the following reasons:
- Including this material in the body of the paper that would render it poorly structured or interrupt the narrative flow;
- Information is too lengthy and detailed to be easily summarized in the body of the paper;
- Inclusion of helpful, supporting, or useful material would otherwise distract the reader from the main content of the paper;
- Provides relevant information or data that is more easily understood or analyzed in a self-contained section of the paper;
- Can be used when there are constraints placed on the length of your paper; and,
- Provides a place to further demonstrate your understanding of the research problem by giving additional details about a new or innovative method, technical details, or design protocols.
Appendices. Academic Skills Office, University of New England; Chapter 12, "Use of Appendices." In Guide to Effective Grant Writing: How to Write a Successful NIH Grant . Otto O. Yang. (New York: Kluwer Academic, 2005), pp. 55-57; Tables, Appendices, Footnotes and Endnotes. The Writing Lab and The OWL. Purdue University.
Structure and Writing Style
I. General Points to Consider
When considering whether to include content in an appendix, keep in mind the following:
- It is usually good practice to include your raw data in an appendix, laying it out in a clear format so the reader can re-check your results. Another option if you have a large amount of raw data is to consider placing it online [e.g., on a Google drive] and note that this is the appendix to your research paper.
- Any tables and figures included in the appendix should be numbered as a separate sequence from the main paper . Remember that appendices contain non-essential information that, if removed, would not diminish a reader's ability to understand the research problem being investigated. This is why non-textual elements should not carry over the sequential numbering of non-textual elements in the body of your paper.
- If you have more than three appendices, consider listing them on a separate page in the table of contents . This will help the reader know what information is included in the appendices. Note that some works list appendices in the table of contents before the first chapter while other styles list the appendices after the conclusion but before your references. Consult with your professor to confirm if there is a preferred approach.
- The appendix can be a good place to put maps, photographs, diagrams, and other images , if you feel that it will help the reader to understand the content of your paper, while keeping in mind the study should be understood without them.
- An appendix should be streamlined and not loaded with a lot information . If you have a very long and complex appendix, it is a good idea to break it down into separate appendices, allowing the reader to find relevant information quickly as the information is covered in the body of the paper.
Never include an appendix that isn’t referred to in the text . All appendices should be summarized in your paper where it is relevant to the content. Appendices should also be arranged sequentially by the order they were first referenced in the text [i.e., Appendix 1 should not refer to text on page eight of your paper and Appendix 2 relate to text on page six].
There are very few rules regarding what type of material can be included in an appendix, but here are some common examples:
- Correspondence -- if your research included collaborations with others or outreach to others, then correspondence in the form of letters, memorandums, or copies of emails from those you interacted with could be included.
- Interview Transcripts -- in qualitative research, interviewing respondents is often used to gather information. The full transcript from an interview is important so the reader can read the entire dialog between researcher and respondent. The interview protocol [list of questions] should also be included.
- Non-textual elements -- as noted above, if there are a lot of non-textual items, such as, figures, tables, maps, charts, photographs, drawings, or graphs, think about highlighting examples in the text of the paper but include the remainder in an appendix.
- Questionnaires or surveys -- this is a common form of data gathering. Always include the survey instrument or questionnaires in an appendix so the reader understands not only the questions asked but the sequence in which they were asked. Include all variations of the instruments as well if different items were sent to different groups [e.g., those given to teachers and those given to administrators] .
- Raw statistical data – this can include any numerical data that is too lengthy to include in charts or tables in its entirety within the text. This is important because the entire source of data should be included even if you are referring to only certain parts of a chart or table in the text of your paper.
- Research instruments -- if you used a camera, or a recorder, or some other device to gather information and it is important for the reader to understand how, when, and/or where that device was used.
- Sample calculations – this can include quantitative research formulas or detailed descriptions of how calculations were used to determine relationships and significance.
NOTE: Appendices should not be a dumping ground for information. Do not include vague or irrelevant information in an appendix; this additional information will not help the reader’s overall understanding and interpretation of your research and may only distract the reader from understanding the significance of your overall study.
ANOTHER NOTE : Appendices are intended to provide supplementary information that you have gathered or created; it is not intended to replicate or provide a copy of the work of others. For example, if you need to contrast the techniques of analysis used by other authors with your own method of analysis, summarize that information, and cite to the original work. In this case, a citation to the original work is sufficient enough to lead the reader to where you got the information. You do not need to provide a copy of this in an appendix.
Here are some general guideline on how to format appendices . If needed, consult the writing style guide [e.g., APA, MLS, Chicago] your professor wants you to use for more detail:
- Appendices may precede or follow your list of references.
- Each appendix begins on a new page.
- The order they are presented is dictated by the order they are mentioned in the text of your research paper.
- The heading should be "Appendix," followed by a letter or number [e.g., "Appendix A" or "Appendix 1"], centered and written in bold type.
- If there is a table of contents, the appendices must be listed.
- The page number(s) of the appendix/appendices will continue on with the numbering from the last page of the text.
Appendices. The Structure, Format, Content, and Style of a Journal-Style Scientific Paper. Department of Biology. Bates College; Appendices. Academic Skills Office, University of New England; Appendices. Writing Center, Walden University; Chapter 12, "Use of Appendices." In Guide to Effective Grant Writing: How to Write a Successful NIH Grant . Otto O. Yang. (New York: Kluwer Academic, 2005), pp. 55-57 ; Tables, Appendices, Footnotes and Endnotes. The Writing Lab and The OWL. Purdue University; Lunsford, Andrea A. and Robert Connors. The St. Martin's Handbook . New York: St. Martin's Press, 1989; What To Know About The Purpose And Format Of A Research Paper Appendix. LoyolaCollegeCulion.com.
Consider Putting Your Appendices Online
Appendices are useful because they provide the reader with information that supports your study without breaking up the narrative or distracting from the main purpose of your paper. If you have a lot of raw data or information that is difficult to present in textual form, consider uploading it to an online site. This prevents your paper from having a large and unwieldy set of appendices and it supports a growing movement within academe to make data more freely available for re-analysis. If you do create an online portal to your data, note it prominently in your paper with the correct URL and access procedures if it is a secured site.
Piwowar, Heather A., Roger S. Day, and Douglas B. Fridsma. “Sharing Detailed Research Data Is Associated with Increased Citation Rate.” PloS ONE (March 21, 2007); Wicherts, Jelte M., Marjan Bakker, and Dylan Molenaar. “Willingness to Share Research Data Is Related to the Strength of the Evidence and the Quality of Reporting of Statistical Results.” PLoS ONE (November 2, 2011).
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Thesis and Dissertation Guide
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Font type and size, spacing and indentation, tables, figures, and illustrations, formatting previously published work.
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II. Formatting Guidelines
All copies of a thesis or dissertation must have the following uniform margins throughout the entire document:
- Left: 1″ (or 1 1/4" to ensure sufficient room for binding the work if desired)
- Right: 1″
- Bottom: 1″ (with allowances for page numbers; see section on Pagination )
- Top: 1″
Exceptions : The first page of each chapter (including the introduction, if any) begins 2″ from the top of the page. Also, the headings on the title page, abstract, first page of the dedication/ acknowledgements/preface (if any), and first page of the table of contents begin 2″ from the top of the page.
Non-traditional theses or dissertations such as whole works comprised of digital, artistic, video, or performance materials (i.e., no written text, chapters, or articles) are acceptable if approved by your committee and graduate program. A PDF document with a title page, copyright page, and abstract at minimum are required to be submitted along with any relevant supplemental files.
Fonts must be 10, 11, or 12 points in size. Superscripts and subscripts (e.g., formulas, or footnote or endnote numbers) should be no more than 2 points smaller than the font size used for the body of the text.
Space and indent your thesis or dissertation following these guidelines:
- The text must appear in a single column on each page and be double-spaced throughout the document. Do not arrange chapter text in multiple columns.
- New paragraphs must be indicated by a consistent tab indentation throughout the entire document.
- The document text must be left-justified, not centered or right-justified.
- For blocked quotations, indent the entire text of the quotation consistently from the left margin.
- Ensure headings are not left hanging alone on the bottom of a prior page. The text following should be moved up or the heading should be moved down. This is something to check near the end of formatting, as other adjustments to text and spacing may change where headings appear on the page.
Exceptions : Blocked quotations, notes, captions, legends, and long headings must be single-spaced throughout the document and double-spaced between items.
Paginate your thesis or dissertation following these guidelines:
- Use lower case Roman numerals (ii, iii, iv, etc.) on all pages preceding the first page of chapter one. The title page counts as page i, but the number does not appear. Therefore, the first page showing a number will be the copyright page with ii at the bottom.
- Arabic numerals (beginning with 1, 2, 3, 4, etc.) start at chapter one or the introduction, if applicable. Arabic numbers must be included on all pages of the text, illustrations, notes, and any other materials that follow. Thus, the first page of chapter one will show an Arabic numeral 1, and numbering of all subsequent pages will follow in order.
- Do not use page numbers accompanied by letters, hyphens, periods, or parentheses (e.g., 1., 1-2, -1-, (1), or 1a).
- Center all page numbers at the bottom of the page, 1/2″ from the bottom edge.
- Pages must not contain running headers or footers, aside from page numbers.
- If your document contains landscape pages (pages in which the top of the page is the long side of a sheet of paper), make sure that your page numbers still appear in the same position and direction as they do on pages with standard portrait orientation for consistency. This likely means the page number will be centered on the short side of the paper and the number will be sideways relative to the landscape page text. See these additional instructions for assistance with pagination on landscape pages in Microsoft Word .
Format footnotes for your thesis or dissertation following these guidelines:
- Footnotes must be placed at the bottom of the page separated from the text by a solid line one to two inches long.
- Begin at the left page margin, directly below the solid line.
- Single-space footnotes that are more than one line long.
- Include one double-spaced line between each note.
- Most software packages automatically space footnotes at the bottom of the page depending on their length. It is acceptable if the note breaks within a sentence and carries the remainder into the footnote area of the next page. Do not indicate the continuation of a footnote.
- Number all footnotes with Arabic numerals. You may number notes consecutively within each chapter starting over with number 1 for the first note in each chapter, or you may number notes consecutively throughout the entire document.
- Footnote numbers must precede the note and be placed slightly above the line (superscripted). Leave no space between the number and the note.
- While footnotes should be located at the bottom of the page, do not place footnotes in a running page footer, as they must remain within the page margins.
Endnotes are an acceptable alternative to footnotes. Format endnotes for your thesis or dissertation following these guidelines:
- Always begin endnotes on a separate page either immediately following the end of each chapter, or at the end of your entire document. If you place all endnotes at the end of the entire document, they must appear after the appendices and before the references.
- Include the heading “ENDNOTES” in all capital letters, and center it 1″ below the top of the first page of your endnotes section(s).
- Single-space endnotes that are more than one line long.
- Number all endnotes with Arabic numerals. You may number notes consecutively within each chapter starting over with number 1 for the first note in each chapter, or you may number notes consecutively throughout the entire document.
- Endnote numbers must precede the note and be placed slightly above the line (superscripted). Leave no space between the number and the note.
Tables, figures, and illustrations vary widely by discipline. Therefore, formatting of these components is largely at the discretion of the author.
For example, headings and captions may appear above or below each of these components.
These components may each be placed within the main text of the document or grouped together in a separate section.
Space permitting, headings and captions for the associated table, figure, or illustration must be on the same page.
The use of color is permitted as long as it is consistently applied as part of the finished component (e.g., a color-coded pie chart) and not extraneous or unprofessional (e.g., highlighting intended solely to draw a reader's attention to a key phrase). The use of color should be reserved primarily for tables, figures, illustrations, and active website or document links throughout your thesis or dissertation.
The format you choose for these components must be consistent throughout the thesis or dissertation.
Ensure each component complies with margin and pagination requirements.
Refer to the List of Tables, Figures, and Illustrations section for additional information.
If your thesis or dissertation has appendices, they must be prepared following these guidelines:
- Appendices must appear at the end of the document (before references) and not the chapter to which they pertain.
- When there is more than one appendix, assign each appendix a number or a letter heading (e.g., “APPENDIX 1” or “APPENDIX A”) and a descriptive title. You may number consecutively throughout the entire work (e.g., 1, 2 or A, B), or you may assign a two-part Arabic numeral with the first number designating the chapter in which it appears, separated by a period, followed by a second number or letter to indicate its consecutive placement (e.g., “APPENDIX 3.2” is the second appendix referred to in Chapter Three).
- Include the chosen headings in all capital letters, and center them 1″ below the top of the page.
- All appendix headings and titles must be included in the table of contents.
- Page numbering must continue throughout your appendix or appendices. Ensure each appendix complies with margin and pagination requirements.
You are required to list all the references you consulted. For specific details on formatting your references, consult and follow a style manual or professional journal that is used for formatting publications and citations in your discipline.
Your reference pages must be prepared following these guidelines:
- If you place references after each chapter, the references for the last chapter must be placed immediately following the chapter and before the appendices.
- If you place all references at the end of the thesis or dissertation, they must appear after the appendices as the final component in the document.
- Select an appropriate heading for this section based on the style manual you are using (e.g., “REFERENCES”, “BIBLIOGRAPHY”, or “WORKS CITED”).
- Include the chosen heading in all capital letters, and center it 1″ below the top of the page.
- References must be single-spaced within each entry.
- Include one double-spaced line between each reference.
- Page numbering must continue throughout your references section. Ensure references comply with margin and pagination requirements.
In some cases, students gain approval from their academic program to include in their thesis or dissertation previously published (or submitted, in press, or under review) journal articles or similar materials that they have authored. For more information about including previously published works in your thesis or dissertation, see the section on Use of Your Own Previously Published Materials and the section on Copyrighting.
If your academic program has approved inclusion of such materials, please note that these materials must match the formatting guidelines set forth in this Guide regardless of how the material was formatted for publication.
Some specific formatting guidelines to consider include:
- Fonts, margins, chapter headings, citations, and references must all match the formatting and placement used within the rest of the thesis or dissertation.
- If appropriate, published articles can be included as separate individual chapters within the thesis or dissertation.
- A separate abstract to each chapter should not be included.
- The citation for previously published work must be included as the first footnote (or endnote) on the first page of the chapter.
- Do not include typesetting notations often used when submitting manuscripts to a publisher (i.e., insert table x here).
- The date on the title page should be the year in which your committee approves the thesis or dissertation, regardless of the date of completion or publication of individual chapters.
- If you would like to include additional details about the previously published work, this information can be included in the preface for the thesis or dissertation.
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- How it works
What is Appendix in the Dissertation?
Published by Alvin Nicolas at August 12th, 2021 , Revised On June 13, 2023
“Appendix or appendices (plural) is/are used to provide additional data related to your dissertation research project.”
An appendix section in dissertation helps you to provide background data related to your topic; present tables, illustrations, and figures that are not directly relevant to your research questions in order to avoid disrupting the flow of the text; to make sure that your dissertation paper’s word count does not go beyond the limit. This article explains what is an appendix in the dissertation.
The Purpose of an Appendix
The main body of the dissertation paper generally contains text that adds weight to your arguments. However, some information that is not directly relevant to the topic of research but might be useful to your audience could be provided under the appendices section.
Any additional information that does not directly support your in-text arguments goes into appendices. This helps to keep your paper organised and within the word limit. It is important to make sure that your readers can understand the contents of your dissertation paper without having to look at the appendices. Any information that is important should be mentioned in the main body.
Items Included in Appendices in Dissertation
An appendix, which is also known as a postscript, includes the following:
Research findings can be presented in several ways. Findings including tables, illustrations and figures that are directly relevant to your research questions or research problem are included in the main body.
However, there are certain text, tables and figures —such as supplemental analyses—that really need to be shown and cannot be ignored, but (due to less significance) can’t be included in the main body as it can disturb the flow of the text.
Such tables and figures are then included in the appendix section. The appendix includes more of the illustrations and findings as a result of data analysis that doesn’t directly address the research question but are essential to be shown.
Also Read: How to Write Dissertation Acknowledgements
Appendices are helpful in mentioning extra information related to surveys , interviews or focus groups. You can clearly mention how respondents responded to underpin your findings.
Include Abbreviations Section
If you have utilised a lot of abbreviations or jargon, it might be difficult for lay-person to understand those terms. You can include the abbreviations section or a glossary section in the appendix, which are sometimes positioned at the start of the dissertation.
Tables, Figures and/or Graphs
Your dissertation may include a lot of tables, figures and/or graphs due to the nature of research . The appendix is the appropriate platform to include all this information, including illustrations.
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You can carry on with just one long appendix (if you don’t want to break it into different components and want it to be the only appendix in your dissertation).
On the other hand, you might want to have separate sections in appendices such as questionnaire responses, findings, key phrases and key terms; it would be easier to figure out the information provided in appendices.
If you decide to include multiple sections within your appendices, each appendix should start on a new page with a clearly assigned title and number, for instance, ‘Appendix 7. Survey questions’ . It allows for each section of the appendix to be clearly visible to the reader and researcher.
It is also recommended to mention the number and title against each element that is directly linked to the appendix so that the reader will be able to know what you are referring to in the main body.
While numbering tables and figures, make sure that you re-start the numbering for each appendix. This means that each table and figure in a new appendix would be titled Table 1 or Figure 1.
Referring to the Appendix in the Main Body of the Dissertation
It is recommended to indicate all appendices at least once in the main body of your dissertation. Make sure that you mention the appendix number (enclosed in brackets, called parenthetical reference ) or within text in the main body (called descriptive reference ) as highlights for the readers.
It is not mandatory to capitalise it as that typically depends on the researcher’s will. You can also refer to certain elements within the appendix (which can be a specific illustration or table).
Example #1. When you are referring to an entire appendix
The focus-group interview (see Appendix 1) shows that… Appendix 2 describes how we gathered data from the sample population….
Example #2. While you are referring to an appendix component
These findings (see Appendix 1, Table 2) show that… Table 2 in Appendix 1 describes the factors which result in the increase in sales.
It would be a good practice to mention Appendix in upper-case, especially when referring to a specific component. However, this is not compulsory and you can choose to use lower-case, i.e., ‘The appendices provided at the end of the documents contain relevant content about the questionnaire responses.’
Here are some more appendix examples for you .
Which is More Appropriate: Appendices or Appendixes?
Both of these words (spellings) are true in their sense and can be used, but appendices is more appropriate according to APA style. However, it is important to ensure consistency throughout the thesis document. Don’t use alternative words in different sections of the dissertation .
Where to Include Appendices?
The general idea in this regard is to include appendices after the main body, i.e., the reference section. If you opt for this option, you need to continue with the same page number format. You can also submit appendices as a separate document with your dissertation project.
You should write down appendices (including titles and page numbers) in the table of contents.
Even if you are still unsure about what an appendix in a dissertation is, our writers can help with this chapter of your paper. All you have to do is complete our online order form , select the dissertation part/chapter as the required service type, attach your dissertation draft, and let us know your deadline. We guarantee that the writer we will assign to your order will have the expertise and qualification to create the appendices to your exact requirements.
FAQs About Appendices in Dissertation
What should i not include in a dissertation appendix.
Don’t include any irrelevant and/or vague information. It will only distract your readers from understanding your study’s overall purpose, significance, etc.
What can I include in an appendix?
You can include in it things like figures and/tables that are too lengthy to be included within the dissertation ; maps, photographs, raw data like participant score lists, computer programs like SPSS, musical examples like audios etc., interview questions and/or sample questionnaires, etc.
Can I include web URLs in an appendix?
Not really, although you can include PDF documents or weblinks to such documents within your dissertation appendix.
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Refer to either the Sample (Straight Numbering) or Sample (Decimal Numbering) pages as you read through this section. Note: For the Appendices, you should use the same numbering style you chose for the Main Text.
The appendix is a section that is placed at the end of the thesis and may contain material such as tables, figures, maps, photographs, raw data, computer programs, musical examples, interview questions, sample questionnaires, CDs, and many other types of material.
- An appendix is considered a chapter equivalent and the appendix title should be formatted like a chapter title.
- Multiple appendices should be numbered A, B, C, and so on. Each appendix should be treated as a separate chapter equivalent and will therefore start on a new page.
- Page numbers used in the appendix must continue from the main text.
- As a best practice, include your IRB approval letter (if applicable) in an appendix.
- Do not include a curriculum vitae or author's biography in your thesis; the Graduate College no longer accepts these sections.
As part of the thesis, any appendix materials must be reviewed and approved by the director of research and committee.
The thesis or dissertation itself should be understandable without the supplemental appendix materials.
As part of the ETD submission, students may upload supplemental electronic files as part of their thesis or dissertation. These files are considered appendix items, and an appendix page must be included as part of the thesis and should be numbered accordingly. This page should include an appendix title, such as “Appendix A: Interview Transcriptions,” and a brief description of the material along with the name of the file in which the material is contained.
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- How to create an APA Style appendix
How to Create an APA Style Appendix | Format & Examples
Published on October 16, 2020 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on August 9, 2022.
An appendix is a section at the end of an academic text where you include extra information that doesn’t fit into the main text. The plural of appendix is “appendices.”
In an APA Style paper, appendices are placed at the very end, after the reference list .
Table of contents
Do i need an appendix, appendix format example, organizing and labeling your appendices, frequently asked questions.
You don’t always need to include any appendices. An appendix should present information that supplements the reader’s understanding of your research but is not essential to the argument of your paper . Essential information is included in the main text.
For example, you might include some of the following in an appendix:
- Full transcripts of interviews you conducted (which you can quote from in the main text)
- Documents used in your research, such as questionnaires , instructions, tests, or scales
- Detailed statistical data (often presented in tables or figures )
- Detailed descriptions of equipment used
You should refer to each appendix at least once in the main text. If you don’t refer to any information from an appendix, it should not be included.
When you discuss information that can be found in an appendix, state this the first time you refer to it:
Note that, if you refer to the same interviews again, it’s not necessary to mention the appendix each time.
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The appendix label appears at the top of the page, bold and centered. On the next line, include a descriptive title, also bold and centered.
The text is presented in general APA format : left-aligned, double-spaced, and with page numbers in the top right corner. Start a new page for each new appendix.
The example image below shows how to format an APA Style appendix.
If you include just one appendix, it is simply called “Appendix” and referred to as such in-text:
When more than one appendix is included, they are labeled “Appendix A,” “Appendix B,” and so on.
Present and label your appendices in the order they are referred to in the main text.
Labeling tables and figures in appendices
An appendix may include (or consist entirely of) tables and/or figures . Present these according to the same formatting rules as in the main text.
Tables and figures included in appendices are labeled differently, however. Use the appendix’s letter in addition to a number. Tables and figures are still numbered separately and according to the order they’re referred to in the appendix.
For example, in Appendix A, your tables are Table A1, Table A2, etc; your figures are Figure A1, Figure A2, etc.
The numbering restarts with each appendix: For example, the first table in Appendix B is Table B1; the first figure in Appendix C is Figure C1; and so on. If you only have one appendix, use A1, A2, etc.
If you want to refer specifically to a table or figure from an appendix in the main text, use the table or figure’s label (e.g. “see Table A3”).
If an appendix consists entirely of a single table or figure, simply use the appendix label to refer to the table or figure. For example, if Appendix C is just a table, refer to the table as “Appendix C,” and don’t add an additional label or title for the table itself.
An appendix contains information that supplements the reader’s understanding of your research but is not essential to it. For example:
- Interview transcripts
- Detailed descriptions of equipment
Something is only worth including as an appendix if you refer to information from it at some point in the text (e.g. quoting from an interview transcript). If you don’t, it should probably be removed.
Appendices in an APA Style paper appear right at the end, after the reference list and after your tables and figures if you’ve also included these at the end.
When you include more than one appendix in an APA Style paper , they should be labeled “Appendix A,” “Appendix B,” and so on.
When you only include a single appendix, it is simply called “Appendix” and referred to as such in the main text.
Yes, if relevant you can and should include APA in-text citations in your appendices . Use author-date citations as you do in the main text.
Any sources cited in your appendices should appear in your reference list . Do not create a separate reference list for your appendices.
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Caulfield, J. (2022, August 09). How to Create an APA Style Appendix | Format & Examples. Scribbr. Retrieved November 13, 2023, from https://www.scribbr.com/apa-style/appendices/
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An appendix** comes at the end (after the reference list) of a report, research project, or dissertation and contains any additional information such as raw data or interview transcripts. The information in the appendices is relevant but is too long or too detailed to include in the main body of your work.
**Note: Appendix is singular and appendices is plural. When you want to refer to one of your appendices, use appendix - for example, ‘See Appendix 1’.
Scroll down for our recommended strategies and resources.
Ensure everything in your appendices has a purpose. This guide gives a useful overview of the structure, format, and effective use of appendices:
Appendices (University of Southern California)
Your appendices should have a clear labelling system (Appendix 1, Appendix 2, Appendix 3) and each item in an appendix should have a descriptive title saying what it is (‘Appendix 1: Flowchart of purchasing decision-making process).
You need to refer to your appendices in the body of your assignment or the reader will not know they are there. Use a short phrase such as ‘See Appendix 1’.
If you have taken data, diagrams, or information from other sources to put in your appendices, you need to reference them as normal; include an in-text citation next to the item in your appendices and a full reference in your reference list. If you have created your own graphs or tables using data from another source you can explain this in your in-text citation: (Table author’s own, data from Jones, 2017).
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- Formatting Your Dissertation
Harvard Griffin GSAS strives to provide students with timely, accurate, and clear information. If you need help understanding a specific policy, please contact the office that administers that policy.
- Application for Degree
- Credit for Completed Graduate Work
- Ad Hoc Degree Programs
- Acknowledging the Work of Others
- Advanced Planning
- Dissertation Submission Checklist
- Publishing Options
- Submitting Your Dissertation
- English Language Proficiency
- PhD Program Requirements
- Secondary Fields
- Year of Graduate Study (G-Year)
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- Conduct and Safety
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On this page:
Language of the Dissertation
Page and text requirements, body of text, tables, figures, and captions, dissertation acceptance certificate, copyright statement.
- Table of Contents
Front and Back Matter
Supplemental material, dissertations comprising previously published works, top ten formatting errors, further questions.
- Related Contacts and Forms
When preparing the dissertation for submission, students must follow strict formatting requirements. Any deviation from these requirements may lead to rejection of the dissertation and delay in the conferral of the degree.
The language of the dissertation is ordinarily English, although some departments whose subject matter involves foreign languages may accept a dissertation written in a language other than English.
Most dissertations are 100 to 300 pages in length. All dissertations should be divided into appropriate sections, and long dissertations may need chapters, main divisions, and subdivisions.
- 8½ x 11 inches, unless a musical score is included
- At least 1 inch for all margins
- Body of text: double spacing
- Block quotations, footnotes, and bibliographies: single spacing within each entry but double spacing between each entry
- Table of contents, list of tables, list of figures or illustrations, and lengthy tables: single spacing may be used
Fonts and Point Size
Use 10-12 point size. Fonts must be embedded in the PDF file to ensure all characters display correctly.
If you are unsure whether your chosen font will display correctly, use one of the following fonts:
If fonts are not embedded, non-English characters may not appear as intended. Fonts embedded improperly will be published to DASH as-is. It is the student’s responsibility to make sure that fonts are embedded properly prior to submission.
Instructions for Embedding Fonts
To embed your fonts in recent versions of Word, follow these instructions from Microsoft:
- Click the File tab and then click Options .
- In the left column, select the Save tab.
- Clear the Do not embed common system fonts check box.
For reference, below are some instructions from ProQuest UMI for embedding fonts in older file formats:
To embed your fonts in Microsoft Word 2010:
- In the File pull-down menu click on Options .
- Choose Save on the left sidebar.
- Check the box next to Embed fonts in the file.
- Click the OK button.
- Save the document.
Note that when saving as a PDF, make sure to go to “more options” and save as “PDF/A compliant”
To embed your fonts in Microsoft Word 2007:
- Click the circular Office button in the upper left corner of Microsoft Word.
- A new window will display. In the bottom right corner select Word Options .
- Choose Save from the left sidebar.
Using Microsoft Word on a Mac:
Microsoft Word 2008 on a Mac OS X computer will automatically embed your fonts while converting your document to a PDF file.
If you are converting to PDF using Acrobat Professional (instructions courtesy of the Graduate Thesis Office at Iowa State University):
- Open your document in Microsoft Word.
- Click on the Adobe PDF tab at the top. Select "Change Conversion Settings."
- Click on Advanced Settings.
- Click on the Fonts folder on the left side of the new window. In the lower box on the right, delete any fonts that appear in the "Never Embed" box. Then click "OK."
- If prompted to save these new settings, save them as "Embed all fonts."
- Now the Change Conversion Settings window should show "embed all fonts" in the Conversion Settings drop-down list and it should be selected. Click "OK" again.
- Click on the Adobe PDF link at the top again. This time select Convert to Adobe PDF. Depending on the size of your document and the speed of your computer, this process can take 1-15 minutes.
- After your document is converted, select the "File" tab at the top of the page. Then select "Document Properties."
- Click on the "Fonts" tab. Carefully check all of your fonts. They should all show "(Embedded Subset)" after the font name.
- If you see "(Embedded Subset)" after all fonts, you have succeeded.
The font used in the body of the text must also be used in headers, page numbers, and footnotes. Exceptions are made only for tables and figures created with different software and inserted into the document.
Tables and figures must be placed as close as possible to their first mention in the text. They may be placed on a page with no text above or below, or they may be placed directly into the text. If a table or a figure is alone on a page (with no narrative), it should be centered within the margins on the page. Tables may take up more than one page as long as they obey all rules about margins. Tables and figures referred to in the text may not be placed at the end of the chapter or at the end of the dissertation.
- Given the standards of the discipline, dissertations in the Department of History of Art and Architecture and the Department of Architecture, Landscape Architecture, and Urban Planning often place illustrations at the end of the dissertation.
Figure and table numbering must be continuous throughout the dissertation or by chapter (e.g., 1.1, 1.2, 2.1, 2.2, etc.). Two figures or tables cannot be designated with the same number. If you have repeating images that you need to cite more than once, label them with their number and A, B, etc.
Headings should be placed at the top of tables. While no specific rules for the format of table headings and figure captions are required, a consistent format must be used throughout the dissertation (contact your department for style manuals appropriate to the field).
Captions should appear at the bottom of any figures. If the figure takes up the entire page, the caption should be placed alone on the preceding page, centered vertically and horizontally within the margins.
Each page receives a separate page number. When a figure or table title is on a preceding page, the second and subsequent pages of the figure or table should say, for example, “Figure 5 (Continued).” In such an instance, the list of figures or tables will list the page number containing the title. The word “figure” should be written in full (not abbreviated), and the “F” should be capitalized (e.g., Figure 5). In instances where the caption continues on a second page, the “(Continued)” notation should appear on the second and any subsequent page. The figure/table and the caption are viewed as one entity and the numbering should show correlation between all pages. Each page must include a header.
Landscape orientation figures and tables must be positioned correctly and bound at the top so that the top of the figure or table will be at the left margin. Figure and table headings/captions are placed with the same orientation as the figure or table when on the same page. When on a separate page, headings/captions are always placed in portrait orientation, regardless of the orientation of the figure or table. Page numbers are always placed as if the figure were vertical on the page.
If a graphic artist does the figures, Harvard Griffin GSAS will accept lettering done by the artist only within the figure. Figures done with software are acceptable if the figures are clear and legible. Legends and titles done by the same process as the figures will be accepted if they too are clear, legible, and run at least 10 or 12 characters per inch. Otherwise, legends and captions should be printed with the same font used in the text.
Original illustrations, photographs, and fine arts prints may be scanned and included, centered between the margins on a page with no text above or below.
Use of Third-Party Content
In addition to the student's own writing, dissertations often contain third-party content or in-copyright content owned by parties other than you, the student who authored the dissertation. The Office for Scholarly Communication recommends consulting the information below about fair use, which allows individuals to use in-copyright content, on a limited basis and for specific purposes, without seeking permission from copyright holders.
Because your dissertation will be made available for online distribution through DASH , Harvard's open-access repository, it is important that any third-party content in it may be made available in this way.
Fair Use and Copyright
What is fair use?
Fair use is a provision in copyright law that allows the use of a certain amount of copyrighted material without seeking permission. Fair use is format- and media-agnostic. This means fair use may apply to images (including photographs, illustrations, and paintings), quoting at length from literature, videos, and music regardless of the format.
How do I determine whether my use of an image or other third-party content in my dissertation is fair use?
There are four factors you will need to consider when making a fair use claim.
1) For what purpose is your work going to be used?
- Nonprofit, educational, scholarly, or research use favors fair use. Commercial, non-educational uses, often do not favor fair use.
- A transformative use (repurposing or recontextualizing the in-copyright material) favors fair use. Examining, analyzing, and explicating the material in a meaningful way, so as to enhance a reader's understanding, strengthens your fair use argument. In other words, can you make the point in the thesis without using, for instance, an in-copyright image? Is that image necessary to your dissertation? If not, perhaps, for copyright reasons, you should not include the image.
2) What is the nature of the work to be used?
- Published, fact-based content favors fair use and includes scholarly analysis in published academic venues.
- Creative works, including artistic images, are afforded more protection under copyright, and depending on your use in light of the other factors, may be less likely to favor fair use; however, this does not preclude considerations of fair use for creative content altogether.
3) How much of the work is going to be used?
- Small, or less significant, amounts favor fair use. A good rule of thumb is to use only as much of the in-copyright content as necessary to serve your purpose. Can you use a thumbnail rather than a full-resolution image? Can you use a black-and-white photo instead of color? Can you quote select passages instead of including several pages of the content? These simple changes bolster your fair use of the material.
4) What potential effect on the market for that work may your use have?
- If there is a market for licensing this exact use or type of educational material, then this weighs against fair use. If however, there would likely be no effect on the potential commercial market, or if it is not possible to obtain permission to use the work, then this favors fair use.
For further assistance with fair use, consult the Office for Scholarly Communication's guide, Fair Use: Made for the Harvard Community and the Office of the General Counsel's Copyright and Fair Use: A Guide for the Harvard Community .
What are my options if I don’t have a strong fair use claim?
Consider the following options if you find you cannot reasonably make a fair use claim for the content you wish to incorporate:
- Seek permission from the copyright holder.
- Use openly licensed content as an alternative to the original third-party content you intended to use. Openly-licensed content grants permission up-front for reuse of in-copyright content, provided your use meets the terms of the open license.
- Use content in the public domain, as this content is not in-copyright and is therefore free of all copyright restrictions. Whereas third-party content is owned by parties other than you, no one owns content in the public domain; everyone, therefore, has the right to use it.
For use of images in your dissertation, please consult this guide to Finding Public Domain & Creative Commons Media , which is a great resource for finding images without copyright restrictions.
Who can help me with questions about copyright and fair use?
Contact your Copyright First Responder . Please note, Copyright First Responders assist with questions concerning copyright and fair use, but do not assist with the process of obtaining permission from copyright holders.
Pages should be assigned a number except for the Dissertation Acceptance Certificate . Preliminary pages (abstract, table of contents, list of tables, graphs, illustrations, and preface) should use small Roman numerals (i, ii, iii, iv, v, etc.). All pages must contain text or images.
Count the title page as page i and the copyright page as page ii, but do not print page numbers on either page .
For the body of text, use Arabic numbers (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, etc.) starting with page 1 on the first page of text. Page numbers must be centered throughout the manuscript at the top or bottom. Every numbered page must be consecutively ordered, including tables, graphs, illustrations, and bibliography/index (if included); letter suffixes (such as 10a, 10b, etc.) are not allowed. It is customary not to have a page number on the page containing a chapter heading.
- Check pagination carefully. Account for all pages.
A copy of the Dissertation Acceptance Certificate (DAC) should appear as the first page. This page should not be counted or numbered. The DAC will appear in the online version of the published dissertation. The author name and date on the DAC and title page should be the same.
The dissertation begins with the title page; the title should be as concise as possible and should provide an accurate description of the dissertation. The author name and date on the DAC and title page should be the same.
- Do not print a page number on the title page. It is understood to be page i for counting purposes only.
A copyright notice should appear on a separate page immediately following the title page and include the copyright symbol ©, the year of first publication of the work, and the name of the author:
© [ year ] [ Author’s Name ] All rights reserved.
Alternatively, students may choose to license their work openly under a Creative Commons license. The author remains the copyright holder while at the same time granting up-front permission to others to read, share, and (depending on the license) adapt the work, so long as proper attribution is given. (By default, under copyright law, the author reserves all rights; under a Creative Commons license, the author reserves some rights.)
- Do not print a page number on the copyright page. It is understood to be page ii for counting purposes only.
An abstract, numbered as page iii , should immediately follow the copyright page and should state the problem, describe the methods and procedures used, and give the main results or conclusions of the research. The abstract will appear in the online and bound versions of the dissertation and will be published by ProQuest. There is no maximum word count for the abstract.
- indented on the first line of each paragraph
- The author’s name, right justified
- The words “Dissertation Advisor:” followed by the advisor’s name, left-justified (a maximum of two advisors is allowed)
- Title of the dissertation, centered, several lines below author and advisor
Dissertations divided into sections must contain a table of contents that lists, at minimum, the major headings in the following order:
- Front Matter
- Body of Text
- Back Matter
Front matter includes (if applicable):
- acknowledgements of help or encouragement from individuals or institutions
- a dedication
- a list of illustrations or tables
- a glossary of terms
- one or more epigraphs.
Back matter includes (if applicable):
- supplemental materials, including figures and tables
- an index (in rare instances).
Supplemental figures and tables must be placed at the end of the dissertation in an appendix, not within or at the end of a chapter. If additional digital information (including audio, video, image, or datasets) will accompany the main body of the dissertation, it should be uploaded as a supplemental file through ProQuest ETD . Supplemental material will be available in DASH and ProQuest and preserved digitally in the Harvard University Archives.
As a matter of copyright, dissertations comprising the student's previously published works must be authorized for distribution from DASH. The guidelines in this section pertain to any previously published material that requires permission from publishers or other rightsholders before it may be distributed from DASH. Please note:
- Authors whose publishing agreements grant the publisher exclusive rights to display, distribute, and create derivative works will need to seek the publisher's permission for nonexclusive use of the underlying works before the dissertation may be distributed from DASH.
- Authors whose publishing agreements indicate the authors have retained the relevant nonexclusive rights to the original materials for display, distribution, and the creation of derivative works may distribute the dissertation as a whole from DASH without need for further permissions.
It is recommended that authors consult their publishing agreements directly to determine whether and to what extent they may have transferred exclusive rights under copyright. The Office for Scholarly Communication (OSC) is available to help the author determine whether she has retained the necessary rights or requires permission. Please note, however, the Office of Scholarly Communication is not able to assist with the permissions process itself.
- Missing Dissertation Acceptance Certificate. The first page of the PDF dissertation file should be a scanned copy of the Dissertation Acceptance Certificate (DAC). This page should not be counted or numbered as a part of the dissertation pagination.
- Conflicts Between the DAC and the Title Page. The DAC and the dissertation title page must match exactly, meaning that the author name and the title on the title page must match that on the DAC. If you use your full middle name or just an initial on one document, it must be the same on the other document.
- Abstract Formatting Errors. The advisor name should be left-justified, and the author's name should be right-justified. Up to two advisor names are allowed. The Abstract should be double spaced and include the page title “Abstract,” as well as the page number “iii.” There is no maximum word count for the abstract.
- The front matter should be numbered using Roman numerals (iii, iv, v, …). The title page and the copyright page should be counted but not numbered. The first printed page number should appear on the Abstract page (iii).
- The body of the dissertation should be numbered using Arabic numbers (1, 2, 3, …). The first page of the body of the text should begin with page 1. Pagination may not continue from the front matter.
- All page numbers should be centered either at the top or the bottom of the page.
- Figures and tables Figures and tables must be placed within the text, as close to their first mention as possible. Figures and tables that span more than one page must be labeled on each page. Any second and subsequent page of the figure/table must include the “(Continued)” notation. This applies to figure captions as well as images. Each page of a figure/table must be accounted for and appropriately labeled. All figures/tables must have a unique number. They may not repeat within the dissertation.
- Any figures/tables placed in a horizontal orientation must be placed with the top of the figure/ table on the left-hand side. The top of the figure/table should be aligned with the spine of the dissertation when it is bound.
- Page numbers must be placed in the same location on all pages of the dissertation, centered, at the bottom or top of the page. Page numbers may not appear under the table/ figure.
- Supplemental Figures and Tables. Supplemental figures and tables must be placed at the back of the dissertation in an appendix. They should not be placed at the back of the chapter.
- Permission Letters Copyright. permission letters must be uploaded as a supplemental file, titled ‘do_not_publish_permission_letters,” within the dissertation submission tool.
- DAC Attachment. The signed Dissertation Acceptance Certificate must additionally be uploaded as a document in the "Administrative Documents" section when submitting in Proquest ETD . Dissertation submission is not complete until all documents have been received and accepted.
- Overall Formatting. The entire document should be checked after all revisions, and before submitting online, to spot any inconsistencies or PDF conversion glitches.
- You can view dissertations successfully published from your department in DASH . This is a great place to check for specific formatting and area-specific conventions.
- Contact the Office of Student Affairs with further questions.
Student affairs, explore events.
- University of Michigan Library
- Research Guides
Microsoft Word for Dissertations
- Appendix Figures & Tables
- Introduction, Template, & Resources
- Formatting for All Readers
- Applying a Style
- Modifying a Style
- Setting up a Heading 1 Example
- Images, Charts, Other Objects
- Footnotes, Endnotes, & Citations
- Table of Contents
- List of Figures/Tables
- Chapter and Section Numbering
- Page Numbers
- Landscape Pages
- Combining Chapter Files
- Commenting and Reviewing
- The Two-inch Top Margin
- Finalizing Without Styles
- Preparing Your Final Document
Creating Captions for Appendix Figures & Tables
Tables and Figures in the Appendix are captioned with the “Insert Caption…” tool, just like tables and figures in the body, but you'll use (or create) a new caption label for each of them. These “Appendix Figure/Table” items won’t populate the existing List of Figures, because you can’t combine two different caption labels in one list. So, after captioning your Appendix Figures and Tables with those new caption labels, you’ll insert another List directly after the current List, and set that second List to pull in corresponding captions.
** Note: this only works if you've set up Heading 7 to style each of your Appendix titles. See the Appendices section of this Guide for more info. **
Here's the process for adding an Appendix Figure caption (the steps are similar for creating an Appendix Table caption) :
- Select the item you want to caption and click the "Insert Caption..." button in the References tab
- In the window that appears, pop open the "Labels" menu, and select "Appendix Figure".
- Click the "New Label" button, and enter "Appendix Figure". Then click OK
- With the "Appendix Figure" label selected, click the "Numbering: Format..." button
- Set "Chapter starts with style:" to Heading 7 (This is our Appendix number/letter)
- Enter your caption and confirm whether you want it sit above or below the item
Adding Appendix Captions to the List of Figures/Captions
(note: the following instructions work for situations where your Appendices are at the end of your document. If you have an Appendix section at the end of each chapter, then take a look at our solution for "integrating supplemental figures and tables" in the List of Figures/Tables. The solution is similar for appendix figures and tables.
And don't be shy about setting up a consultation if you run into trouble, as appendices — especially with tables and figures — are often a troublespot.)
To add this to your List of Figures, we add a second list of (appendix) figures just below your existing list of figures:
- Scroll to your existing List of Figures
- Place your cursor directly below the last item in your List of Figures.
- From the References tab (and next to the Insert Caption.. button), click the Insert Table of Figures button.
- In the window that appears, select "Appendix Figure" from the "Caption label:" list.
This will add a second list of figures below your original one, but this one will be populated with Appendix Figures. Remember that you now have two fields to update as you make changes -- the list of figures and the list of appendix figures.
You might notice that there's a paragraph character between the two fields. If you delete that, the formatting of your Appendix Figures list will be thrown off. Instead, our recommendation is to carefully select JUST that one paragraph character, and set the font size for it to something very small, like 2 point. This will tuck the Appendix Figures up closer to the Figures.
Everything You Need to Know About Appendices in Writing
Appendices, the plural of appendix, are sections of academic writing with supplemental information about the topic that doesn’t fit in the main text. Appendices can include anything helpful to the reader but unnecessary to the topic’s progression; these may be charts, graphs, maps, videos, or even detailed explanations too lengthy for the body of the paper.
Appendices are used mostly in academic writing, so students may have to write them for papers at some point. This guide will answer all your questions, including “What are appendices used for?” and “Do appendices go after references?” But let’s start with a detailed analysis. What is an appendix?
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What are appendices in a paper?
Appendices are sections at the end of academic writing with nonessential information on the topic that still might be helpful for the reader. The key word there is nonessential —any information that is essential to the topic should be included in the main body of the paper. In other words, your paper should make sense without the appendices.
For example, let’s say your paper talks about the Mongol Empire. Your appendices might include things like a map of the Mongol Empire at its peak, or an image of what historians think Genghis Khan actually looked like. More relevant details, such as a discussion of how and why the Mongol Empire rose to power, would be included in the main text, not the appendices.
A paper can have as many appendices as are useful. These can be different types, so your first appendix could be a spreadsheet, and your second appendix could be a scanned letter.
What are appendices used for?
The purpose of appendices is to provide supplemental information in a way that doesn’t distract the reader or derail the flow of the paper. It would be difficult for readers if, right in the middle of making your main points, you interrupted your paper to show pages of lists or charts that are slightly off topic.
The content in appendices can support your argument or influence the reader’s opinion—in fact, it should be relevant in some way. However, it’s best to put supporting and illustrative material at the end so it doesn’t disrupt the structure of your paper.
The more advanced a paper is, the more likely it is to contain appendices. They’re quite common in thesis papers and research papers , as well as published scientific works. If you’re writing a complex paper for an assignment, it might be a good idea to plan ahead and leave room for appendices in the research paper outline .
What content should be included in appendices?
There are no hard requirements for what can or cannot be an appendix. The deciding factor is whether information is necessary to the paper; if it is not necessary, but still useful, then it can go in the appendices.
That said, some types of content appear in appendices more than others. Here’s a list of what’s commonly included in an appendix:
- tables and charts
- figures and graphs
- audio or video clips
- detailed textual descriptions
- lists too long for the main text
- interview transcripts
- interview questions from the interviewer’s notes
- technical specifications of research equipment
- other testing documentation, such as surveys or the job posting for test recipients
- scanned documents (including Institutional Review Board approval letters)
- raw statistical data
- original math and calculations
How should appendices be structured?
MLA , APA , and Chicago formats all can use appendices. While MLA and Chicago are fairly open ended about how appendices should be structured, APA has more precise rules. So below, we explain the appendix format in APA terms, which can be used in MLA or Chicago as well.
How do you title appendices?
If you have only one appendix, you can call it simply Appendix and refer to it as such in text, e.g., (see Appendix) . If you have more than one appendix, label each appendix with a letter, as in Appendix A, Appendix B, etc. The label of each appendix should be mentioned at least once in the main text of the paper.
Each appendix also gets a distinct title that describes its content, which is separate from its label. So, for example, an appendix label might be Appendix C and its title, Interview Transcript .
How do you format an appendix page?
Each new appendix begins on a separate page. Place the label centered and in bold at the top of the page. On a separate line, write the appendix’s title in title/headline case ( Capitalize the First Letter of Each Major Word ), also centered and in bold. If the paper uses a running head, continue to use it in the appendices.
If the appendix contains text, continue using indented paragraphs and follow the same format as in the rest of the paper. Otherwise, present the content in the same order it was mentioned in the body text. For multiple tables, figures, equations, etc., label them by number after the letter of the appendix, e.g., Table B2 .
Where do appendices go?
According to the APA Publication Manual (Seventh Edition), appendices come after the reference list or bibliography. They should be the last sections of a paper. Some people contest this, especially when citations are used in appendices, so ask your teacher or supervisor if you’re uncertain.
Appendices vs. footnotes/endnotes
You may have noticed that appendices sound a lot like footnotes and endnotes . Appendices and notes both contain supplemental information that doesn’t belong in the main text, and both are situated in a place where they don’t distract the reader. Sources usually have to be cited in notes (if they’re not cited in the text itself); beyond that, amplifying information can go in notes or appendices.
The main difference between appendices and footnotes/endnotes is length. Appendices generally discuss complicated or detailed topics, including charts, graphs, and numerical data, whereas footnotes and endnotes are much more succinct, often just a sentence or two. Think of it like this: If there’s too much information to fit comfortably in a footnote or endnote, put it in an appendix.
Appendices are sections at the end of academic writing with nonessential information on the topic that still might be helpful for the reader. They typically contain charts, graphs, maps, images, or raw statistical data.
Appendices are used to present helpful supplemental information in a way that doesn’t distract from the flow of the main text. That’s why they typically come at the end of a paper, set apart but still easy to find.
Appendices can include virtually any content that’s relevant to the paper’s topic without being necessary. Usually, this consists of charts, graphs, maps, images, videos, lists, and documentation on the research testing process (like interview transcripts).
Each appendix should start on a separate page at the end of a paper, after the bibliography. If you have more than one appendix in your paper, label each by letter, as in Appendix A, Appendix B , etc. Appendices should also have a separate title that describes their content, such as “Map of the Mongol Empire,” which is written on a separate line.
Dissertation Structure & Layout 101: How to structure your dissertation, thesis or research project.
By: Derek Jansen (MBA) Reviewed By: David Phair (PhD) | July 2019
So, you’ve got a decent understanding of what a dissertation is , you’ve chosen your topic and hopefully you’ve received approval for your research proposal . Awesome! Now its time to start the actual dissertation or thesis writing journey.
To craft a high-quality document, the very first thing you need to understand is dissertation structure . In this post, we’ll walk you through the generic dissertation structure and layout, step by step. We’ll start with the big picture, and then zoom into each chapter to briefly discuss the core contents. If you’re just starting out on your research journey, you should start with this post, which covers the big-picture process of how to write a dissertation or thesis .
*The Caveat *
In this post, we’ll be discussing a traditional dissertation/thesis structure and layout, which is generally used for social science research across universities, whether in the US, UK, Europe or Australia. However, some universities may have small variations on this structure (extra chapters, merged chapters, slightly different ordering, etc).
So, always check with your university if they have a prescribed structure or layout that they expect you to work with. If not, it’s safe to assume the structure we’ll discuss here is suitable. And even if they do have a prescribed structure, you’ll still get value from this post as we’ll explain the core contents of each section.
Overview: S tructuring a dissertation or thesis
- Acknowledgements page
- Abstract (or executive summary)
- Table of contents , list of figures and tables
- Chapter 1: Introduction
- Chapter 2: Literature review
- Chapter 3: Methodology
- Chapter 4: Results
- Chapter 5: Discussion
- Chapter 6: Conclusion
- Reference list
As I mentioned, some universities will have slight variations on this structure. For example, they want an additional “personal reflection chapter”, or they might prefer the results and discussion chapter to be merged into one. Regardless, the overarching flow will always be the same, as this flow reflects the research process , which we discussed here – i.e.:
- The introduction chapter presents the core research question and aims .
- The literature review chapter assesses what the current research says about this question.
- The methodology, results and discussion chapters go about undertaking new research about this question.
- The conclusion chapter (attempts to) answer the core research question .
In other words, the dissertation structure and layout reflect the research process of asking a well-defined question(s), investigating, and then answering the question – see below.
To restate that – the structure and layout of a dissertation reflect the flow of the overall research process . This is essential to understand, as each chapter will make a lot more sense if you “get” this concept. If you’re not familiar with the research process, read this post before going further.
Right. Now that we’ve covered the big picture, let’s dive a little deeper into the details of each section and chapter. Oh and by the way, you can also grab our free dissertation/thesis template here to help speed things up.
The title page of your dissertation is the very first impression the marker will get of your work, so it pays to invest some time thinking about your title. But what makes for a good title? A strong title needs to be 3 things:
- Succinct (not overly lengthy or verbose)
- Specific (not vague or ambiguous)
- Representative of the research you’re undertaking (clearly linked to your research questions)
Typically, a good title includes mention of the following:
- The broader area of the research (i.e. the overarching topic)
- The specific focus of your research (i.e. your specific context)
- Indication of research design (e.g. quantitative , qualitative , or mixed methods ).
A quantitative investigation [research design] into the antecedents of organisational trust [broader area] in the UK retail forex trading market [specific context/area of focus].
Again, some universities may have specific requirements regarding the format and structure of the title, so it’s worth double-checking expectations with your institution (if there’s no mention in the brief or study material).
This page provides you with an opportunity to say thank you to those who helped you along your research journey. Generally, it’s optional (and won’t count towards your marks), but it is academic best practice to include this.
So, who do you say thanks to? Well, there’s no prescribed requirements, but it’s common to mention the following people:
- Your dissertation supervisor or committee.
- Any professors, lecturers or academics that helped you understand the topic or methodologies.
- Any tutors, mentors or advisors.
- Your family and friends, especially spouse (for adult learners studying part-time).
There’s no need for lengthy rambling. Just state who you’re thankful to and for what (e.g. thank you to my supervisor, John Doe, for his endless patience and attentiveness) – be sincere. In terms of length, you should keep this to a page or less.
Abstract or executive summary
The dissertation abstract (or executive summary for some degrees) serves to provide the first-time reader (and marker or moderator) with a big-picture view of your research project. It should give them an understanding of the key insights and findings from the research, without them needing to read the rest of the report – in other words, it should be able to stand alone .
For it to stand alone, your abstract should cover the following key points (at a minimum):
- Your research questions and aims – what key question(s) did your research aim to answer?
- Your methodology – how did you go about investigating the topic and finding answers to your research question(s)?
- Your findings – following your own research, what did do you discover?
- Your conclusions – based on your findings, what conclusions did you draw? What answers did you find to your research question(s)?
So, in much the same way the dissertation structure mimics the research process, your abstract or executive summary should reflect the research process, from the initial stage of asking the original question to the final stage of answering that question.
In practical terms, it’s a good idea to write this section up last , once all your core chapters are complete. Otherwise, you’ll end up writing and rewriting this section multiple times (just wasting time). For a step by step guide on how to write a strong executive summary, check out this post .
Need a helping hand?
Table of contents
This section is straightforward. You’ll typically present your table of contents (TOC) first, followed by the two lists – figures and tables. I recommend that you use Microsoft Word’s automatic table of contents generator to generate your TOC. If you’re not familiar with this functionality, the video below explains it simply:
If you find that your table of contents is overly lengthy, consider removing one level of depth. Oftentimes, this can be done without detracting from the usefulness of the TOC.
Right, now that the “admin” sections are out of the way, its time to move on to your core chapters. These chapters are the heart of your dissertation and are where you’ll earn the marks. The first chapter is the introduction chapter – as you would expect, this is the time to introduce your research…
It’s important to understand that even though you’ve provided an overview of your research in your abstract, your introduction needs to be written as if the reader has not read that (remember, the abstract is essentially a standalone document). So, your introduction chapter needs to start from the very beginning, and should address the following questions:
- What will you be investigating (in plain-language, big picture-level)?
- Why is that worth investigating? How is it important to academia or business? How is it sufficiently original?
- What are your research aims and research question(s)? Note that the research questions can sometimes be presented at the end of the literature review (next chapter).
- What is the scope of your study? In other words, what will and won’t you cover ?
- How will you approach your research? In other words, what methodology will you adopt?
- How will you structure your dissertation? What are the core chapters and what will you do in each of them?
These are just the bare basic requirements for your intro chapter. Some universities will want additional bells and whistles in the intro chapter, so be sure to carefully read your brief or consult your research supervisor.
If done right, your introduction chapter will set a clear direction for the rest of your dissertation. Specifically, it will make it clear to the reader (and marker) exactly what you’ll be investigating, why that’s important, and how you’ll be going about the investigation. Conversely, if your introduction chapter leaves a first-time reader wondering what exactly you’ll be researching, you’ve still got some work to do.
Now that you’ve set a clear direction with your introduction chapter, the next step is the literature review . In this section, you will analyse the existing research (typically academic journal articles and high-quality industry publications), with a view to understanding the following questions:
- What does the literature currently say about the topic you’re investigating?
- Is the literature lacking or well established? Is it divided or in disagreement?
- How does your research fit into the bigger picture?
- How does your research contribute something original?
- How does the methodology of previous studies help you develop your own?
Depending on the nature of your study, you may also present a conceptual framework towards the end of your literature review, which you will then test in your actual research.
Again, some universities will want you to focus on some of these areas more than others, some will have additional or fewer requirements, and so on. Therefore, as always, its important to review your brief and/or discuss with your supervisor, so that you know exactly what’s expected of your literature review chapter.
Now that you’ve investigated the current state of knowledge in your literature review chapter and are familiar with the existing key theories, models and frameworks, its time to design your own research. Enter the methodology chapter – the most “science-ey” of the chapters…
In this chapter, you need to address two critical questions:
- Exactly HOW will you carry out your research (i.e. what is your intended research design)?
- Exactly WHY have you chosen to do things this way (i.e. how do you justify your design)?
Remember, the dissertation part of your degree is first and foremost about developing and demonstrating research skills . Therefore, the markers want to see that you know which methods to use, can clearly articulate why you’ve chosen then, and know how to deploy them effectively.
Importantly, this chapter requires detail – don’t hold back on the specifics. State exactly what you’ll be doing, with who, when, for how long, etc. Moreover, for every design choice you make, make sure you justify it.
In practice, you will likely end up coming back to this chapter once you’ve undertaken all your data collection and analysis, and revise it based on changes you made during the analysis phase. This is perfectly fine. Its natural for you to add an additional analysis technique, scrap an old one, etc based on where your data lead you. Of course, I’m talking about small changes here – not a fundamental switch from qualitative to quantitative, which will likely send your supervisor in a spin!
You’ve now collected your data and undertaken your analysis, whether qualitative, quantitative or mixed methods. In this chapter, you’ll present the raw results of your analysis . For example, in the case of a quant study, you’ll present the demographic data, descriptive statistics, inferential statistics , etc.
Typically, Chapter 4 is simply a presentation and description of the data, not a discussion of the meaning of the data. In other words, it’s descriptive, rather than analytical – the meaning is discussed in Chapter 5. However, some universities will want you to combine chapters 4 and 5, so that you both present and interpret the meaning of the data at the same time. Check with your institution what their preference is.
Now that you’ve presented the data analysis results, its time to interpret and analyse them. In other words, its time to discuss what they mean, especially in relation to your research question(s).
What you discuss here will depend largely on your chosen methodology. For example, if you’ve gone the quantitative route, you might discuss the relationships between variables . If you’ve gone the qualitative route, you might discuss key themes and the meanings thereof. It all depends on what your research design choices were.
Most importantly, you need to discuss your results in relation to your research questions and aims, as well as the existing literature. What do the results tell you about your research questions? Are they aligned with the existing research or at odds? If so, why might this be? Dig deep into your findings and explain what the findings suggest, in plain English.
The final chapter – you’ve made it! Now that you’ve discussed your interpretation of the results, its time to bring it back to the beginning with the conclusion chapter . In other words, its time to (attempt to) answer your original research question s (from way back in chapter 1). Clearly state what your conclusions are in terms of your research questions. This might feel a bit repetitive, as you would have touched on this in the previous chapter, but its important to bring the discussion full circle and explicitly state your answer(s) to the research question(s).
Next, you’ll typically discuss the implications of your findings? In other words, you’ve answered your research questions – but what does this mean for the real world (or even for academia)? What should now be done differently, given the new insight you’ve generated?
Lastly, you should discuss the limitations of your research, as well as what this means for future research in the area. No study is perfect, especially not a Masters-level. Discuss the shortcomings of your research. Perhaps your methodology was limited, perhaps your sample size was small or not representative, etc, etc. Don’t be afraid to critique your work – the markers want to see that you can identify the limitations of your work. This is a strength, not a weakness. Be brutal!
This marks the end of your core chapters – woohoo! From here on out, it’s pretty smooth sailing.
The reference list is straightforward. It should contain a list of all resources cited in your dissertation, in the required format, e.g. APA , Harvard, etc.
It’s essential that you use reference management software for your dissertation. Do NOT try handle your referencing manually – its far too error prone. On a reference list of multiple pages, you’re going to make mistake. To this end, I suggest considering either Mendeley or Zotero. Both are free and provide a very straightforward interface to ensure that your referencing is 100% on point. I’ve included a simple how-to video for the Mendeley software (my personal favourite) below:
Some universities may ask you to include a bibliography, as opposed to a reference list. These two things are not the same . A bibliography is similar to a reference list, except that it also includes resources which informed your thinking but were not directly cited in your dissertation. So, double-check your brief and make sure you use the right one.
The very last piece of the puzzle is the appendix or set of appendices. This is where you’ll include any supporting data and evidence. Importantly, supporting is the keyword here.
Your appendices should provide additional “nice to know”, depth-adding information, which is not critical to the core analysis. Appendices should not be used as a way to cut down word count (see this post which covers how to reduce word count ). In other words, don’t place content that is critical to the core analysis here, just to save word count. You will not earn marks on any content in the appendices, so don’t try to play the system!
Time to recap…
And there you have it – the traditional dissertation structure and layout, from A-Z. To recap, the core structure for a dissertation or thesis is (typically) as follows:
- Acknowledgments page
Most importantly, the core chapters should reflect the research process (asking, investigating and answering your research question). Moreover, the research question(s) should form the golden thread throughout your dissertation structure. Everything should revolve around the research questions, and as you’ve seen, they should form both the start point (i.e. introduction chapter) and the endpoint (i.e. conclusion chapter).
I hope this post has provided you with clarity about the traditional dissertation/thesis structure and layout. If you have any questions or comments, please leave a comment below, or feel free to get in touch with us. Also, be sure to check out the rest of the Grad Coach Blog .
Psst… there’s more (for free)
This post is part of our dissertation mini-course, which covers everything you need to get started with your dissertation, thesis or research project.
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many thanks i found it very useful
Glad to hear that, Arun. Good luck writing your dissertation.
Such clear practical logical advice. I very much needed to read this to keep me focused in stead of fretting.. Perfect now ready to start my research!
what about scientific fields like computer or engineering thesis what is the difference in the structure? thank you very much
Thanks so much this helped me a lot!
Very helpful and accessible. What I like most is how practical the advice is along with helpful tools/ links.
Thank you so much sir.. It was really helpful..
Hi! How many words maximum should contain the abstract?
Thank you so much 😊 Find this at the right moment
You’re most welcome. Good luck with your dissertation.
best ever benefit i got on right time thank you
Many times Clarity and vision of destination of dissertation is what makes the difference between good ,average and great researchers the same way a great automobile driver is fast with clarity of address and Clear weather conditions .
I guess Great researcher = great ideas + knowledge + great and fast data collection and modeling + great writing + high clarity on all these
You have given immense clarity from start to end.
Morning. Where will I write the definitions of what I’m referring to in my report?
Thank you so much Derek, I was almost lost! Thanks a tonnnn! Have a great day!
Thanks ! so concise and valuable
This was very helpful. Clear and concise. I know exactly what to do now.
Thank you for allowing me to go through briefly. I hope to find time to continue.
Really useful to me. Thanks a thousand times
Very interesting! It will definitely set me and many more for success. highly recommended.
Thank you soo much sir, for the opportunity to express my skills
Usefull, thanks a lot. Really clear
That was incredibly useful. Thanks Grad Coach Crew!
My stress level just dropped at least 15 points after watching this. Just starting my thesis for my grad program and I feel a lot more capable now! Thanks for such a clear and helpful video, Emma and the GradCoach team!
Do we need to mention the number of words the dissertation contains in the main document?
It depends on your university’s requirements, so it would be best to check with them 🙂
Such a helpful post to help me get started with structuring my masters dissertation, thank you!
Great video; I appreciate that helpful information
It is so necessary or avital course
This blog is very informative for my research. Thank you
Doctoral students are required to fill out the National Research Council’s Survey of Earned Doctorates
wow this is an amazing gain in my life
This is so good
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What is an Appendix in a Dissertation?
An appendix is an index at the end of a dissertation or thesis that gives additional information about the dissertation. The purpose of an appendix is to include information that is does directly answers your main question or is not important to understand your answer. New information can be used as items included in the appendices. The information should be relevant, but not crucial to your dissertation argument. The role of an appendix is to explain certain terms and words used in the dissertation and provide data that is relevant to the dissertation but not as important as points that are directly involved in the main body of the dissertation.
An appendix is an important part of a dissertation . It comes after the conclusion. No main point should go in the appendix. Everything except the main points can be included in a dissertation appendix. It should be secondary knowledge provided to the reader in order to make them more aware of the subject addressed in the dissertation. All ‘relational information’ can be included in the appendices.
Appendices are usually long. The information provided comes under distinct headings. The reader chooses to read whatever seems beneficial to their understanding of the topic of dissertation and leaves the rest.
This Article Covers
Items to be included in appendices, tips to help write an appendix, guidelines to formatting of an appendix.
- Meanings of words/phrases:
In the case of abbreviations used throughout the dissertation, it would help to create a glossary at the beginning or end of your dissertation. A glossary can be included in the appendix. Readers would refer to it to know the full form of an abbreviation or the contextual meaning of a word.
- Forms of usage
While discussing different words used in a similar context, be sure to mention them in the appendix. Also, the same word used in a different context should be included in the appendix.
- Context behind a research methodology/question/subjects of study/objects used etc
You can state your purpose for using particular data points. This context should not be highly important to your research question, though.
- Information about an area of research
This can include the modes of transport you used to visit a particular region to collect information or data, the problems you faced while collecting data in a region, the exact location, geography and ethnography of that region etc.
- Additional results and surveys
This will help the readers to see what you have based your research on. Be careful not to include main results, but only those that are not directly connected to your dissertation findings. They need to be extra ones you collected/made while working on your dissertation.
- Tables, diagrams, graphs
Use as many tables and graphs that support your dissertation question but cannot be included in the main body. Show the reader how much data you have collected as part of your dissertation.
- Dates, time, places
All the skeptical readers who want to dig in to the date, place and time of your research can refer to the appendix where they will find your systematic archive of days, months, places of data collection. It is part of explaining a context behind an event or data point.
- Any other connected information
Your dissertation cannot be without further information that is connected to your main points in certain ways. It can be absorbed along with its ambiguous nature in the dissertation appendix. You can state your purpose for using particular data points. This context should not be highly important to your research question, though.
- Go through your dissertation and mark phrases or words
Before you start writing an appendix at the end of your research paper or dissertation, read your dissertation from introduction to conclusion and make a list of all the words and phrases that need an explanation. At the same time, note the points that need to be explained more with the help of diagrams, tables, graphs etc. The additional explanations, tables, graphs etc can go in the appendix.
- Use a dictionary
Despite your knowledge of a word or a phrase and its usage, please refer to a dictionary as you prepare a glossary. The appropriate meaning is important to be given in an appendix in order to avoid miscommunications of any sort. Give the usage of the word along with the meaning.
- State what the table/diagram/survey is in reference to
The additional survey/table/diagram that is included in the appendix needs to specify its connection to the point made in the main body of the dissertation . It should be in reference to the main body of the dissertation. Page numbers need to be stated, accordingly, along with the title or the subheading the respective point of reference in the main body (survey/diagram/table/data) comes under. This will help the reader refer to these diagrams in relation to the information given in the main body of your dissertation.
- Try to include the date and time of data collection
If the date and time of collecting data for your dissertation is not directly relevant to your findings or not affecting the collected data in a certain way, you can include them in the dissertation appendices. In this way you need not bombard your reader with unnecessary information, and yet include it in your dissertation.
- Do not worry about giving TMI (Too Much Information)
The purpose of an appendix is to give extra information to a reader. There is no way the information or data you provide in your appendix will overwhelm the reader because of its size. Appendices are supposed to be long and tedious. It is up to the reader to go over the information in the appendices.
- Look at a few examples
Each book, dissertation, research paper, academic article has an appendix or several appendices at the end. It would help you to go through a few appendices before you start writing your own dissertation appendix. Examples may provide you with an idea of the structure and format of an appendix and components that may be included in it. Many of these examples are available online.
- Referring to an appendix
As you prepare an appendix, add a few notes in the main body of your dissertation referring to the appendix. Refer to particular points or elements at a time. Do not just say ‘Refer to the appendix given at the end of the dissertation ’. Instead, use something like- ‘Refer to point number 4 of Appendix 2, to get more information about table 2.3’.
- Create multiple appendices if you need
To give information in a logical order and avoid confusion on the part of the reader, it is better to divide this information in to various appendices, starting with Appendix 1, Appendix 2, and so on. The first appendix can be a glossary, the second one with tables, graphs or diagrams and the third can include information about the institutes or papers referred.
- Write point-wise
While creating an appendix, each new word/phrase/element should be a separate point. Number each point properly. It would be easier to find the required table or word if it is a separate point.
- The contents explained should be in the order of their appearance in the dissertation
The order of words and phrases should be maintained in the appendix. You cannot put one above the other when their order of occurrence is the opposite. Haphazard content is very off-putting. If a word occurs on the 3 rd page of a dissertation and another on the 4 th , the one on the 3 rd should be explained before the one on the 4 th .
- Have a minimum of two columns to divide elements and their explanation
As you prepare an appendix, write the words or phrases in one column and their explanation in the next column. This would make your appendix neat and tidy. A word and its explanation should be on the same horizontal line to make the appendix systematic.
- Title and label the tables and graphs
All tables and graphs need to be assigned a title, that clarifies their contents. They also need to be labelled so that they are beneficial to the reader. They need to make their position in the dissertation clear.
- Put these appendices in the right order
Order is very important in making dissertation appendices proper and appealing. Do not go all over the place with your appendices. Try to put them in a rational order, with proper spacing between two appendices. Start each appendix on a new page.
An appendix, though not part of the main body of a dissertation, is relevant to it. All explanations that cannot be included in the main body of the dissertation can be part of the Appendix. The role of an appendix is to show minor details that are part of the dissertation process. However, appendices need to be well structured and the items included in the appendices systematically organized. There is no point in losing the purpose of an appendix. Refer to your appendices wherever needed in the main body. In order to be able to refer to it, structure your appendix well. Do not ignore it just because it comes at the end of your dissertation.
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Home » Appendices – Writing Guide, Types and Examples
Appendices – Writing Guide, Types and Examples
Table of Contents
Appendices refer to supplementary materials or documents that are attached to the end of a Book, Report , Research Paper , Thesis or other written work. These materials can include charts, graphs, tables, images, or other data that support the main content of the work.
Types of Appendices
Types of appendices that can be used depending on the content and purpose of the document. These types of Appendices are as follows:
Statistical appendices are used to present raw data or statistical analysis that is relevant to the main text but would be too bulky to include in the main body of the document. These appendices may include tables, graphs, charts, or other types of visual aids that help to illustrate the data.
Technical appendices are used to provide detailed technical information that is relevant to the main text but would be too complex or lengthy to include in the main body of the document. These appendices may include equations, formulas, diagrams, or other technical details that are important for understanding the subject matter.
Bibliographical appendices are used to provide additional references or sources that are relevant to the main text but were not cited in the main body of the document. These appendices may include lists of books, articles, or other resources that the author consulted in the course of their research.
Historical appendices are used to provide background information or historical context that is relevant to the main text but would be too lengthy or distracting to include in the main body of the document. These appendices may include timelines, maps, biographical sketches, or other historical details that help to contextualize the subject matter.
Supplemental appendices are used to provide additional material that is relevant to the main text but does not fit into any of the other categories. These appendices may include interviews, surveys, case studies, or other types of supplemental material that help to further illustrate the subject matter.
Applications of Appendices
Some applications of appendices are:
- Providing detailed data and statistics: Appendices are often used to include detailed data and statistics that support the findings presented in the main body of the document. For example, in a research paper, an appendix might include raw data tables or graphs that were used to support the study’s conclusions.
- Including technical details: Appendices can be used to include technical details that may be of interest to a specialized audience. For example, in a technical report, an appendix might include detailed calculations or equations that were used to develop the report’s recommendations.
- Presenting supplementary information: Appendices can be used to present supplementary information that is related to the main content but doesn’t fit well within the main body of the document. For example, in a business proposal, an appendix might include a list of references or a glossary of terms.
- Providing supporting documentation: Appendices can be used to provide supporting documentation that is required by the document’s audience. For example, in a legal document, an appendix might include copies of contracts or agreements that were referenced in the main body of the document.
- Including multimedia materials : Appendices can be used to include multimedia materials that supplement the main content. For example, in a book, an appendix might include photographs, maps, or illustrations that help to clarify the text.
Importance of Appendices
Appendices are important components of research papers, reports, Thesis, and other academic papers. They are supplementary materials that provide additional information and data that support the main text. Here are some reasons why appendices are important:
- Additional Information : Appendices provide additional information that is too detailed or too lengthy to include in the main text. This information includes raw data, graphs, tables, and charts that support the research findings.
- Clarity and Conciseness : Appendices help to maintain the clarity and conciseness of the main text. By placing detailed information and data in appendices, writers can avoid cluttering the main text with lengthy descriptions and technical details.
- Transparency : Appendices increase the transparency of research by providing readers with access to the data and information used in the research process. This transparency increases the credibility of the research and allows readers to verify the findings.
- Accessibility : Appendices make it easier for readers to access the data and information that supports the research. This is particularly important in cases where readers want to replicate the research or use the data for their own research.
- Compliance : Appendices can be used to comply with specific requirements of the research project or institution. For example, some institutions may require researchers to include certain types of data or information in the appendices.
Here is an outline of a typical structure for an appendix:
- A. Explanation of the purpose of the appendix
- B. Brief overview of the contents
II. Main Body
- A. Section headings or subheadings for different types of content
- B. Detailed descriptions, tables, charts, graphs, or images that support the main content
- C. Labels and captions for each item to help readers navigate and understand the content
- A. Summary of the key points covered in the appendix
- B. Suggestions for further reading or resources
- A. List of all the appendices included in the document
- B. Table of contents for the appendices
- A. List of all the sources cited in the appendix
- B. Proper citation format for each source
Example of Appendices
here’s an example of what appendices might look like for a survey:
This section contains a copy of the survey questionnaire used for the study.
- What is your age?
- What is your gender?
- What is your highest level of education?
- How often do you use social media?
- Which social media platforms do you use most frequently?
- How much time do you typically spend on social media each day?
- Do you feel that social media has had a positive or negative impact on your life?
- Have you ever experienced cyberbullying or harassment on social media?
- Have you ever been influenced by social media to make a purchase or try a new product?
- In your opinion, what are the biggest advantages and disadvantages of social media?
This section includes a table with demographic information about the survey participants, such as age, gender, and education level.
Age Gender Education Level
- 20 Female Bachelor’s Degree
- 32 Male Master’s Degree
- 45 Female High School Diploma
- 28 Non-binary Associate’s Degree
This section provides details about the statistical analysis performed on the survey data, including tables or graphs that illustrate the results of the analysis.
Table 1: Frequency of Social Media Platforms
Use Platform Frequency
- Facebook 35%
- Instagram 28%
- Twitter 15%
- Snapchat 12%
Figure 1: Impact of Social Media on Life Satisfaction
This section presents the raw data collected from the survey, such as participant responses to each question.
Question 1: What is your age?
Question 2: What is your gender?
And so on for each question in the survey.
How to Write Appendices
Here are the steps to follow to write appendices:
- Determine what information to include: Before you start writing your appendices, decide what information you want to include. This may include tables, figures, graphs, charts, photographs, or other types of data that support the main content of your paper.
- Organize the material: Once you have decided what to include, organize the material in a logical manner that follows the sequence of the main content. Use clear headings and subheadings to make it easy for readers to navigate through the appendices.
- Label the appendices: Label each appendix with a capital letter (e.g., “Appendix A,” “Appendix B,” etc.) and provide a brief descriptive title that summarizes the content.
- F ormat the appendices: Follow the same formatting style as the rest of your paper or report. Use the same font, margins, and spacing to maintain consistency.
- Provide detailed explanations: Make sure to provide detailed explanations of any data, charts, graphs, or other information included in the appendices so that readers can understand the significance of the material.
- Cross-reference the appendices: In the main text, cross-reference the appendices where appropriate by referring to the appendix letter and title (e.g., “see Appendix A for more information”).
- Review and revise: Review and revise the appendices just as you would any other part of your paper or report to ensure that the information is accurate, clear, and relevant.
When to Write Appendices
Appendices are typically included in a document when additional information needs to be provided that is not essential to the main text, but still useful for readers who want to delve deeper into a topic. Here are some common situations where you might want to include appendices:
- Supporting data: If you have a lot of data that you want to include in your document, but it would make the main text too lengthy or confusing, you can include it in an appendix. This is especially useful for academic papers or reports.
- Additional examples: I f you want to include additional examples or case studies to support your argument or research, but they are not essential to the main text, you can include them in an appendix.
- Technical details: I f your document contains technical information that may be difficult for some readers to understand, you can include detailed explanations or diagrams in an appendix.
- Background information : If you want to provide background information on a topic that is not directly related to the main text, but may be helpful for readers, you can include it in an appendix.
Purpose of Appendices
The purposes of appendices include:
- Providing additional details: Appendices can be used to provide additional information that is too detailed or bulky to include in the main body of the document. For example, technical specifications, data tables, or lengthy survey results.
- Supporting evidence: Appendices can be used to provide supporting evidence for the arguments or claims made in the main body of the document. This can include supplementary graphs, charts, or other visual aids that help to clarify or support the text.
- Including legal documents: Appendices can be used to include legal documents that are referred to in the main body of the document, such as contracts, leases, or patent applications.
- Providing additional context: Appendices can be used to provide additional context or background information that is relevant to the main body of the document. For example, historical or cultural information, or a glossary of technical terms.
- Facilitating replication: In research papers, appendices are used to provide detailed information about the research methodology, raw data, or analysis procedures to facilitate replication of the study.
Advantages of Appendices
Some Advantages of Appendices are as follows:
- Saving Space: Including lengthy or detailed information in the main text of a document can make it appear cluttered and overwhelming. By placing this information in an appendix, it can be included without taking up valuable space in the main text.
- Convenience: Appendices can be used to provide supplementary information that is not essential to the main argument or discussion but may be of interest to some readers. By including this information in an appendix, readers can choose to read it or skip it, depending on their needs and interests.
- Organization: Appendices can be used to organize and present complex information in a clear and logical manner. This can make it easier for readers to understand and follow the main argument or discussion of the document.
- Compliance : In some cases, appendices may be required to comply with specific document formatting or regulatory requirements. For example, research papers may require appendices to provide detailed information on research methodology, data analysis, or technical procedures.
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Dissertation Appendix Section | Thesis Appendices Definition & Examples
Appendices are normally added at the end of a dissertation. An appendix (or attachment) is a useful tool for providing additional information to support your paper, without breaking up the flow of the text. For example, you could use an appendix to present detailed descriptions of your research participants, instruments, or data collection procedures. You might also choose to include detailed statistical analysis results that are too long or complex to include in the main text of your paper.
What is an appendix by definition?
What is a appendix in a dissertation?
The appendix is a section at the end of the dissertation where you can include additional material that is relevant to the paper but would not fit easily into the main text. This might include charts, tables, data sets, or other supplemental information. By including this material in the appendix, you can provide readers with additional insights into your research without disrupting the flow of the paper.
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Role of appendix section in a dissertation
The appendix section in a dissertation plays an important role in providing supplementary information that is relevant to the study but does not fit neatly into the main text. Here are six roles that the appendix can play in a dissertation:
- Background information: The appendix can be used to provide background information on the research topic, including definitions of key terms and descriptions of relevant theoretical frameworks.
- Methodology: The appendix can be used to present detailed information on the research methods used, including data collection and analysis procedures.
- Results: The appendix can be used to present auxiliary results that are not essential to the main argument of the dissertation but which may be of interest to readers.
- Tables and figures: The appendix can be used to present informative tables and figures that support the arguments made in the main text.
- Sample size: The appendix can be used to justify the sample size used in the study, if this is not clear from the main text.
- References: The appendix can be used to provide a list of references for further reading on the research topic.
Items to include in a dissertation appendix section
Here are items that are often included in the appendix section of a dissertation:
- Data sets : If you have collected primary data during your research, it is important to include it in your appendix. This allows other researchers to replicate your study and build upon your findings.
- Questionnaires : If you have used questionnaires as part of your research, it is again important to make them available in the appendix. This allows readers to see exactly what questions were asked and how they were worded.
- Interview transcripts : Just as with questionnaires, including transcripts of interviews conducted as part of your research allows readers to follow along and understand your findings more fully.
- Images : Including images in the appendix can be helpful if they illustrate a point you are making in the main text or provide additional information that cannot be conveyed through words alone.
- Tables and figures : Any tables or figures
Order of appendices
There are two types of appendix: text and visual. Textual appendixes include things like transcripts of interviews, raw data from surveys, letters, and other materials that are referred to in the main text but would be long if included there.
Visual appendixes include items like maps, diagrams, graphs, and pictures.
There is no set order for the content of an appendix, but generally speaking, textual appendixes come before visual ones. In terms of format, each type of appendix is usually laid out differently. Textual appendixes are usually presented as either prose or lists, while visual appendixes are typically presented as individual items with accompanying captions. As with all other aspects of a dissertation, the decision of how to format an appendix is up to the individual author and should be driven by what makes the most sense for the particular content.
Position of appendices
The position of appendixes in a dissertation can vary depending on the style guide used. However, most style guides recommend placing appendixes at the end of the document, before the notes and bibliography. This placement ensures that readers can easily find the information they need without having to wade through a lot of text. Additionally, it allows for easy reference if appendices are referenced in the main body of the dissertation. For example, if Appendix A is mentioned in Chapter 3, readers can quickly turn to the end of the dissertation to find more information about Appendix A. Thus, while the position of appendixes may vary slightly depending on the style guide used, they are typically placed at the end of a dissertation for ease of reference and accessibility.
Referring to appendixes in main body
In a dissertation, an appendix typically contains supplemental material that is not directly related to the main body of the text. However, there may be times when referring to this material in the main body of the dissertation is necessary. In such cases, it is recommended that the author include a parenthetical reference to the relevant appendix (e.g., “See Appendix A for more information on the research design”). By doing so, readers will be able to quickly locate and consult the relevant material without having to search through the entire appendix. Additionally, including a parenthetical reference will help to ensure that all readers are aware of the existence of supplemental material that they may need to consult.
Preparation of appendixes
The appendices of a dissertation are additional sections that are not required but can be included to provide the reader with extra information.
To prepare the appendices, first, determine what material would be useful to include. This might include data sets, surveys, questionnaires, transcripts, detailed calculations, or other information that is not essential to the main text but could be helpful for understanding your research.
Once you have determined what to include, format each item according to the specific guidelines set by your institution or publisher. Be sure to number and label each appendix clearly so that readers can easily find the information they are looking for.
Finally, include a list of all appendices in the table of contents of your dissertation so that readers know what is available.
In conclusion, the appendices of a dissertation are additional sections that are not required but can be included to provide the reader with extra information. To prepare the appendices, first determine what material would be useful to include, then format each item according to the specific guidelines set by your institution or publisher. Be sure to number and label each appendix clearly, and finally, include a list of all appendices in the table of contents of your dissertation.
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Appendices, References, Acknowledgements and Other Final Things
Posted by Rene Tetzner | Oct 22, 2021 | PhD Success | 0 |
4.6 Appendices, References, Acknowledgements and Other Final Things
As I mentioned in Sections 1.4.1 and 3.5.3, appendices are not required in a thesis, but they are often included. If you are considering appendices for your thesis, check your university or department guidelines or discuss the idea with your supervisor to be certain that they will be received positively. It is also a good idea to revisit at this point any length or word count requirements or limitations set for doctoral theses by your university or department, because if you have already reached the upper limit, including appendices may require cutting other material, and in such situations appendices should only be considered if they are absolutely necessary. However, appendices are often preferable to extensive or overly long footnotes or endnotes or too much supplementary information in the main text of a thesis, both of which can distract readers from your main argument. For this reason, an effective strategy may be to move such material from the main text or notes into an appendix, since this sort of revision will not significantly alter the overall length or word count of your thesis. If, on the other hand, your thesis is a little shy of the minimum length requirement, you may want to add an appendix or two for supplementary information that you originally cut out of the thesis, but that could usefully be included: this can help you increase the word count to meet requirements. Your decision regarding the inclusion of appendices may also be simplified by the following information and advice.
As a general rule, appendices present subsidiary or supplementary material that is directly related to the material in the thesis itself and potentially helpful to readers, but which might prove distracting or inappropriate or simply too long were it included in the main body of the thesis or in notes (long footnotes in particular can make the layout of pages unattractive and should be avoided). An appendix is also a good format for material that is mentioned or discussed in more than one chapter, part or section of a thesis, because it helps the author avoid repetition while rendering the information readily available to readers. Appendices can contain a wide variety of material, such as texts discussed in the thesis, translations, chronologies, genealogies, examples of principles and procedures, descriptions of complex pieces of equipment, survey questionnaires, participant responses, detailed demographics for a population or sample, lists (particularly long ones), tables and figures, explanations or elaborations of any aspect of a study and any other supplementary information relevant to a thesis.
This material should not be included in an appendix simply because it is interesting and you happen to have it, however; instead, appendices should be included ‘only if they help readers to understand, evaluate, or replicate the study or theoretical argument being made’ ( Publication Manual of the APA , 2010, p.40). An appendix ‘should not be a repository for odds and ends that the author could not work into the text’ ( Chicago Manual of Style , 2003, p.27). Ideally, each appendix should have a specific theme, focus or function and gather materials of a particular type or relating to a particular topic, and it should bear a main heading that describes its content (e.g., ‘Appendix: Questionnaire 3 in Spanish and English’). If more than one theme or topic requires this sort of treatment, additional appendices should be preferred to subdividing a single long appendix, although appendices can certainly make use of internal headings and subheadings if necessary (on headings, see Section 6.1).
It is also best if appendices, like tables and figures, are able to stand on their own, so all abbreviations, symbols and specialised or technical terminology should be briefly defined or explained within each appendix, enabling the reader to understand the material without recourse to definitions and explanations in the rest of the thesis. All information in appendices that overlaps material in the main body of a thesis should match that material precisely in both content and format. Appendices can be set in the font size used in the main body of a thesis or a slightly smaller font to save space and they normally appear in the final matter before the endnotes (if there are any) or before the reference list or bibliography, although in some cases the appendices will be the last items in a thesis, so do check guidelines to determine if a specific position is required. The first appendix in a thesis usually begins on a new page, and subsequent appendices sometimes do the same, though they can run on instead with a little extra spacing between the end of one appendix and the beginning of the next. If there is only one appendix in a thesis, it will not need to be identified by a particular number or letter, but if you intend to include two or more appendices, they will need to be labelled with uppercase letters or with Arabic or Roman numerals according to the order in which the appendices are mentioned in the main text of the thesis, which should match the order of their appearance in the final matter (‘Appendix A,’ ‘Appendix B,’ ‘Appendix C’ etc., or ‘Appendix 1,’ ‘Appendix 2,’ ‘Appendix 3’ etc.). Appendices should always be referred to by these labels when they are discussed in the thesis, and each appendix should be referred to at least briefly in the main text of the thesis.
If a single table or figure makes up the whole of an appendix, the appendix label and heading are sufficient for the table or figure as well, but if an appendix contains more than a single table or figure, each table and figure will need to be numbered (and given a heading or caption), and this numbering should be separate from the tables and figures associated with the chapters of the thesis. If there is only one appendix, a capital A (for ‘Appendix’) should be used before each table or figure number – ‘Table A.1’ and ‘Figure A.2’ – but if more than one appendix is included, the specific letter or number of the appendix should be used as well as the table or figure number: ‘Table C.3,’ ‘Figure B.2,’ ‘Table II.4’ and ‘Figure IV.2.’ Please note that if you have more than one appendix in your thesis and any of those appendices contain more than one table or figure, the appendices should be labelled with letters or Roman numerals; if such appendices use Arabic numerals, it will be difficult to distinguish between tables and figures in chapters and those in the appendices (e.g., ‘Table 3.3’ could be the third table in Chapter 3 or the third table in Appendix 3, whereas ‘Table C.3’ is clearly the third table in Appendix C). Tables and figures may be embedded in appendices that also include text or they may appear at the end of each appendix, but if the university or department guidelines you are following indicate that tables and figures in general should be placed at the end of the thesis, those associated with appendices may need to appear there as well. For further information on tables and figures, see Sections 1.3 and 4.4.1.
4.6.2 Other Final Things
If you have not yet added (or revised and expanded since your proposal) any footnotes or endnotes that you intend to use for supplementary information in the thesis, now is the time to add them (see Section 3.4 above). It can be helpful to construct (or review) the supplementary notes and any appendices you plan to include at the same time so that you can decide which format is most appropriate for different kinds of material. If any ancillary lists are required – a list of abbreviations, for instance, or lists of tables and figures – these should be added at this point as well, either in the preliminary or final matter depending on university or department guidelines and/or personal preferences (see Sections 1.1.7–1.1.9). A list of abbreviations is usually arranged alphabetically by the abbreviations (rather than the full versions) with a colon between each abbreviation and its definition (see also Section 6.3):
ANOVA: Analysis of variance
CI: Confidence interval
ES: Effect size
Lists of tables and figures (on which, see also Sections 1.1.8 and 1.1.9), on the other hand, are arranged numerically according to the table or figure numbers and usually include the page number each table or figure appears on:
Table 1: Items in Questionnaire 1 . . . . . . . . 67
Table 2: Items in Questionnaire 2 . . . . . . . . 71
Table 3: Items in Questionnaire 3 . . . . . . . . 74
Tables are usually listed separately from figures, and shortened forms of table headings and figure captions are often used in these lists, especially if the headings and captions are long (consisting of more than a single sentence, for instance), but the table and figure numbers must match exactly the labels that appear on the tables and figures themselves and the order in which the tables and figures appear in the thesis. When tables and figures are reproduced or adapted from other sources, acknowledgements of those sources are sometimes included in such lists. For general advice on constructing lists, see Section 5.5.2.
Acknowledgements of any assistance you received in writing the thesis and in some cases of any materials you used from previous publications should be added to the thesis as well (see Section 1.1.6). Acknowledgements generally appear in the front matter of a thesis, but they can instead be added to the final matter, so you will need to determine which location is most appropriate for your thesis. Credits and permissions (if necessary) for material such as images, tables and long quotations borrowed from sources sometimes appear along with the borrowed material itself instead of (or in addition to) appearing in the acknowledgements (see Section 4.4.1, for instance). Acknowledgements in theses tend to be rather informal and sometimes intensely personal when compared with the formal scholarly text used in the rest of a thesis. As a general rule, this is fine – you have, after all, had a great deal of help in achieving the monumental goal of writing your thesis and it is only natural to want to thank with enthusiasm those who assisted you. Do beware, however, of letting your prose style slip beneath the required standard.
The acknowledgements may not be part of the scholarship in your thesis, but they are there for all to read, and a thesis is a professional document, so it is wise to maintain a professional perspective. Try to avoid arbitrary shifts between the first-, second- and third-person voices (e.g., ‘I would like to thank my friend and colleague Vicky for reading each and every chapter with such painstaking care – I wouldn’t have survived this thesis without you!’) and informal usage (contractions, for instance, such as ‘wouldn’t’ in my example, the second part of which would be better as ‘– I would not have survived this thesis without her!’). Keep in mind as well that some supervisors and committee members will feel embarrassed and uncomfortable when reading overly effusive expressions of gratitude aimed at themselves – yes, they have been wonderful, but supervising your work is their job, after all – so maintaining the dignity and comfort of everyone involved, including yourself, while expressing sincere and even enthusiastic gratitude is the best approach. Focussing precisely on exactly what each individual has done that specifically assisted you in completing your thesis will help you keep your acknowledgements relevant and professional.
Any dedication you wish to include in the thesis should be added to the front matter at this point as well. More importantly, if you have not yet written your abstract and chosen your keywords, they will need to be tackled, and if you have already worked on these earlier, revising them right after you have finished drafting the entire thesis is a good strategy (see Sections 1.1.2, 1.1.3 and 4.2). Finally, you will need to add or complete all the necessary citations, quotations and references in your thesis and compile the list of references, list of works cited or bibliography that should appear at the end of the thesis (or expand the one you submitted with your proposal: see Sections 1.2.6, 1.4.3, 2.1.2 and 3.5.4). It is very late in the game indeed to be deciding upon referencing methods and styles at this point, but if that is not yet a settled matter, a consistent and effective system must be adopted and applied throughout the thesis before it is considered a complete draft, and it is always wise to check your references carefully to be sure you have met the requirements set by your university, department and thesis committee. In Chapter 7 below I discuss in detail the main methods and styles of in-text referencing as well as reference lists and bibliographies, so please refer to that chapter for specific advice on bringing your references into line with scholarly standards, especially if you do not have specific guidelines to follow. If you use direct quotations in your thesis, see also Chapter 8, where I outline the ways in which direct quotations should be presented and integrated in academic and scientific prose.
Finally, once you have the entire thesis drafted, your table of contents will need to be completed by adding page numbers for the parts, chapters and sections of the thesis (and perhaps removing the summaries you used for your thesis outline if you have not already done so: see Section 4.1), or updated and checked if you are making use of a tool such as Word’s automatic table of contents function (see Section 6.1.1 for advice on creating an active table of contents). Make sure that all page numbers in the table of contents accurately indicate the pages on which those parts, chapters and sections actually appear in the thesis, and check the table of contents carefully to ensure that all titles and headings that appear in it match the corresponding headings in the thesis exactly in terms of order, wording, numbering (if used), punctuation and usually capitalisation as well (see Section 6.1 for further information on headings). Even something as simple as line spacing is important in this final stage. Although you may have single spaced your writing while sharing it with your supervisor and the other members of your committee without earning any complaints, double spacing is usual in the main body or running text of a thesis and it also tends to make your work more legible and easier on the eyes of your readers than single spacing does. Many universities will require double spacing, so do check for that in the guidelines and perhaps pay your readers (who are also your examiners) the courtesy of using it even if it is not required.
Why PhD Success?
To Graduate Successfully
This article is part of a book called "PhD Success" which focuses on the writing process of a phd thesis, with its aim being to provide sound practices and principles for reporting and formatting in text the methods, results and discussion of even the most innovative and unique research in ways that are clear, correct, professional and persuasive.
The assumption of the book is that the doctoral candidate reading it is both eager to write and more than capable of doing so, but nonetheless requires information and guidance on exactly what he or she should be writing and how best to approach the task. The basic components of a doctoral thesis are outlined and described, as are the elements of complete and accurate scholarly references, and detailed descriptions of writing practices are clarified through the use of numerous examples.
The basic components of a doctoral thesis are outlined and described, as are the elements of complete and accurate scholarly references, and detailed descriptions of writing practices are clarified through the use of numerous examples. PhD Success provides guidance for students familiar with English and the procedures of English universities, but it also acknowledges that many theses in the English language are now written by candidates whose first language is not English, so it carefully explains the scholarly styles, conventions and standards expected of a successful doctoral thesis in the English language.
Individual chapters of this book address reflective and critical writing early in the thesis process; working successfully with thesis supervisors and benefiting from commentary and criticism; drafting and revising effective thesis chapters and developing an academic or scientific argument; writing and formatting a thesis in clear and correct scholarly English; citing, quoting and documenting sources thoroughly and accurately; and preparing for and excelling in thesis meetings and examinations.
Completing a doctoral thesis successfully requires long and penetrating thought, intellectual rigour and creativity, original research and sound methods (whether established or innovative), precision in recording detail and a wide-ranging thoroughness, as much perseverance and mental toughness as insight and brilliance, and, no matter how many helpful writing guides are consulted, a great deal of hard work over a significant period of time. Writing a thesis can be an enjoyable as well as a challenging experience, however, and even if it is not always so, the personal and professional rewards of achieving such an enormous goal are considerable, as all doctoral candidates no doubt realise, and will last a great deal longer than any problems that may be encountered during the process.
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Rene Tetzner's blog posts dedicated to academic writing. Although the focus is on How To Write a Doctoral Thesis, many other important aspects of research-based writing, editing and publishing are addressed in helpful detail.
PhD Success – How To Write a Doctoral Thesis
October 1, 2021
Table of Contents – PhD Success
October 2, 2021
The Essential – Preliminary Matter
October 3, 2021
The Main Body of the Thesis
October 4, 2021
- Dissertation & Thesis Guides
- Basics of Dissertation & Thesis Writing
- Appendix Dissertation: What to Write & How to Use
Appendix Dissertation: What to Write & How to Use
Table of contents
A dissertation appendix is an optional section that offers additional details. This can include survey results, raw data, statistics, calculations, photographs and other visual sources.
Appendix of a dissertation is one of the essential research components. It is an application that shows work you have conducted. Like other elements of scientific work, appendices should be drawn up accordingly. This article includes detailed information on how to do an appendicx for a dissertation.
What if you need someone more qualified to ' do my dissertation ?' Don't hesitate and check our solutions straight away!
What Is a Dissertation Appendix?
Appendix in dissertation is a section where non-standard format data is included. It is designed to improve quality of work, make it more evident and trustworthy. This section shows your readers the level of your competence and topic's depth. This part contains elements related to your research like tables, images, maps, documents, etc. Here should be any additional material which will not be added into general text. Just make sure you put data, which is not meant to be placed into the body of work. It includes vast material, for example, statistical data for calculation. Usually, the last pages are where you put this part of a dissertation. Appendixes' volume is not taken into account in total work size. If your research requires 70 pages, then your main text without attachments should be 70 pages. There are no volume requirements for the appendix itself. It can consist of 1 or 100 pages.
What Is the Purpose of Appendix in Dissertation?
Appendix in a dissertation includes all large materials that are not placed into worktext. This place is for informational or reference purposes only. Imagine there is disagreement about research conclusions. Then, detailed useful data from appendices will help you clarify the situation. For example, members of the defense commission had questions about certain conclusions. In turn, you can demonstrate application form and methodology for analyzing answers. It makes no sense to include these documents in work text due to their large volume. But this part is a super helpful place to prove the process's correctness.
Appendices or Appendixes
Wondering how to write correctly: appendices or appendixes ? You may think that both are correct. But which is more widespread? We'll explain it quickly! These are views of American English over past few decades: "Appendixes" was previously a completely incorrect plural form of "Appendix." This word was considered as a supplementary body part. Instead, the plural form was "Appendices." But it seems, many people made a mistake and preferred the wrong variant. So, with English being constantly evolving, it began to spread out quickly. This variant started to appear in academic and public materials. Both words are now considered correct according to modern dictionaries. "Appendixes" are becoming increasingly popular. We recommend you to look at other similar publications of your field. Check which word they are using.
What to Include in Dissertation Appendix?
Most often, your appendix for dissertation should include:
- Research Results Research results can be presented in tables and figures at the end or in the main text. So let's discover what information to submit in what form. Display main results that are relevant to your research question into the main text. Less significant results that do not help answer your main question can be placed in the appendix. This includes a detailed description of your sample or additional tests you have performed. For example, if you used software for statistics, including the results of your analysis.
- Questionnaires and Interviews In this section, you can add written materials relevant to survey and interview. Include these points in your dissertation so that readers can see what you have drawn your conclusions from. But they are usually not in the main body of text.
- Tables and Figures Any material that is less important to the main text can be included in the appendix. This includes tables, figures, and other graphic elements (such as charts and illustrations).
- Personal/Used Correspondence This should include correspondence between you and other researchers. Maybe you have applied for permission to reuse copyrighted material. This will help protect your dissertation from suspicion of plagiarism.
- Abbreviations It would be wise if you added a list of abbreviations to the appendix. Not all of your readers can understand the abbreviated technical terms you use. Note: Some researchers call this a "glossary."
Dissertation Appendix: Format
Now it's time to discuss how to do a dissertation appendix ! Here are some format and style rules you should keep in mind while writing your work:
- Heading "Appendix" should be centered on the first page of the section.
- Each reference should have its own number. It is located at the top of the page (for example, Appendix 1).
- Type and font size should be the same as in main work.
- Each attachment should be placed on a separate sheet even if it does not occupy the entire page.
- A "page break" should be inserted at the end of the page. So that materials do not move when a file is opened in another version of Microsoft Word.
At different universities, format requirements may differ. So we recommend you consult with your starting supervisor.
How to Refer to Appendix in Dissertation In-Text
Now let's discuss how to use an appendix in a dissertation in-text. All attachments should be arranged in the same order in which they are mentioned in text. In text, mark results with links. For example: "See Appendix №." We also recommend you make a list of attachments as you write your work. For example, you mentioned in a text a survey conducted. Immediately add a questionnaire and essential processing method in the appendix. When work is finished, you can easily collect all materials for application. Consider dissertation help services if you lack time to start the work.
Dissertation Appendix: Example
Here you can see some dissertation appendix samples. Don't hesitate and double-check this part. It is important for you to make your experience of writing a dissertation understandable for every reader.
Appendix in Dissertation: Bottom Line
Appendix of a dissertation is not less important than any other part of writing a thesis paper . This section consists of materials that do not fit into the main body. These can be images, tables, questionnaires, diagrams, calculations, drawings. It shows your severe approach and ability for working with information and increases the value of all work. Check our recommendations provided above if you wanna cope quickly with this section. We provided all the necessary background for you to succeed. Also, we recommended reading about how to write a dissertation abstract , dissertation acknowledgments , or dissertation proposals .
If difficulties arise, you can always turn to our writing services online for expert help. They will deliver your dissertation quickly and efficiently!