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International Political Science Abstracts

About international political science abstracts.

ISSN 0020-8345

International Political Science Abstracts is published bimonthly by IPSA, with the support of the  Fondation Nationale des Sciences Politiques  in Paris. Created in 1951, the Abstracts is a truly global resource, providing non-evaluative abstracts of articles published in scholarly journals from every region of the world. It is an essential roadmap to literature in political science, political sociology, political psychology, international relations, international law, human rights, conflict studies, ethnic studies and other related fields.

Since 2007, International Political Science Abstracts has been published by SAGE Publications .

The journal is divided in eight chapters (see Structure below), with a List of periodicals and a Subject Index, and an annual Authors’ list.

See the SAGE Publications Website for more information regarding the content of the last issue.

Editor: Paul Godt Associate Editor: Stephen Sawyer International Political Science Abstracts 27 rue St-Guillaume 75337 Paris CEDEX 07 FRANCE [email protected]

Inside the Abstracts

  • Periodicals covered (as of September 2018 - pdf)
  • Samples of Abstracts (pdf)
  • Sample of Subject Index (pdf)
  • Sample of annual Author Index (pdf)

Whenever possible, the editors use abstracts provided by the journals (they are followed by [R]) or written by the authors in response to their requests (followed by [A]).

Selection Guidelines

  • Scholarly studies are chosen preferably to informative articles; only exceptionally are unsigned contributions, official texts and popular articles indicated;
  • The major journals in the field are covered in full (for articles and substantial research notes); less important journals, journals in related disciplines and general interest periodicals are covered selectively;
  • Translations and re-publications of articles already abstracted are mentioned only exceptionally;
  • The editors seek to avoid abstracting redundant articles;
  • Studies produced in countries where political science is not well developed, or about countries on which information is scarce, are treated less selectively.

Each issue contains a Subject Index (in English), cumulative for all previous issues of the same annual volume. The final issue of each annual volume contains also an Author index.

In each issue, articles are classified in the following chapters:

  •  Political science: method and theory ( sample , pdf, 87 kb)
  •  Political thinkers and ideas ( sample , pdf, 89 kb)
  •  Governmental and administrative institutions ( sample , pdf, 99 kb)
  •  Political process: public opinion, attitudes, parties, forces, groups et elections ( sample , pdf, 85 kb)
  •  International relations ( sample , pdf, 86 kb)
  •  National and area studies ( sample , pdf, 88 kb)
  •  Book Reviews ( sample , pdf, 94 kb)
  •  Edited Volumes ( sample , pdf, 84 kb)

Annual Subscription

  • NON-MEMBERS OF IPSA Please visit the SAGE Publications Website
  • MEMBERS OF IPSA Institutional members can profit from a 50% discount for the print subscription: US$ 656 only (instead of US$ 1311). Individual members have free online access included in their membership and can take advantage of a 50% discount for the print subscription: US$ 114 only (instead of US$ 228). To become a member of IPSA, refer to the Membership section.

Back volumes

Inquiries about back volumes should be directed to the editorial office in Paris: International Political Science Abstracts 27 rue St-Guillaume 75337 Paris CEDEX 07 FRANCE [email protected]

Electronic Database

The International Political Science Abstracts Database contains nearly 400,000 abstracts at the end of 2017 and adds some 8,000 each year. It is published online by EBSCO with data since inception (1951), and by Ovid Technologies with data since 1989. Both publishers grant a 50 percent discount to subscribers in developing countries and Eastern Europe. Inquiries

EBSCO:   https://www.ebsco.com/request-information Ovid: [email protected]

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The Writing Center • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

What this handout is about

This handout provides definitions and examples of the two main types of abstracts: descriptive and informative. It also provides guidelines for constructing an abstract and general tips for you to keep in mind when drafting. Finally, it includes a few examples of abstracts broken down into their component parts.

What is an abstract?

An abstract is a self-contained, short, and powerful statement that describes a larger work. Components vary according to discipline. An abstract of a social science or scientific work may contain the scope, purpose, results, and contents of the work. An abstract of a humanities work may contain the thesis, background, and conclusion of the larger work. An abstract is not a review, nor does it evaluate the work being abstracted. While it contains key words found in the larger work, the abstract is an original document rather than an excerpted passage.

Why write an abstract?

You may write an abstract for various reasons. The two most important are selection and indexing. Abstracts allow readers who may be interested in a longer work to quickly decide whether it is worth their time to read it. Also, many online databases use abstracts to index larger works. Therefore, abstracts should contain keywords and phrases that allow for easy searching.

Say you are beginning a research project on how Brazilian newspapers helped Brazil’s ultra-liberal president Luiz Ignácio da Silva wrest power from the traditional, conservative power base. A good first place to start your research is to search Dissertation Abstracts International for all dissertations that deal with the interaction between newspapers and politics. “Newspapers and politics” returned 569 hits. A more selective search of “newspapers and Brazil” returned 22 hits. That is still a fair number of dissertations. Titles can sometimes help winnow the field, but many titles are not very descriptive. For example, one dissertation is titled “Rhetoric and Riot in Rio de Janeiro.” It is unclear from the title what this dissertation has to do with newspapers in Brazil. One option would be to download or order the entire dissertation on the chance that it might speak specifically to the topic. A better option is to read the abstract. In this case, the abstract reveals the main focus of the dissertation:

This dissertation examines the role of newspaper editors in the political turmoil and strife that characterized late First Empire Rio de Janeiro (1827-1831). Newspaper editors and their journals helped change the political culture of late First Empire Rio de Janeiro by involving the people in the discussion of state. This change in political culture is apparent in Emperor Pedro I’s gradual loss of control over the mechanisms of power. As the newspapers became more numerous and powerful, the Emperor lost his legitimacy in the eyes of the people. To explore the role of the newspapers in the political events of the late First Empire, this dissertation analyzes all available newspapers published in Rio de Janeiro from 1827 to 1831. Newspapers and their editors were leading forces in the effort to remove power from the hands of the ruling elite and place it under the control of the people. In the process, newspapers helped change how politics operated in the constitutional monarchy of Brazil.

From this abstract you now know that although the dissertation has nothing to do with modern Brazilian politics, it does cover the role of newspapers in changing traditional mechanisms of power. After reading the abstract, you can make an informed judgment about whether the dissertation would be worthwhile to read.

Besides selection, the other main purpose of the abstract is for indexing. Most article databases in the online catalog of the library enable you to search abstracts. This allows for quick retrieval by users and limits the extraneous items recalled by a “full-text” search. However, for an abstract to be useful in an online retrieval system, it must incorporate the key terms that a potential researcher would use to search. For example, if you search Dissertation Abstracts International using the keywords “France” “revolution” and “politics,” the search engine would search through all the abstracts in the database that included those three words. Without an abstract, the search engine would be forced to search titles, which, as we have seen, may not be fruitful, or else search the full text. It’s likely that a lot more than 60 dissertations have been written with those three words somewhere in the body of the entire work. By incorporating keywords into the abstract, the author emphasizes the central topics of the work and gives prospective readers enough information to make an informed judgment about the applicability of the work.

When do people write abstracts?

  • when submitting articles to journals, especially online journals
  • when applying for research grants
  • when writing a book proposal
  • when completing the Ph.D. dissertation or M.A. thesis
  • when writing a proposal for a conference paper
  • when writing a proposal for a book chapter

Most often, the author of the entire work (or prospective work) writes the abstract. However, there are professional abstracting services that hire writers to draft abstracts of other people’s work. In a work with multiple authors, the first author usually writes the abstract. Undergraduates are sometimes asked to draft abstracts of books/articles for classmates who have not read the larger work.

Types of abstracts

There are two types of abstracts: descriptive and informative. They have different aims, so as a consequence they have different components and styles. There is also a third type called critical, but it is rarely used. If you want to find out more about writing a critique or a review of a work, see the UNC Writing Center handout on writing a literature review . If you are unsure which type of abstract you should write, ask your instructor (if the abstract is for a class) or read other abstracts in your field or in the journal where you are submitting your article.

Descriptive abstracts

A descriptive abstract indicates the type of information found in the work. It makes no judgments about the work, nor does it provide results or conclusions of the research. It does incorporate key words found in the text and may include the purpose, methods, and scope of the research. Essentially, the descriptive abstract describes the work being abstracted. Some people consider it an outline of the work, rather than a summary. Descriptive abstracts are usually very short—100 words or less.

Informative abstracts

The majority of abstracts are informative. While they still do not critique or evaluate a work, they do more than describe it. A good informative abstract acts as a surrogate for the work itself. That is, the writer presents and explains all the main arguments and the important results and evidence in the complete article/paper/book. An informative abstract includes the information that can be found in a descriptive abstract (purpose, methods, scope) but also includes the results and conclusions of the research and the recommendations of the author. The length varies according to discipline, but an informative abstract is rarely more than 10% of the length of the entire work. In the case of a longer work, it may be much less.

Here are examples of a descriptive and an informative abstract of this handout on abstracts . Descriptive abstract:

The two most common abstract types—descriptive and informative—are described and examples of each are provided.

Informative abstract:

Abstracts present the essential elements of a longer work in a short and powerful statement. The purpose of an abstract is to provide prospective readers the opportunity to judge the relevance of the longer work to their projects. Abstracts also include the key terms found in the longer work and the purpose and methods of the research. Authors abstract various longer works, including book proposals, dissertations, and online journal articles. There are two main types of abstracts: descriptive and informative. A descriptive abstract briefly describes the longer work, while an informative abstract presents all the main arguments and important results. This handout provides examples of various types of abstracts and instructions on how to construct one.

Which type should I use?

Your best bet in this case is to ask your instructor or refer to the instructions provided by the publisher. You can also make a guess based on the length allowed; i.e., 100-120 words = descriptive; 250+ words = informative.

How do I write an abstract?

The format of your abstract will depend on the work being abstracted. An abstract of a scientific research paper will contain elements not found in an abstract of a literature article, and vice versa. However, all abstracts share several mandatory components, and there are also some optional parts that you can decide to include or not. When preparing to draft your abstract, keep the following key process elements in mind:

  • Reason for writing: What is the importance of the research? Why would a reader be interested in the larger work?
  • Problem: What problem does this work attempt to solve? What is the scope of the project? What is the main argument/thesis/claim?
  • Methodology: An abstract of a scientific work may include specific models or approaches used in the larger study. Other abstracts may describe the types of evidence used in the research.
  • Results: Again, an abstract of a scientific work may include specific data that indicates the results of the project. Other abstracts may discuss the findings in a more general way.
  • Implications: What changes should be implemented as a result of the findings of the work? How does this work add to the body of knowledge on the topic?

(This list of elements is adapted with permission from Philip Koopman, “How to Write an Abstract.” )

All abstracts include:

  • A full citation of the source, preceding the abstract.
  • The most important information first.
  • The same type and style of language found in the original, including technical language.
  • Key words and phrases that quickly identify the content and focus of the work.
  • Clear, concise, and powerful language.

Abstracts may include:

  • The thesis of the work, usually in the first sentence.
  • Background information that places the work in the larger body of literature.
  • The same chronological structure as the original work.

How not to write an abstract:

  • Do not refer extensively to other works.
  • Do not add information not contained in the original work.
  • Do not define terms.

If you are abstracting your own writing

When abstracting your own work, it may be difficult to condense a piece of writing that you have agonized over for weeks (or months, or even years) into a 250-word statement. There are some tricks that you could use to make it easier, however.

Reverse outlining:

This technique is commonly used when you are having trouble organizing your own writing. The process involves writing down the main idea of each paragraph on a separate piece of paper– see our short video . For the purposes of writing an abstract, try grouping the main ideas of each section of the paper into a single sentence. Practice grouping ideas using webbing or color coding .

For a scientific paper, you may have sections titled Purpose, Methods, Results, and Discussion. Each one of these sections will be longer than one paragraph, but each is grouped around a central idea. Use reverse outlining to discover the central idea in each section and then distill these ideas into one statement.

Cut and paste:

To create a first draft of an abstract of your own work, you can read through the entire paper and cut and paste sentences that capture key passages. This technique is useful for social science research with findings that cannot be encapsulated by neat numbers or concrete results. A well-written humanities draft will have a clear and direct thesis statement and informative topic sentences for paragraphs or sections. Isolate these sentences in a separate document and work on revising them into a unified paragraph.

If you are abstracting someone else’s writing

When abstracting something you have not written, you cannot summarize key ideas just by cutting and pasting. Instead, you must determine what a prospective reader would want to know about the work. There are a few techniques that will help you in this process:

Identify key terms:

Search through the entire document for key terms that identify the purpose, scope, and methods of the work. Pay close attention to the Introduction (or Purpose) and the Conclusion (or Discussion). These sections should contain all the main ideas and key terms in the paper. When writing the abstract, be sure to incorporate the key terms.

Highlight key phrases and sentences:

Instead of cutting and pasting the actual words, try highlighting sentences or phrases that appear to be central to the work. Then, in a separate document, rewrite the sentences and phrases in your own words.

Don’t look back:

After reading the entire work, put it aside and write a paragraph about the work without referring to it. In the first draft, you may not remember all the key terms or the results, but you will remember what the main point of the work was. Remember not to include any information you did not get from the work being abstracted.

Revise, revise, revise

No matter what type of abstract you are writing, or whether you are abstracting your own work or someone else’s, the most important step in writing an abstract is to revise early and often. When revising, delete all extraneous words and incorporate meaningful and powerful words. The idea is to be as clear and complete as possible in the shortest possible amount of space. The Word Count feature of Microsoft Word can help you keep track of how long your abstract is and help you hit your target length.

Example 1: Humanities abstract

Kenneth Tait Andrews, “‘Freedom is a constant struggle’: The dynamics and consequences of the Mississippi Civil Rights Movement, 1960-1984” Ph.D. State University of New York at Stony Brook, 1997 DAI-A 59/02, p. 620, Aug 1998

This dissertation examines the impacts of social movements through a multi-layered study of the Mississippi Civil Rights Movement from its peak in the early 1960s through the early 1980s. By examining this historically important case, I clarify the process by which movements transform social structures and the constraints movements face when they try to do so. The time period studied includes the expansion of voting rights and gains in black political power, the desegregation of public schools and the emergence of white-flight academies, and the rise and fall of federal anti-poverty programs. I use two major research strategies: (1) a quantitative analysis of county-level data and (2) three case studies. Data have been collected from archives, interviews, newspapers, and published reports. This dissertation challenges the argument that movements are inconsequential. Some view federal agencies, courts, political parties, or economic elites as the agents driving institutional change, but typically these groups acted in response to the leverage brought to bear by the civil rights movement. The Mississippi movement attempted to forge independent structures for sustaining challenges to local inequities and injustices. By propelling change in an array of local institutions, movement infrastructures had an enduring legacy in Mississippi.

Now let’s break down this abstract into its component parts to see how the author has distilled his entire dissertation into a ~200 word abstract.

What the dissertation does This dissertation examines the impacts of social movements through a multi-layered study of the Mississippi Civil Rights Movement from its peak in the early 1960s through the early 1980s. By examining this historically important case, I clarify the process by which movements transform social structures and the constraints movements face when they try to do so.

How the dissertation does it The time period studied in this dissertation includes the expansion of voting rights and gains in black political power, the desegregation of public schools and the emergence of white-flight academies, and the rise and fall of federal anti-poverty programs. I use two major research strategies: (1) a quantitative analysis of county-level data and (2) three case studies.

What materials are used Data have been collected from archives, interviews, newspapers, and published reports.

Conclusion This dissertation challenges the argument that movements are inconsequential. Some view federal agencies, courts, political parties, or economic elites as the agents driving institutional change, but typically these groups acted in response to movement demands and the leverage brought to bear by the civil rights movement. The Mississippi movement attempted to forge independent structures for sustaining challenges to local inequities and injustices. By propelling change in an array of local institutions, movement infrastructures had an enduring legacy in Mississippi.

Keywords social movements Civil Rights Movement Mississippi voting rights desegregation

Example 2: Science Abstract

Luis Lehner, “Gravitational radiation from black hole spacetimes” Ph.D. University of Pittsburgh, 1998 DAI-B 59/06, p. 2797, Dec 1998

The problem of detecting gravitational radiation is receiving considerable attention with the construction of new detectors in the United States, Europe, and Japan. The theoretical modeling of the wave forms that would be produced in particular systems will expedite the search for and analysis of detected signals. The characteristic formulation of GR is implemented to obtain an algorithm capable of evolving black holes in 3D asymptotically flat spacetimes. Using compactification techniques, future null infinity is included in the evolved region, which enables the unambiguous calculation of the radiation produced by some compact source. A module to calculate the waveforms is constructed and included in the evolution algorithm. This code is shown to be second-order convergent and to handle highly non-linear spacetimes. In particular, we have shown that the code can handle spacetimes whose radiation is equivalent to a galaxy converting its whole mass into gravitational radiation in one second. We further use the characteristic formulation to treat the region close to the singularity in black hole spacetimes. The code carefully excises a region surrounding the singularity and accurately evolves generic black hole spacetimes with apparently unlimited stability.

This science abstract covers much of the same ground as the humanities one, but it asks slightly different questions.

Why do this study The problem of detecting gravitational radiation is receiving considerable attention with the construction of new detectors in the United States, Europe, and Japan. The theoretical modeling of the wave forms that would be produced in particular systems will expedite the search and analysis of the detected signals.

What the study does The characteristic formulation of GR is implemented to obtain an algorithm capable of evolving black holes in 3D asymptotically flat spacetimes. Using compactification techniques, future null infinity is included in the evolved region, which enables the unambiguous calculation of the radiation produced by some compact source. A module to calculate the waveforms is constructed and included in the evolution algorithm.

Results This code is shown to be second-order convergent and to handle highly non-linear spacetimes. In particular, we have shown that the code can handle spacetimes whose radiation is equivalent to a galaxy converting its whole mass into gravitational radiation in one second. We further use the characteristic formulation to treat the region close to the singularity in black hole spacetimes. The code carefully excises a region surrounding the singularity and accurately evolves generic black hole spacetimes with apparently unlimited stability.

Keywords gravitational radiation (GR) spacetimes black holes

Works consulted

We consulted these works while writing this handout. This is not a comprehensive list of resources on the handout’s topic, and we encourage you to do your own research to find additional publications. Please do not use this list as a model for the format of your own reference list, as it may not match the citation style you are using. For guidance on formatting citations, please see the UNC Libraries citation tutorial . We revise these tips periodically and welcome feedback.

Belcher, Wendy Laura. 2009. Writing Your Journal Article in Twelve Weeks: A Guide to Academic Publishing Success. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Press.

Koopman, Philip. 1997. “How to Write an Abstract.” Carnegie Mellon University. October 1997. http://users.ece.cmu.edu/~koopman/essays/abstract.html .

Lancaster, F.W. 2003. Indexing And Abstracting in Theory and Practice , 3rd ed. London: Facet Publishing.

You may reproduce it for non-commercial use if you use the entire handout and attribute the source: The Writing Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

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Dissertation Abstracts International has been replaced by ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.

Writing a Great Abstract

Tips from the experts.

At ISA headquarters, we regularly get asked for advice on writing a great abstract for consideration on the conference program. Of course, our program content is decided by the many volunteers who serve as program chairs and section program chairs. So, instead of trying to answer those questions ourselves, we thought you’d like to hear from the experts.

We talked to some of our conference experts and asked them what makes for a great abstract, what are some common mistakes they see, and what would be some advice for first-timers. Check out what they had to say below!

Meet the Experts

Matt Baum

Cornelia Navari

Pat James

Patrick James

Jacqui True

Jacqui True

Two aspects come to mind: content and style.

Content often is restricted to something like 150 or even 100 words, so there is little or no room to spare. You need to get things across quickly! Essentials are as follows:

  • An initial sentence that connects directly with the paper’s title.
  • Subsequent sentences that convey the academic triangle of theorizing, method and data. What is your theoretical framework? How will it be evaluated? What kind of data is involved? These questions should be answered in a basic way by the abstract of any research paper. If the paper instead is a review essay, the question about method goes away, but the other two still should be answered.
  • Outline consecutively, in one sentence each, the main sections of the paper.
  • Finish up with a final sentence that includes what you most want the reader to be thinking about as they move on to reading the paper.

With respect to style, I suggest the institution of two tests once the abstract is written. The first I call the “breath test”. It should be possible to read each sentence of the abstract aloud, comfortably, after taking just a single breath per sentence. The point here is that long sentences are not good at this stage of the exposition because you do not want the reader’s attention to wander. The “Time test” is the second one to use. Here I mean that a reader of Time should be able to follow your abstract just as easily as a story in that magazine. In sum, a great abstract will be conveyed in a manner that is easy to follow and not off-putting.

The ideal abstract, from the point of view of panel planning, has three parts. 1. statement of the area of concern or disputation 2. statement of the thesis or argument 3. implications for further research.

A short example from what I am working on now:

Title: Morgenthau and the idea of the National Interest: German or American? 1. The 'moral dignity' of the national interest was the concept M. developed to anchor his power politics and to point American foreign policy in the 'right direction'. Recent scholarship has tended to emphasise the 'Germanness' of Morgenthau, and the continental influences upon him, particularly his differences with Schmidt. 2. This paper argues, on the contrary, that there is no such notion in 'early Morgenthau, that it is not German anyhow, but essentially an American, or more accurately an Anglo-American idea; that Morgenthau developed it to participate in an American debate about appropriate responses to the Cold War, and that in developing it he explicitly drew on a British, not German or continental, diplomatic tradition, which he perhaps somewhat imaginatively united to what he tried to demonstrate, mostly successfully, was an embedded tradition in America with the founding fathers. 3. The implication for research on 'ideas in foreign policy' is that close attention should be paid not only to context but to text itself, and how ideas are expounded and developed.

Three types of mistakes can be identified: timing, content and lack of reality check.

The first type of error is about timing, i.e., rushing through the abstract at the end of writing process, treating it as an after-thought. Remember that referees see the abstract first when the paper is out under review as an article. If the abstract is unclear, the referee may be ill-disposed the rest of the way. So the abstract is worthy of real attention to get a potential referee in the right frame of mind.

A second kind of error concerns content, most notably, the presence of difficult terminology. There is no space in an abstract to explain complex and unfamiliar terms. Instead, aim to convey originality in a way that any reader can appreciate before neologisms or difficult points regarding methods appear in the body of the paper itself.

Third is the need for a reality check. It is ideal to ask someone who is not in your field at all to read the entire paper to assess its clarity. Failing that opportunity, it makes sense at the very least to get help with the abstract. A person from outside your area of expertise is the ideal critic for the abstract because the priority is on comprehension at point of first contact.

The most common mistakes in abstracts is not to clearly state the argument, or to actually be ignorant of it.

The most direct approach is to seek co-authorship with a more senior scholar. This will help in terms of credibility for the work because of the established reputation of the person with whom you would be collaborating.

Regional and section conferences, in the ISA and other organizations, have higher rates of acceptance than national conferences with respect to paper proposals. Before trying ISA, present your paper and seek its improvement through a prior regional or section conference.

Join the sections of ISA that are appropriate, given your research interests, and become involved. Volunteer for an activity, when such a request comes up, and begin to build a network of scholars and a reputation for getting things done. This will build credibility for your work across the board.

The Junior Scholars Symposium is a wonderful opportunity in particular – I highly recommend it to you!

Link your argument to a prevalent debate or area of dispute; and state it clearly.

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International Review of Education: Call for abstracts

Submit your abstract for the International Review of Education special issue  'Philosophical, ethical and pedagogical perspectives on global citizenship education: : A critical examination with educators from South to North' by 10 April 2024.

Global citizenship education (GCE) is a call to foster values and knowledge that, potentially at least, enable learners to become and be informed, engaging and responsible global citizens. The emergence of GCE as a pedagogical framework is particularly timely in today's interconnected world. GCE offers a promising avenue to address the challenges posed by political upheavals, social injustices, economic inequalities, and environmental (un)sustainability, all of which have been exacerbated by the global impact of the COVID-19 pandemic (Bosio, Waghid, Papastephanou & McLaren, 2023; Bosio, Torres & Gaudelli, 2023; Bosio & Waghid, 2023; 2022; Giroux & Bosio, 2021).

However, limited attention has been given to how educators in diverse regions across the Global South and the Global North perceive and implement GCE within their curricula and classrooms; even more so when considering its application beyond the confines of formal education, specifically adult education and lifelong learning (e.g. community centres, workplace training, voluntary or non-governmental organizations, online courses and webinars, and outreach programmes). This gap in exploration is significant, particularly given the inherent nature of lifelong learning, where education extends into diverse settings and throughout one's lifetime.

Hence, the  International Review of Education – Journal of Lifelong Learning ( IRE ) invites papers for a special issue on “Philosophical, ethical and pedagogical perspectives of global citizenship education: A critical examination with educators from South to North” aimed at exploring contributions that shed light on whether and how GCE can be employed as a pedagogical approach not only within the boundaries of formal education but also in various settings, including non-formal and informal ones, adult education, and lifelong learning. From this perspective, this special issue examines GCE that moves beyond merely instilling students with a basic sense of interconnectedness and expanding their cultural awareness – important as these aspects are – by enabling them to ethically and critically situate the discourse in the context of globalization (Torres & Bosio, 2020; Veugelers & Bosio, 2021). Our understanding of critical GCE is constituted by acknowledging the powerful influence of societal ideologies in spelling out concepts of global citizenship and GCE, notions of engagement and social transformation, a resource-, not deficit-oriented recognition of others in their 'otherness’, and responsible action that integrates actions, knowledge, and cultural frameworks of humans both in the Global South and Global North (Schreiber-Barsch, 2018).

In light of this, this special issue invites contributions from scholars representing a diverse regional mix, spanning continents and cultural contexts, to ensure a comprehensive exploration of GCE. It welcomes both theoretical and empirical perspectives that investigate how educators, situated in both the Global South and Global North, perceive the ethical, critical, moral, but also decolonial, and Indigenous values and knowledge of GCE, and how their pedagogy adapts to it.

Specifically, we ask:

  • What philosophical and pedagogical approaches do educators, including those engaged in formal/non-formal education, adult education and lifelong learning, employ to promote ethical, critical and moral knowledge and values in GCE? If not emphasizing ethical, critical, and moral knowledge and values, what other knowledge and values in GCE do they prioritize?
  • What is the role of ethical, critical, moral, decolonial, and Indigenous knowledge and values of GCE in addressing pressing local and global challenges, including political turmoil, social injustices, economic disparities, and environmental sustainability?
  • What challenges are encountered by educators, including those engaged in formal/non-formal education, adult education, and lifelong learning environments, when integrating ethical, critical, and moral perspectives into their GCE practices, along with strategies to overcome these challenges?
  • What potential future directions or advancements are foreseeable or desirable in incorporating ethical, critical and moral visions into GCE, with a specific focus on the evolving global challenges, such as those arising from the post-COVID-19 pandemic world.

Submissions are welcome that address all levels of education. We particularly encourage papers that, within the context of GCE, focus on lifelong learning, adult education, community-based learning and citizenship. This includes both formal settings (e.g., classrooms and formal curricula) and non-formal settings (e.g. community centres, workplace training, adult education programmes, NGOs, online courses, webinars, and outreach programmes).

Abstracts for the special issue should range from 200 to 300 words. Each proposal should include the names, affiliations and email contacts of the authors, along with a provisional title. Please submit abstracts by 10 April 2024 to the Executive Editor of IRE , Paul Stanistreet:  [email protected]  

Authors will receive notification whether their abstracts have been accepted by 25 May 2024 . Manuscripts are due by 25 November 2024 . This special issue is expected to be published in late 2025.

References  

Bosio, E., Torres C.A., & Gaudelli W. (2023). Exploring values and knowledge in global citizenship education: Theoretical and empirical insights from scholars worldwide. Prospects,  53:3.   https://link.springer.com/journal/11125/volumes-and-issues/53-3

Bosio, E., Waghid, Y., Papastephanou, M., & McLaren, P. (2023). Guest Editorial: Critical and Creative Practices of Global Citizenship Education in the Digital Age of Information and Communication Technologies. Journal of Creative Communications .  https://doi.org/10.1177/09732586231211397

Bosio, E., & Waghid Y. (2023). Global Citizenship Education as a Living Ethical Philosophy for Social Justice. Citizenship Teaching & Learning , 18:2, pp. 151–58,  https://doi.org/10.1386/ctl_00117_2

Bosio, E., & Waghid Y. (Eds.) (2022). Global Citizenship Education in the Global South: Educators’ Perceptions and Practices . BRILL. Series: Moral Development and Citizenship Education.  https://brill.com/view/title/63195

Giroux, H. A., & Bosio, E. (2021). Critical Pedagogy and Global Citizenship Education. In Emiliano Bosio (Ed.), Conversations on Global Citizenship Education: Perspectives on Research, Teaching, and Learning in Higher Education (pp. 1–10). Routledge: New York.  https://www.taylorfrancis.com/chapters/edit/10.4324/9780429346897-1/critical-pedagogy-global-citizenship-education-henry-giroux-emiliano-bosio  

Schreiber-Barsch, S. (2018). Global Citizenship Education and Globalism. In I. Davies, L.-C. Ho, D. Kiwan, C. L. Peck, A. Peterson, E. Sant & Y. Waghid (Eds.), The Palgrave Handbook of Global Citizenship and Education (pp. 113–131). London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Torres C.A., & Bosio, E. (2020). Global Citizenship Education at the crossroads: globalization, global commons, common good and critical consciousness. Prospects , 48, pp. 99–113.  https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11125-019-09458-w

Veugelers. W., & Bosio, E. (2021). Linking moral and social-political perspectives in global citizenship education: A conversation with Wiel Veugelers. Prospects , 53, pp. 181–194.  https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11125-021-09576-4

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How to Write an Abstract | Steps & Examples

Published on February 28, 2019 by Shona McCombes . Revised on July 18, 2023 by Eoghan Ryan.

How to Write an Abstract

An abstract is a short summary of a longer work (such as a thesis ,  dissertation or research paper ). The abstract concisely reports the aims and outcomes of your research, so that readers know exactly what your paper is about.

Although the structure may vary slightly depending on your discipline, your abstract should describe the purpose of your work, the methods you’ve used, and the conclusions you’ve drawn.

One common way to structure your abstract is to use the IMRaD structure. This stands for:

  • Introduction

Abstracts are usually around 100–300 words, but there’s often a strict word limit, so make sure to check the relevant requirements.

In a dissertation or thesis , include the abstract on a separate page, after the title page and acknowledgements but before the table of contents .

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Table of contents

Abstract example, when to write an abstract, step 1: introduction, step 2: methods, step 3: results, step 4: discussion, tips for writing an abstract, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about abstracts.

Hover over the different parts of the abstract to see how it is constructed.

This paper examines the role of silent movies as a mode of shared experience in the US during the early twentieth century. At this time, high immigration rates resulted in a significant percentage of non-English-speaking citizens. These immigrants faced numerous economic and social obstacles, including exclusion from public entertainment and modes of discourse (newspapers, theater, radio).

Incorporating evidence from reviews, personal correspondence, and diaries, this study demonstrates that silent films were an affordable and inclusive source of entertainment. It argues for the accessible economic and representational nature of early cinema. These concerns are particularly evident in the low price of admission and in the democratic nature of the actors’ exaggerated gestures, which allowed the plots and action to be easily grasped by a diverse audience despite language barriers.

Keywords: silent movies, immigration, public discourse, entertainment, early cinema, language barriers.

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You will almost always have to include an abstract when:

  • Completing a thesis or dissertation
  • Submitting a research paper to an academic journal
  • Writing a book or research proposal
  • Applying for research grants

It’s easiest to write your abstract last, right before the proofreading stage, because it’s a summary of the work you’ve already done. Your abstract should:

  • Be a self-contained text, not an excerpt from your paper
  • Be fully understandable on its own
  • Reflect the structure of your larger work

Start by clearly defining the purpose of your research. What practical or theoretical problem does the research respond to, or what research question did you aim to answer?

You can include some brief context on the social or academic relevance of your dissertation topic , but don’t go into detailed background information. If your abstract uses specialized terms that would be unfamiliar to the average academic reader or that have various different meanings, give a concise definition.

After identifying the problem, state the objective of your research. Use verbs like “investigate,” “test,” “analyze,” or “evaluate” to describe exactly what you set out to do.

This part of the abstract can be written in the present or past simple tense  but should never refer to the future, as the research is already complete.

  • This study will investigate the relationship between coffee consumption and productivity.
  • This study investigates the relationship between coffee consumption and productivity.

Next, indicate the research methods that you used to answer your question. This part should be a straightforward description of what you did in one or two sentences. It is usually written in the past simple tense, as it refers to completed actions.

  • Structured interviews will be conducted with 25 participants.
  • Structured interviews were conducted with 25 participants.

Don’t evaluate validity or obstacles here — the goal is not to give an account of the methodology’s strengths and weaknesses, but to give the reader a quick insight into the overall approach and procedures you used.

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Next, summarize the main research results . This part of the abstract can be in the present or past simple tense.

  • Our analysis has shown a strong correlation between coffee consumption and productivity.
  • Our analysis shows a strong correlation between coffee consumption and productivity.
  • Our analysis showed a strong correlation between coffee consumption and productivity.

Depending on how long and complex your research is, you may not be able to include all results here. Try to highlight only the most important findings that will allow the reader to understand your conclusions.

Finally, you should discuss the main conclusions of your research : what is your answer to the problem or question? The reader should finish with a clear understanding of the central point that your research has proved or argued. Conclusions are usually written in the present simple tense.

  • We concluded that coffee consumption increases productivity.
  • We conclude that coffee consumption increases productivity.

If there are important limitations to your research (for example, related to your sample size or methods), you should mention them briefly in the abstract. This allows the reader to accurately assess the credibility and generalizability of your research.

If your aim was to solve a practical problem, your discussion might include recommendations for implementation. If relevant, you can briefly make suggestions for further research.

If your paper will be published, you might have to add a list of keywords at the end of the abstract. These keywords should reference the most important elements of the research to help potential readers find your paper during their own literature searches.

Be aware that some publication manuals, such as APA Style , have specific formatting requirements for these keywords.

It can be a real challenge to condense your whole work into just a couple of hundred words, but the abstract will be the first (and sometimes only) part that people read, so it’s important to get it right. These strategies can help you get started.

Read other abstracts

The best way to learn the conventions of writing an abstract in your discipline is to read other people’s. You probably already read lots of journal article abstracts while conducting your literature review —try using them as a framework for structure and style.

You can also find lots of dissertation abstract examples in thesis and dissertation databases .

Reverse outline

Not all abstracts will contain precisely the same elements. For longer works, you can write your abstract through a process of reverse outlining.

For each chapter or section, list keywords and draft one to two sentences that summarize the central point or argument. This will give you a framework of your abstract’s structure. Next, revise the sentences to make connections and show how the argument develops.

Write clearly and concisely

A good abstract is short but impactful, so make sure every word counts. Each sentence should clearly communicate one main point.

To keep your abstract or summary short and clear:

  • Avoid passive sentences: Passive constructions are often unnecessarily long. You can easily make them shorter and clearer by using the active voice.
  • Avoid long sentences: Substitute longer expressions for concise expressions or single words (e.g., “In order to” for “To”).
  • Avoid obscure jargon: The abstract should be understandable to readers who are not familiar with your topic.
  • Avoid repetition and filler words: Replace nouns with pronouns when possible and eliminate unnecessary words.
  • Avoid detailed descriptions: An abstract is not expected to provide detailed definitions, background information, or discussions of other scholars’ work. Instead, include this information in the body of your thesis or paper.

If you’re struggling to edit down to the required length, you can get help from expert editors with Scribbr’s professional proofreading services or use the paraphrasing tool .

Check your formatting

If you are writing a thesis or dissertation or submitting to a journal, there are often specific formatting requirements for the abstract—make sure to check the guidelines and format your work correctly. For APA research papers you can follow the APA abstract format .

Checklist: Abstract

The word count is within the required length, or a maximum of one page.

The abstract appears after the title page and acknowledgements and before the table of contents .

I have clearly stated my research problem and objectives.

I have briefly described my methodology .

I have summarized the most important results .

I have stated my main conclusions .

I have mentioned any important limitations and recommendations.

The abstract can be understood by someone without prior knowledge of the topic.

You've written a great abstract! Use the other checklists to continue improving your thesis or dissertation.

If you want to know more about AI for academic writing, AI tools, or research bias, make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples or go directly to our tools!

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An abstract is a concise summary of an academic text (such as a journal article or dissertation ). It serves two main purposes:

  • To help potential readers determine the relevance of your paper for their own research.
  • To communicate your key findings to those who don’t have time to read the whole paper.

Abstracts are often indexed along with keywords on academic databases, so they make your work more easily findable. Since the abstract is the first thing any reader sees, it’s important that it clearly and accurately summarizes the contents of your paper.

An abstract for a thesis or dissertation is usually around 200–300 words. There’s often a strict word limit, so make sure to check your university’s requirements.

The abstract is the very last thing you write. You should only write it after your research is complete, so that you can accurately summarize the entirety of your thesis , dissertation or research paper .

Avoid citing sources in your abstract . There are two reasons for this:

  • The abstract should focus on your original research, not on the work of others.
  • The abstract should be self-contained and fully understandable without reference to other sources.

There are some circumstances where you might need to mention other sources in an abstract: for example, if your research responds directly to another study or focuses on the work of a single theorist. In general, though, don’t include citations unless absolutely necessary.

The abstract appears on its own page in the thesis or dissertation , after the title page and acknowledgements but before the table of contents .

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McCombes, S. (2023, July 18). How to Write an Abstract | Steps & Examples. Scribbr. Retrieved February 23, 2024, from https://www.scribbr.com/dissertation/abstract/

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Writing an Abstract for Your Research Paper

Definition and Purpose of Abstracts

An abstract is a short summary of your (published or unpublished) research paper, usually about a paragraph (c. 6-7 sentences, 150-250 words) long. A well-written abstract serves multiple purposes:

  • an abstract lets readers get the gist or essence of your paper or article quickly, in order to decide whether to read the full paper;
  • an abstract prepares readers to follow the detailed information, analyses, and arguments in your full paper;
  • and, later, an abstract helps readers remember key points from your paper.

It’s also worth remembering that search engines and bibliographic databases use abstracts, as well as the title, to identify key terms for indexing your published paper. So what you include in your abstract and in your title are crucial for helping other researchers find your paper or article.

If you are writing an abstract for a course paper, your professor may give you specific guidelines for what to include and how to organize your abstract. Similarly, academic journals often have specific requirements for abstracts. So in addition to following the advice on this page, you should be sure to look for and follow any guidelines from the course or journal you’re writing for.

The Contents of an Abstract

Abstracts contain most of the following kinds of information in brief form. The body of your paper will, of course, develop and explain these ideas much more fully. As you will see in the samples below, the proportion of your abstract that you devote to each kind of information—and the sequence of that information—will vary, depending on the nature and genre of the paper that you are summarizing in your abstract. And in some cases, some of this information is implied, rather than stated explicitly. The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association , which is widely used in the social sciences, gives specific guidelines for what to include in the abstract for different kinds of papers—for empirical studies, literature reviews or meta-analyses, theoretical papers, methodological papers, and case studies.

Here are the typical kinds of information found in most abstracts:

  • the context or background information for your research; the general topic under study; the specific topic of your research
  • the central questions or statement of the problem your research addresses
  • what’s already known about this question, what previous research has done or shown
  • the main reason(s) , the exigency, the rationale , the goals for your research—Why is it important to address these questions? Are you, for example, examining a new topic? Why is that topic worth examining? Are you filling a gap in previous research? Applying new methods to take a fresh look at existing ideas or data? Resolving a dispute within the literature in your field? . . .
  • your research and/or analytical methods
  • your main findings , results , or arguments
  • the significance or implications of your findings or arguments.

Your abstract should be intelligible on its own, without a reader’s having to read your entire paper. And in an abstract, you usually do not cite references—most of your abstract will describe what you have studied in your research and what you have found and what you argue in your paper. In the body of your paper, you will cite the specific literature that informs your research.

When to Write Your Abstract

Although you might be tempted to write your abstract first because it will appear as the very first part of your paper, it’s a good idea to wait to write your abstract until after you’ve drafted your full paper, so that you know what you’re summarizing.

What follows are some sample abstracts in published papers or articles, all written by faculty at UW-Madison who come from a variety of disciplines. We have annotated these samples to help you see the work that these authors are doing within their abstracts.

Choosing Verb Tenses within Your Abstract

The social science sample (Sample 1) below uses the present tense to describe general facts and interpretations that have been and are currently true, including the prevailing explanation for the social phenomenon under study. That abstract also uses the present tense to describe the methods, the findings, the arguments, and the implications of the findings from their new research study. The authors use the past tense to describe previous research.

The humanities sample (Sample 2) below uses the past tense to describe completed events in the past (the texts created in the pulp fiction industry in the 1970s and 80s) and uses the present tense to describe what is happening in those texts, to explain the significance or meaning of those texts, and to describe the arguments presented in the article.

The science samples (Samples 3 and 4) below use the past tense to describe what previous research studies have done and the research the authors have conducted, the methods they have followed, and what they have found. In their rationale or justification for their research (what remains to be done), they use the present tense. They also use the present tense to introduce their study (in Sample 3, “Here we report . . .”) and to explain the significance of their study (In Sample 3, This reprogramming . . . “provides a scalable cell source for. . .”).

Sample Abstract 1

From the social sciences.

Reporting new findings about the reasons for increasing economic homogamy among spouses

Gonalons-Pons, Pilar, and Christine R. Schwartz. “Trends in Economic Homogamy: Changes in Assortative Mating or the Division of Labor in Marriage?” Demography , vol. 54, no. 3, 2017, pp. 985-1005.

“The growing economic resemblance of spouses has contributed to rising inequality by increasing the number of couples in which there are two high- or two low-earning partners. [Annotation for the previous sentence: The first sentence introduces the topic under study (the “economic resemblance of spouses”). This sentence also implies the question underlying this research study: what are the various causes—and the interrelationships among them—for this trend?] The dominant explanation for this trend is increased assortative mating. Previous research has primarily relied on cross-sectional data and thus has been unable to disentangle changes in assortative mating from changes in the division of spouses’ paid labor—a potentially key mechanism given the dramatic rise in wives’ labor supply. [Annotation for the previous two sentences: These next two sentences explain what previous research has demonstrated. By pointing out the limitations in the methods that were used in previous studies, they also provide a rationale for new research.] We use data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) to decompose the increase in the correlation between spouses’ earnings and its contribution to inequality between 1970 and 2013 into parts due to (a) changes in assortative mating, and (b) changes in the division of paid labor. [Annotation for the previous sentence: The data, research and analytical methods used in this new study.] Contrary to what has often been assumed, the rise of economic homogamy and its contribution to inequality is largely attributable to changes in the division of paid labor rather than changes in sorting on earnings or earnings potential. Our findings indicate that the rise of economic homogamy cannot be explained by hypotheses centered on meeting and matching opportunities, and they show where in this process inequality is generated and where it is not.” (p. 985) [Annotation for the previous two sentences: The major findings from and implications and significance of this study.]

Sample Abstract 2

From the humanities.

Analyzing underground pulp fiction publications in Tanzania, this article makes an argument about the cultural significance of those publications

Emily Callaci. “Street Textuality: Socialism, Masculinity, and Urban Belonging in Tanzania’s Pulp Fiction Publishing Industry, 1975-1985.” Comparative Studies in Society and History , vol. 59, no. 1, 2017, pp. 183-210.

“From the mid-1970s through the mid-1980s, a network of young urban migrant men created an underground pulp fiction publishing industry in the city of Dar es Salaam. [Annotation for the previous sentence: The first sentence introduces the context for this research and announces the topic under study.] As texts that were produced in the underground economy of a city whose trajectory was increasingly charted outside of formalized planning and investment, these novellas reveal more than their narrative content alone. These texts were active components in the urban social worlds of the young men who produced them. They reveal a mode of urbanism otherwise obscured by narratives of decolonization, in which urban belonging was constituted less by national citizenship than by the construction of social networks, economic connections, and the crafting of reputations. This article argues that pulp fiction novellas of socialist era Dar es Salaam are artifacts of emergent forms of male sociability and mobility. In printing fictional stories about urban life on pilfered paper and ink, and distributing their texts through informal channels, these writers not only described urban communities, reputations, and networks, but also actually created them.” (p. 210) [Annotation for the previous sentences: The remaining sentences in this abstract interweave other essential information for an abstract for this article. The implied research questions: What do these texts mean? What is their historical and cultural significance, produced at this time, in this location, by these authors? The argument and the significance of this analysis in microcosm: these texts “reveal a mode or urbanism otherwise obscured . . .”; and “This article argues that pulp fiction novellas. . . .” This section also implies what previous historical research has obscured. And through the details in its argumentative claims, this section of the abstract implies the kinds of methods the author has used to interpret the novellas and the concepts under study (e.g., male sociability and mobility, urban communities, reputations, network. . . ).]

Sample Abstract/Summary 3

From the sciences.

Reporting a new method for reprogramming adult mouse fibroblasts into induced cardiac progenitor cells

Lalit, Pratik A., Max R. Salick, Daryl O. Nelson, Jayne M. Squirrell, Christina M. Shafer, Neel G. Patel, Imaan Saeed, Eric G. Schmuck, Yogananda S. Markandeya, Rachel Wong, Martin R. Lea, Kevin W. Eliceiri, Timothy A. Hacker, Wendy C. Crone, Michael Kyba, Daniel J. Garry, Ron Stewart, James A. Thomson, Karen M. Downs, Gary E. Lyons, and Timothy J. Kamp. “Lineage Reprogramming of Fibroblasts into Proliferative Induced Cardiac Progenitor Cells by Defined Factors.” Cell Stem Cell , vol. 18, 2016, pp. 354-367.

“Several studies have reported reprogramming of fibroblasts into induced cardiomyocytes; however, reprogramming into proliferative induced cardiac progenitor cells (iCPCs) remains to be accomplished. [Annotation for the previous sentence: The first sentence announces the topic under study, summarizes what’s already known or been accomplished in previous research, and signals the rationale and goals are for the new research and the problem that the new research solves: How can researchers reprogram fibroblasts into iCPCs?] Here we report that a combination of 11 or 5 cardiac factors along with canonical Wnt and JAK/STAT signaling reprogrammed adult mouse cardiac, lung, and tail tip fibroblasts into iCPCs. The iCPCs were cardiac mesoderm-restricted progenitors that could be expanded extensively while maintaining multipo-tency to differentiate into cardiomyocytes, smooth muscle cells, and endothelial cells in vitro. Moreover, iCPCs injected into the cardiac crescent of mouse embryos differentiated into cardiomyocytes. iCPCs transplanted into the post-myocardial infarction mouse heart improved survival and differentiated into cardiomyocytes, smooth muscle cells, and endothelial cells. [Annotation for the previous four sentences: The methods the researchers developed to achieve their goal and a description of the results.] Lineage reprogramming of adult somatic cells into iCPCs provides a scalable cell source for drug discovery, disease modeling, and cardiac regenerative therapy.” (p. 354) [Annotation for the previous sentence: The significance or implications—for drug discovery, disease modeling, and therapy—of this reprogramming of adult somatic cells into iCPCs.]

Sample Abstract 4, a Structured Abstract

Reporting results about the effectiveness of antibiotic therapy in managing acute bacterial sinusitis, from a rigorously controlled study

Note: This journal requires authors to organize their abstract into four specific sections, with strict word limits. Because the headings for this structured abstract are self-explanatory, we have chosen not to add annotations to this sample abstract.

Wald, Ellen R., David Nash, and Jens Eickhoff. “Effectiveness of Amoxicillin/Clavulanate Potassium in the Treatment of Acute Bacterial Sinusitis in Children.” Pediatrics , vol. 124, no. 1, 2009, pp. 9-15.

“OBJECTIVE: The role of antibiotic therapy in managing acute bacterial sinusitis (ABS) in children is controversial. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of high-dose amoxicillin/potassium clavulanate in the treatment of children diagnosed with ABS.

METHODS : This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Children 1 to 10 years of age with a clinical presentation compatible with ABS were eligible for participation. Patients were stratified according to age (<6 or ≥6 years) and clinical severity and randomly assigned to receive either amoxicillin (90 mg/kg) with potassium clavulanate (6.4 mg/kg) or placebo. A symptom survey was performed on days 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10, 20, and 30. Patients were examined on day 14. Children’s conditions were rated as cured, improved, or failed according to scoring rules.

RESULTS: Two thousand one hundred thirty-five children with respiratory complaints were screened for enrollment; 139 (6.5%) had ABS. Fifty-eight patients were enrolled, and 56 were randomly assigned. The mean age was 6630 months. Fifty (89%) patients presented with persistent symptoms, and 6 (11%) presented with nonpersistent symptoms. In 24 (43%) children, the illness was classified as mild, whereas in the remaining 32 (57%) children it was severe. Of the 28 children who received the antibiotic, 14 (50%) were cured, 4 (14%) were improved, 4(14%) experienced treatment failure, and 6 (21%) withdrew. Of the 28children who received placebo, 4 (14%) were cured, 5 (18%) improved, and 19 (68%) experienced treatment failure. Children receiving the antibiotic were more likely to be cured (50% vs 14%) and less likely to have treatment failure (14% vs 68%) than children receiving the placebo.

CONCLUSIONS : ABS is a common complication of viral upper respiratory infections. Amoxicillin/potassium clavulanate results in significantly more cures and fewer failures than placebo, according to parental report of time to resolution.” (9)

Some Excellent Advice about Writing Abstracts for Basic Science Research Papers, by Professor Adriano Aguzzi from the Institute of Neuropathology at the University of Zurich:

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International Abstracts

Photo by <a href="https://unsplash.com/@kylejglenn?utm_source=unsplash&utm_medium=referral&utm_content=creditCopyText">Kyle Glenn</a> on <a href="https://unsplash.com/s/photos/international?utm_source=unsplash&utm_medium=referral&utm_content=creditCopyText">Unsplash</a>

The 'Music and Medicine' international abstract Editor Bernardo Canga, works with a team of international translators to offer the journal's abstracts in as many languages as possible.

monikaimg_0604

German Translator: Monika Nöcker-Ribaupierre, Dr.sc.mus.

Monika Nöcker-Ribaupierre  has over 20 years of clinical experience, working in NICU, with developmentally delayed and multiply disabled children. Currently, her primary focus is auditory stimulation after premature birth. Prior to this, Monika was chair of the postgraduate music therapy training program at Freies Musikzentrum Munich e.V. and Vice President of the European Music Therapy Confederation. She is Vice-President of the International Society of Music in Medicine and serves on the scientific board of “Musiktherapeutische Umschau”, Bundesverband ”das frühgeborene Kind” e.V. and the Editorial Board of the interdisciplinary journal Music and Medicine. She has published a number of books, book chapters and articles.

kana

Japanese Translator: Dr. Kana Okazaki-Sakaue, D.A, MT-BC, NRMT, ARAM

Kana is a music therapist trained both in the UK and USA. She studied piano at the Royal Academy of Music, London, England and was trained at the Nordoff-Robbins Music Therapy Centre in London. She also obtained a Master's and Doctorate degree in Music Therapy at New York University, USA. She is currently working as an Associate Professor at the Kobe university, Japan and also serving as a board member of the Japanese Association of Clinical Music Therapy. She has been appointed as the Chair of Education, Certification, and Regulation Commission of the World Federation for Music Therapy from 2023-2026. She also serves as the training director of the Japanese Nordoff-Robbins Music Therapy Training Program in Tokyo. She has been active as the Advisor for Tohoku Music Therapy Project, supporting music therapy work for survivors after the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami, since 2011. Her current clinical work includes special education setting as well as experiential training for music therapists and trainees. She supervises music therapists and other related professionals such as psychologists and psychiatrists. Her specific research is clinical improvisation.

img_4445

Japanese translator: Aiko Onuma, MT-BC

Aiko Onuma is a music therapist/educator who works in the greater Boston area as well as internationally. Aiko is currently the president of “Kakehashi” Music Therapy Connection Group and provides music therapy services and individualized music instruction for all ages and levels. She holds a Bachelor degree of Music Therapy from Berklee College of Music.

yi-ying-lin

Chinese Translator: Yi-Ying, MA, MT-BC

Yi-Ying currently works at Taipei Medical University Hospital in Taiwan, serving multiple population in medical setting. She completed graduate studies at Montclair State University in the U.S. and was clinically trained in Beth Israel Medical Center.

juri-yun_photo

Korean Translator: Juri Yun, MT-DMtG, KCMT

Dr. Yun is a certified music therapist who earned a Master's degree in Music Therapy from the Institute for Music Therapy in Berlin, Germany, and a Doctor of Philosophy in Music Therapy from Ewha Womans University in South Korea. She holds certifications as a vocal psychotherapist trained by Dr. Diane Austin and as a Music and Imagery therapist trained by Dr. Lisa Summer. Presently, she serves as an Adjunct Professor at Ewha Womans University in Korea, while also holding positions as a member of the Board of Directors and Chair of the Scientific Committee for the National Association of Korean Music Therapists. Actively engaged as a clinician and researcher, Dr. Yun has an extensive background in working with adolescents facing adjustment challenges, as well as individuals with developmental and psychotherapeutic needs. Since 2016, she has fulfilled the role of translator for the Korean versions of abstracts for the IAMM Journal, contributing to the international dissemination of the journal.lies in working with adolescents with emotional and behavioral disorders and children with special needs.

kate walker

French translator: Kate Walker

Kate Walker, originally from Australia, is a music therapist based in France. Her clinical experiences include children and adults with sensory impairments (specifically visual and auditory), adult psychiatry, as well as people with dementia and Alzheimer's. Her research interests include neurologic music therapy, the effects of cultural influences, and the many ways music interacts with our brains. Kate was a presenter at the 2021 and 2022 Online Conference for Music Therapy. She holds a Master's of Art Therapy, specializing in Music Therapy, from the University of Paris Descartes, France.

TORUN

Turkish translator: Sukru Torun MD, MT-TR

Sukru Torun is a full-time Professor of Neurology with 30 years of experience and a music therapist authorized by the Turkish Ministry of Health in 2016 for Turkey. Currently, he is the chair of the first music therapy master training program approved by the Turkish Council of Higher Education in 2021 at Anadolu University Health Sciences Institute and the music therapy department. Dr. Torun is the member Complementary and Functional Medicine Scientific Board of the Ministry of Health. Also, serves in the workng groups of dementia-behavioral neurology, quality of life and neurorehabilitation of the Turkish Neurological Society. Having many scientific publications related to his fields of study, Dr. Torun is also one of the academic editors of PLoS ONE, a SCIE and SSCI indexed and Q1 category journal covered by WoS. Professor Torun continues his music therapy research and practice for developmental and acquired neuropsychosocial disorders in the country's first officially approved music therapy unit, which he established in Eskişehir in 2017.

Picture2

Greek translator: Maria Dimatati

Maria Dimatati has begun her first piano lessons at her early age. After she has acquired the piano diploma (D. Eunouhidou’s class) she achieved a Degree in Musicology / Music Pedagogics (AUTH). Her interest to enrich her academic background on the neuroscientific grounds of music led her to complete Postgraduate studies in Music Psychology (MSc in Music, Mind & Brain, UOL). She has published peer-reviewed research on Psychomusicology and she has presented her study on absolute pitch (AP) and congenital Visual Impairment (VI) at several International Conferences while she currently gives guest lectures to University and other Educational Institutions on the topic of Music Psychology. She has previously worked as a piano tutor and as a Music Educator in public and private elementary schools while she currently coordinates Music classes for infants and pre-schoolers and children with special needs. The last years, after she has attended further studies in Therapeutic Music (MHTP) she collaborated with Psychiatry Clinics, Rehabilitation Centers and Nursing Homes for the Elderly and the Greek Association of Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders. Along with her activity on teaching and research she organises and gives improvisational music concerts in the context of music and wellbeing.

Translator 3

Spanish translator: Elkin Dario Franco

Master in Music Therapy from the International University of La Rioja, Spain. Certificate in Arts in Medicine from the University of Florida, USA. Certificate in Neurological Music Therapy. Academy of Neurologic Music Therapy, Canada. Certificate in Music Therapy in Intensive Care, Sociedad Argentina de Terapia Intensiva, Argentina. Certified in NICU-MT, The National Institute for Infant and Child Medical Music Therapy, USA. Member of the International Association of Music and Medicine. Member of the Colombian Association of Music Therapy. Member of Latin American Music Therapy Network. Member of the Editorial Team of PUENTES, the Iberoamerican Journal of Music Therapy in Intensive Care. Member of the translation team of Música y Medicina Magazine. Bachelor in Music Education, University of Antioquia, Colombia. Coordinator of the Music Therapy Program at the Concejo Children's Hospital in Medellin, Colombia. He has experience as a Music Therapist in the Hospital, Educational and Social fields. Manager of musical projects for social transformation with vulnerable communities. He has a strong interest in the continuous inquiry and reflection of the music therapy practice and is an international speaker.

Translator 2

Hebrew translator: Tamar Hadar, PhD

Tamar Hadar, PhD, The School of Creative Arts Therapies, University of Haifa; Department of Education, Western Galilee College & Tel-Chai College, Israel.

A music therapist, supervisor & lecturer, working with children and families in an early intervention unit and in a private practice. Her research centers on clinical improvisation – theory & assessment; music therapy for infants & preterm babies; and culturally sensitive music therapy. Tamar has originated a time-oriented model for analyzing clinical improvisations.

Translator 1

Hebrew translator: Dikla Kerem, M.A., PhD., FAMI, EAMI accred., music therapist-GIM/MI/MB, and psychotherapist 

Dr. Dikla Kerem received her M.A. in music therapy from Hahnemann Medical College in Philadelphia, USA (1982), and her Ph.D. from Aalborg University, Denmark (2009) where her doctoral thesis examined the effect of music therapy on deaf children with cochlear implants. She holds a psychotherapy certificate from the University of Haifa (2000) and has about 30 years of clinical experience with children, adolescents and adults, as well as extensive experience supervising music therapists. She is a fellow of the Association for Music and Imagery (FAMI), an EAMI (European Association of Music and Imagery) accredited BMGIM therapist (The Helen Bonny Method of Guided Imagery and Music) (2020) and served as a member of the EAMI board for two years. Dr. Kerem was a co-founder of the Master’s Degree music therapy program at the University of Haifa in Israel,  and chaired the program for six years. She was also a lecturer in the M.A. music therapy program at Bar Ilan University. She is also currently a supervisor at the School of Psychoanalytically Oriented Arts Psychotherapy at the University of Haifa. In July 2021, Dr. Kerem’s peers at The Israeli Association for Creative Arts Therapies (YAHAT) recognized her achievements by awarding her a prestigious certificate of appreciation.

Dr. Amir H Yassari

Farsi translator: Dr. Amir H Yassari 

Dr. Amir H Yassari is a distinguished professional in psychiatry and neuroscience. He received his MD from the Medical University of Vienna and worked globally in various internships and research. His pursuit of a Master of Science in Cognitive Neuroscience led to a celebrated thesis on emotional processing and intelligence.

His academic journey included valuable research stints at Northwestern University's Feinberg School of Medicine and UC San Diego's Psychiatry Department. Subsequently, at the University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, Dr. Yassari honed his skills across multiple units, notably leading the Anxiety and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders Unit in 2020.

Dr. Yassari's dedication to mental health care inspired the establishment of the Anxiety & OCD Research Group and the Sports Psychiatry Outpatient Services, along with roles emphasizing quality and safety in healthcare. Additionally, he founded MindBrain Clinicum in Hamburg, providing specialized mental health care and therapy.

In his PhD project, Dr Yassari explores the impact of a novel sound stimulation auditory training program (Music for the Mind) on individuals with depression, aiming to enhance mindfulness, neurocognitive abilities, and social interactions and reduce depressive symptoms. This research could pioneer a unique, practical add-on therapy for depression.

Besides his clinical practice, Dr Yassari contributes to mental performance coaching through Coaching Fast Forward GbR and supports academic research as an ad-hoc reviewer for the Frontiers Psychiatry journal.

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Call for Abstracts for IMAT 2024

All students are invited to submit an abstract for IMAT 2024 , the premier annual meeting dedicated to addressing the evolving needs of the materials community and industry. This is your opportunity to present your research, engage with industry leaders, and shape the future of materials science and technology.  View Call For Papers!

International Materials Applications & Technologies Conference and Exposition - IMAT (Sep. 28 - Oct. 3, 2024) (September 28 - October 3, 2024)

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IMAT, the ASM International annual meeting focused on the membership and materials community needs, will offer an industry-oriented conference and exposition targeting a broad range of materials, processes, and their applications, with an emphasis on advanced materials and advanced manufacturing technologies. Traditional materials' topics of strong interest will be explored, including metals, ceramics, composites, coatings, alloy development, microstructure/process/properties relationships, phase equilibria, mechanical behavior, joining, corrosion and failure analysis. A spectrum of emerging topics of common interest, instrumental in advancing materials development and cutting-edge technologies will be covered, such as: advance manufacturing technologies including additive, industry 4.0 and digitization of the materials industry, biomedical/multifunctional materials, power and transportation industries, materials for the energy, renewable and sustainable materials & processes, and materials to enable automation and robotics. Multiple student events and competitions will be offered to provide an arena for presentation of students' research and develop connections to the next generation of materials scientists.

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Article Contents

  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Poisson Trace Orders and their Discriminant Ideals
  • 3 Poisson Trace Orders for Maximal Orders
  • 4 Base Change for Poisson Trace Orders
  • 5 Construction of Poisson Trace Orders: Full Centers
  • 6 Construction of Poisson Trace Orders: Partial Centers
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Poisson Trace Orders

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Ken Brown, Milen Yakimov, Poisson Trace Orders, International Mathematics Research Notices , Volume 2024, Issue 4, February 2024, Pages 2965–2998, https://doi.org/10.1093/imrn/rnad086

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The two main approaches to the study of irreducible representations of orders (via traces and Poisson orders) have so far been applied in a completely independent fashion. We define and study a natural compatibility relation between the two approaches leading to the notion of Poisson trace orders. It is proved that all regular and reduced traces are always compatible with any Poisson order structure. The modified discriminant ideals of all Poisson trace orders are proved to be Poisson ideals and the zero loci of discriminant ideals are shown to be unions of symplectic cores, under natural assumptions (maximal orders and Cayley–Hamilton algebras). A base change theorem for Poisson trace orders is proved. A broad range of Poisson trace orders are constructed based on the proved theorems: quantized universal enveloping algebras, quantum Schubert cell algebras and quantum function algebras at roots of unity, symplectic reflection algebras, 3D and 4D Sklyanin algebras, Drinfeld doubles of pre-Nichols algebras of diagonal type, and root of unity quantum cluster algebras.

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Reimagining Design with Nature: ecological urbanism in Moscow

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  • Published: 10 September 2019
  • Volume 1 , pages 233–247, ( 2019 )

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The twenty-first century is the era when populations of cities will exceed rural communities for the first time in human history. The population growth of cities in many countries, including those in transition from planned to market economies, is putting considerable strain on ecological and natural resources. This paper examines four central issues: (a) the challenges and opportunities presented through working in jurisdictions where there are no official or established methods in place to guide regional, ecological and landscape planning and design; (b) the experience of the author’s practice—Gillespies LLP—in addressing these challenges using techniques and methods inspired by McHarg in Design with Nature in the Russian Federation in the first decade of the twenty-first century; (c) the augmentation of methods derived from Design with Nature in reference to innovations in technology since its publication and the contribution that the art of landscape painters can make to landscape analysis and interpretation; and (d) the application of this experience to the international competition and colloquium for the expansion of Moscow. The text concludes with a comment on how the application of this learning and methodological development to landscape and ecological planning and design was judged to be a central tenant of the winning design. Finally, a concluding section reflects on lessons learned and conclusions drawn.

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Acknowledgements

The landscape team from Gillespies Glasgow Studio (Steve Nelson, Graeme Pert, Joanne Walker, Rory Wilson and Chris Swan) led by the author and all our collaborators in the Capital Cities Planning Group.

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Evans, B.M. Reimagining Design with Nature: ecological urbanism in Moscow. Socio Ecol Pract Res 1 , 233–247 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s42532-019-00031-5

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